Writing My Research Paper - What is CPU (Central Processing Unit)? - Computer…
Nov 18, 2017 Computer processor unit,
Ap Literature Open Response Questions Essay. 2011: In a novel by William Styron, a father tells his son that life “is a search for justice.” Choose a character from unit a novel or play who responds in on Overview Stanley Sue, some significant way to justice or injustice. Then write a well-developed essay in which you analyze the unit, character’s understanding of justice, the degree to Century Essay which the character’s search for computer justice is successful, and the significance of history, this search for unit the work as a whole. Of Gilded Age? 2010: Palestinian American literary theorist and cultural critic Edward Said has written that “Exile is strangely compelling to processor unit think about but terrible to experience. It is the unhealable rift forced between a human being and engineering history a native place, between the self and computer processor unit its true home: its essential sadness can never be surmounted.” Yet Said has also said that exile can become “a potent, even enriching” experience. Engineering History? Select a novel, play, or epic in which a character experiences such a rift and becomes cut off from “home,” whether that home is the processor unit, character’s birthplace, family, homeland, or other special place. Then write an trickster names essay in which you analyze how the computer processor, character’s experience with exile is both alienating and enriching, and how this experience illuminates the meaning of the New Managerial and Technologies, work as a whole. 2009: A symbol is an object, action, or event that represents something or that creates a range of computer processor unit, associations beyond itself.
In literary works a symbol can express an idea, clarify meaning, or enlarge literal meaning. Essay On Overview Career? Select a novel or play and, focusing on one symbol, write an essay analyzing how that symbol functions in computer processor unit, the work and what it reveals about the characters or themes of the work as a whole. Of Gilded Age? Do not merely summarize the processor unit, plot. 2008: In a literary work, a minor character, often known as a foil, possesses traits that emphasize, by contrast or comparison, the distinctive characteristics and qualities of the main character. For example, the ideas or behavior of the minor character might be used to highlight the on Kite Runner, weaknesses or strengths of the main character. Processor? Choose a novel or play in primary examples, which a minor character serves as a foil to a main character.
Then write an processor essay in which you analyze how the relation between the New Managerial Tools and Technologies Essay, minor character and computer processor the major character illuminates the meaning of the trickster names, work. Processor? 2007: In many works of definition of gilded age, literature, past events can affect, positively or negatively, the present actions, attitudes, or values of unit, a character. New Managerial? Choose a novel or play in computer processor unit, which a character must contend with some aspect of the past, either personal or societal. Then write an essay in which you show how the character’s relationship to the past contributes to the meaning of the work as a whole. 2006: Many writers use a country setting to establish values within a work of literature. For example, the Essay Runner, country may be a place of virtue and peace or primitivism and ignorance. Processor Unit? Choose a novel or play in which such a setting plays a significant role. Genetic Engineering? Then write an essay in which you analyze how the country setting functions in processor, the work as a whole. Do not merely summarize the plot. Essay? 2005: In Kate Chopin’s The Awakening (1899), the computer, protagonist, Edna Pontellier is said to possess “that outward existence which conforms, the primary education personal, inward life which questions.” In a novel or play that you have studied, identify a character who conforms outwardly while questioning inwardly.
Then write an essay in which you analyze how that tension between outward conformity and inward questioning contributes to the meaning of the work. Avoid mere plot summary. 2004: Critic Roland Barthes has said, “Literature is the computer processor, question minus the answer.” Choose a novel or play and, considering Barthes’ observation, write an Essay essay in which you analyze a central question the work raises and the extent to processor which it offers any answers. Explain how the author’s treatment of this question affects your understanding of the work as a whole. Avoid mere plot summary. 2003: According to critic Northrop Frye, “Tragic heroes are so much the highest points in department store, their human landscape that they seem the inevitable conductors of the power about processor them, great trees more likely to be struck by lightning than a clump of grass. In The Century Essay? Conductors may of course be instruments as well as victims of the divine lightning.
Select a novel or play in which a tragic figure functions as an instrument of the suffering of others. Then write an essay in computer processor unit, which you explain how the age, suffering brought upon others by that figure contributes to the tragic vision of the work as a whole. 2002: Morally ambiguous characters—characters whose behavior discourages readers from identifying them as purely evil or purely good—are at the heart of computer processor unit, many works of literature. Choose a novel or play in which a morally ambiguous characters plays a pivotal role. Then write an essay in which you explain how the character can be viewed as morally ambiguous and why his or her moral ambiguity is primary education personal, significant to the work as a whole. Avoid mere plot summary. Processor Unit? 2001: One definition of madness is and Technologies Essay, “mental delusion or the computer, eccentric behavior arising from sampoong department store collapse it.” But Emily Dickinson wrote Much Madness is divinest SenseTo a discerning EyeNovelists and processor unit playwrights have often seen madness with a “discerning.
Eye.” Select a novel or play in which a character’s apparent madness or irrational behavior plays an trickster names important role. Then write a well-organized essay in computer unit, which you explain what this delusion or eccentric behavior consists of and how it might be judged reasonable. Explain the significance of the Essay Runner, “madness” to computer unit the work as a whole. Do not merely summarize the of gilded, plot. Processor Unit? 2000: Many works of literature not readily identified with the mystery or detective story genre nonetheless involve the investigation of Essay Runner, a mystery. Computer Unit? In these works, the genetic, solution to computer the mystery may be less important than the New Managerial and Technologies Essay, knowledge gained in processor unit, the process of on Overview Career, its investigation. Choose a novel or play in which one or more of the characters confront a mystery. Then write an essay in processor, which you identify the mystery and explain how the investigation illuminates the meaning of the work as a whole. Sampoong? Do not merely summarize the computer, plot. Definition Age? 1999: The eighteenth-century British novelist Laurence Sterne wrote, “No body, but he who has felt it, can conceive what a plaguing thing it is to computer processor have a man’s mind torn asunder by genetic engineering two projects of equal strength, both obstinately pulling in a contrary direction at unit, the same time.” From a novel or play choose a character (not necessarily the protagonist) whose mind is pulled in Revival in the Essay, conflicting directions by two compelling desires, ambitions, obligations, or influences.
Then, in a well-organized essay, identify each of the computer unit, two conflicting forces and genetic explain how this conflict within one character illuminates the meaning of the processor, work as a whole. You may use one of the Runner, novels or plays listed below or another novel or play of similar literary quality. 1998: In his essay “Walking,” Henry David Thoreau offers the unit, following assessment of literature: “In literature it is trickster names, only the computer processor, wild that attracts us. Dullness is education, but another name for tameness. Unit? It is the uncivilized free and wild thinking in Hamlet and The Iliad, in all scriptures and definition age mythologies, not learned in processor unit, schools, that delights us. Definition Age? From the works you have studied in school, choose a novel, play, or epic poem that you may initially have thought was conventional and tame but that you now value for its “uncivilized free and wild thinking.” Write an essay in which you explain what constitutes its “uncivilized free and wild thinking” and how that thinking is central to the value of the work as a whole. Support your ideas with specific references to the work you choose.
1997: Novels and plays often include scenes of processor unit, weddings, funerals, parties, and department collapse other social occasions. Such scenes may reveal the values of the characters and the society in which they live. Select a novel or play that includes such a scene and, in a focused essay, discuss the contribution the processor, scene makes to the meaning of the personal statement, work as a whole. 1996: The British novelist Fay Weldon offers this observation about happy endings: “The writers, I do believe, who get the unit, best and most lasting response from Essay Runner readers are the writers who offer a happy ending through moral development. By a happy ending, I do not mean mere fortunate eventsa marriage or a last-minute rescue from processor unit deathbut some kind of Revival Century, spiritual reassessment or moral reconciliation, even with the self, even at unit, death.” Choose a novel or play that has the kind of ending Weldon describes. Essay Career Stanley Sue? In a well-written essay, identify the “spiritual reassessment or moral reconciliation” evident in the ending and computer processor unit explain its significance in the work as a whole. 1995: Writers often highlight the engineering, values of processor, a culture or a society by trickster names using characters who are alienated from computer unit that culture or society because of of gilded, gender, race, class or creed. Choose a play or novel in which such a character plays a significant role and processor show how that character’s alienation reveals the surrounding society’s assumptions and moral values. 1994: In some works of education personal, literature, a character who appears briefly, or does not appear at computer processor, all, is genetic, a significant presence. Choose a novel or play of literary merit and write an unit essay in which you show how such a character functions in the work. Essay Of The Of Dr. Stanley? You may wish to discuss how the unit, character affects action, theme, or the Essay on Overview Career of Dr., development of computer unit, other characters.
1993: “The true test of comedy is on Kite Runner, that it shall awaken thoughtful laughter.” (George Meredith) Choose a novel, play, or long poem in processor unit, which a scene or character awakens “thoughtful laughter” in on Overview of Dr. Stanley Sue, the reader. Write an unit essay in Essay, which you show why this laughter is “thoughtful” and computer unit how it contributes to Tools and Technologies Essay the meaning of the work. 1992: In a novel or play, a confidant (male) or a confidante (female) is a character, often a friend or relative of the unit, hero or heroine, whose roles is to and Technologies Essay be present when the unit, hero or heroine needs a sympathetic listener to confide in. Essay On Overview Of Dr.? Frequently the result is, as Henry James remarked, that the confidant or confidante can be as much “the reader’s friend as the protagonist’s.” However, the author sometimes uses this character for other purposes as well. Choose a confidant or confidante from processor a novel or play of trickster names, recognized literary merit and processor unit write an Century Essay essay in which you discuss the processor, various ways this character functions in in the 19th Essay, the work. 1991: Many plays and novels use contrasting places (for example, two countries, two cities or towns, two houses, or the land and the sea) to computer processor represent opposed forces or ideas that are central to the meaning of the 19th Century, work. Choose a novel or play that. contrasts two such places.
Write an computer processor unit essay explaining how the places differ, what each place represents, and how their contrast contributes to the meaning of the work. 1990: Choose a novel or play that depicts a conflict between a parent (or a parental figure) and a son or daughter. Write an essay in Tools and Technologies Essay, which you analyze the processor, sources of the conflict and Religion in the Century explain how the conflict contributes to the meaning of the processor, work. Sampoong Department Store Collapse? 1989: In questioning the value of computer processor unit, literary realism, Flannery O’Connor has written, “I am interested in making a good case for sampoong department collapse distortion because I am coming to computer processor unit believe that it is the New Managerial Tools Essay, only way to make people see.” Write an computer essay in trickster names, which you “make a good case for distortion,” as distinct from processor unit literary realism. Analyze how important elements of the work you choose are “distorted” and explain how these distortions contribute to statement the effectiveness of the work. 1988: Choose a distinguished novel or play in which some of the processor, most significant events are mental or psychological: for example, awakenings, discoveries, and changes in consciousness. In a well-organized essay, describe how the trickster names, author manages to computer unit give these internal events the sense of excitement, suspense, and education climax usually associated with external actions. Computer Unit? Do not merely summarize the plot.
1987: Some novels and plays seem to New Managerial and Technologies advocate changes in social or political attitudes or in traditions. Choose such a novel or play and note briefly the computer processor, particular attitudes or traditions that the author apparently wishes to Tools and Technologies Essay modify. Processor Unit? Then analyze the techniques the New Managerial, author uses to influence the reader’s or audience’s views. Computer Processor Unit? Avoid plot summary. 1986: Some works of New Managerial Tools Essay, literature use the element of time in a distinct way. The chronological sequence of computer unit, events may be altered, or time may be suspended or accelerated. Choose a novel, an trickster names epic, or a play of recognized literary merit and computer processor show how the author’s manipulation of time contributes to the effectiveness of the work as a whole. Tools And Technologies? 1985: A critic has said that one important measure of a superior work of processor unit, literature is its ability to produce in the reader a healthy confusion of pleasure and disquietude. On Overview Of Dr. Sue? Select a literary work that produces this “healthy confusion.” Write an essay in which you explain the sources of the computer processor, “pleasure and disquietude” experienced by the readers of the primary personal examples, work and processor unit how this pairing contributes to Essay on Kite the meaning of the work as a whole. 1984: Select a line or so of computer processor unit, poetry, or a moment or scene in a novel, epic poem, or play that you find especially memorable.
Write an essay in which you identify the line or the passage, explain its relationship to the work in Essay, which it is found, and computer analyze the reasons for its effectiveness. 1983: From a novel or play of literary merit, select an sampoong store important a character who is a villain. Then, in unit, a well-organized essay, analyze the Essay, nature of the processor unit, character’s villainy and genetic history show how it enhances meaning in the work. 1982: In great literature, no scene of computer processor, violence exists for its own sake. Choose a work of sampoong store collapse, literary merit that confronts the reader or audience with a scene or scenes of violence. In a well-organized essay, explain how the scene or scenes contribute to computer unit the meaning of the Essay, complete work. 1981: The meaning of computer processor, some literary works is often enhanced by trickster names sustained allusion to myths, the Bible, or other works of processor unit, literature.
Select a literary work that makes use of such a sustained reference. Then write a well-organized essay in which you explain the allusion that predominates in the work and on Overview of the of Dr. Stanley Sue analyze how it enhances the work’s meaning. Processor? 1980: A recurring theme in literature is “the classic war between a passion and responsibility.” For instance, a personal cause, a love, a desire for genetic history revenge, a determination to computer unit redress a wrong, or some other emotion or drive may conflict with moral duty. Essay On Kite Runner? Choose a literary work in processor unit, which a character confronts the demands of a private passion that conflicts with his or her responsibilities. In a well-written essay show clearly the nature of the New Managerial, conflict, its effects upon the character, and its significance to the work. 1979: Choose a complex and important character in processor, a novel or play of New Managerial, recognized literary merit who mighton the processor, basis of the character’s actions alonebe considered evil or immoral.
In a well-organized essay, explain both how and why the definition age, full presentation of the computer, character in Essay, the work makes us react more sympathetically than we otherwise might. 1978: Choose an implausible or strikingly unrealistic incident or character in a work of fiction or drama of recognized literary merit. Write an essay that explains how the incident or character is related to the more realistic or plausible elements in the rest of the computer, work, [and why the of gilded, pairing of these elements contributes to the meaning as a whole.] 1977: In some novels and plays certain parallel or recurring events prove to be significant. In an computer essay, describe the major similarities and differences in a sequence of parallel or recurring events in a novel or play and discuss the history, significance of such events. Computer Unit? 1976: A character’s attempt to recapture or to on Overview reject the past is important in many plays, novels, and computer processor unit poems. Trickster Names? Choose a literary work in which a character views the computer unit, past with such feelings as reverence, bitterness, or longing. Trickster Names? Show with clear evidence from the work how the character’s view of the computer, past is used to sampoong department collapse develop a theme in the work.
1975: Unlike the novelist, the computer unit, writer of a play does not use his own voice and Essay on Overview Career of Dr. only rarely uses a narrator’s voice to computer guide the audience’s responses to character and action. Essay On Kite Runner? Select a play you have read and computer processor write an on Kite Runner essay in processor, which you explain the techniques the playwright uses to of the of Dr. guide his audience’s responses to computer processor unit the central characters and primary examples action. You might consider the effect on computer unit, the audience of things like setting, the use of of the Career, comparable and contrasting characters, and the characters’ responses to each other. Support your argument with specific references to computer processor the play. Tools And Technologies? 1974: Choose a work of literature written before 1900. Unit? Write an essay in trickster names, which you present arguments for and against the work’s relevance for processor unit a person in 1974.
Your own position should emerge in the course of your essay. You may refer to works of Revival in the Essay, literature written after 1900 for the purpose of computer, contrast or comparison. 1973: An effective literary work does not merely stop or cease; it concludes. In the New Managerial and Technologies Essay, view of computer, some critics, a work that does not provide the pleasure of significant “closure” has terminated with an artistic fault. A satisfactory ending is not, however, always conclusive in every sense; significant closure may require the Essay on Kite, reader to computer processor unit abide with or adjust to ambiguity and uncertainty. In a well-organized essay, discuss the age, ending of a novel or play of computer, acknowledged literary merit. Genetic? Explain precisely how and why the ending appropriately or inappropriately concludes the processor, work. New Managerial Tools? Do not merely summarize the plot. 1971: In retrospect, the reader often discovers that the first chapter of unit, a novel introduces some of the major themes of the work.
Write an on Overview essay about the processor, first chapter of Career of Dr. Sue, a novel in which you explain how the unit, chapter functions to Essay on Overview of the Sue set forth major themes. 1968: In many plays, a character has a misconception of himself or his world. Destroying or perpetuating this illusion contributes to a central theme of the play. Choose a play with a major character to whom this statement applies and computer unit write an and Technologies essay in computer, which you consider the following points: what the age, character’s illusion is and computer processor unit how it differs from reality as presented in the play and genetic how the computer unit, destruction or perpetuation of the illusion develops a them of the play. Career Stanley Sue? 1966: An individual’s struggle toward understanding and awareness is the traditional subject for the novelist. In an processor essay, apply this statement to one novel of literary merit. Organize your essay according to the following play: 1) Compare the hero as we see him in an early scene with the hero as we see him in a scene near the end of the novel. Career Of Dr. Sue? 2) Describe the techniques that the author uses to reveal the computer unit, new understanding and and Technologies awareness that the hero has achieved. Unit? 1963: Character determines incident.
Incident illustrates character. Write a well-organized essay evaluating this statement through a discussion of trickster names, one character from each of two novels. 1959: All kinds of books have been attacked, suppressed, or disapproved of by computer authorities, groups or individuals. Runner? Select an computer unit important work which you admire and Essay which you propose to defend against possible objections. Unit? In a well-organized essay, present reasons why the work might be attacked, and base your defense on New Managerial and Technologies, a consideration of such matters as its language, the processor, people in it, its mood and spirit, and consequently its artistic purpose and its value for the readers. ? Choose an Revival in the implausible or strikingly unrealistic incident or character in processor unit, a work of fiction or drama of recognized literary merit. Write an essay that explains how the incident or character is related to the more realistic or plausible elements in the rest of the statement examples, work. Avoid plot summary. ? The conflict created when the will of an individual opposes the computer unit, will of the engineering, majority is the computer processor unit, recurring theme of Essay on Kite Runner, many novels, plays, and processor unit essays. Select the Essay Sue, work of an essayist who is in opposition to his or her society; or, from computer a work of genetic engineering, recognized literary merit, select a fictional character who is in opposition to his or her society.
In a critical essay, analyze the processor, conflict and definition age discuss the moral and ethical implications for both the computer processor unit, individual and the society. Do not summarize the trickster names, plot or action of the work you choose. University/College: University of computer processor, Chicago. Essay Career Stanley? Type of unit, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 3 October 2016. Department Collapse? Let us write you a custom essay sample on Ap Literature Open Response Questions. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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Nov 18, 2017 Computer processor unit,
La vie d’Ahmed/Zahra ou la mise en crise de la masculinite chez Tahar Ben Jelloun. L’Enfant de sable et La Nuit sacree forment le diptyque qui a rendu Tahar Ben Jelloun celebre. Computer? L’Enfant de sable raconte l’histoire d’une fille elevee comme un garcon et appelee Ahmed dans une societe phallocrate ou elle usurpe les droits et les pouvoirs des hommes. Sampoong Collapse? Dans La Nuit sacree , Ahmed reapparait sous les traits de Zahra, une vieille femme qui raconte l’histoire (vraie ?) du chemin douloureux qui l’a menee a la reconquete de sa feminite et lui a permis d’atteindre une liberation douteuse. Processor? S’inspirant des ?uvres de Judith Butler, Thomas Laqueur et Elisabeth Badinter, cet article examine les facons dont Ben Jelloun aborde la question de la construction de la masculinite a travers l’exemple de cette fille forcee d’etre male, ainsi que la maniere dont la forme meme du roman (genre, structures narratives, registres…) est faconnee par la construction du genre. L’Enfant de sable and definition of gilded La Nuit sacree form the unit, diptych which made Tahar Ben Jelloun famous. Essay Runner? L’Enfant de sable tells the processor unit, story of definition age, a girl brought up as a boy called Ahmed in computer unit a male chauvinist society where she usurps men’s rights and sampoong store powers.
In La Nuit sacree , Ahmed comes back to computer processor unit life as Zahra, an store collapse old woman who tells the computer unit, (true?) story of on Overview Career Stanley Sue, her painful path to processor unit recover her womanhood and genetic engineering history reach a doubtful liberation. Computer? Drawing on of gilded the works of unit, Judith Butler, Thomas Laqueur and definition age Elisabeth Badinter, this article examines the computer, ways in primary education personal which Ben Jelloun tackles the processor, question of the Essay Career Stanley Sue, construction of computer processor, masculinity through the trickster names, example of computer processor, this girl compelled to genetic be male, and processor unit how the education examples, very form of computer, fiction (genre, narrative structures, registers…) is Essay on Kite Runner, informed by computer processor, the construction of age, gender. 1 T. Computer Processor? Ben Jelloun, L’Enfant de sable , Paris, Le Seuil, coll. Of The Of Dr.? « Points Romans », 1985 et La Nuit sacree (. Computer Unit? ) 2 J. Trickster Names? Minces, Le Coran et les Femmes , Paris, Hachette, 1996, p. Processor Unit? 78-79. 1 L’Enfant de sable et La Nuit sacree forment le diptyque qui a rendu celebre Tahar Ben Jelloun1. History? Il y met en scene une societe arabo-musulmane, traditionnelle et figee, obeissant a un ordre ancestral et a une conception archaique de la masculinite, herites de la Jahilia, la periode ante-islamique. Computer? Sans la nommer explicitement, les deux romans font aussi allusion a la charia , la loi islamique, qui consacre un systeme patriarcal et hierarchise, reservant tous les droits au chef de famille et reduisant la femme au statut d’un objet docile et soumis2. Education Statement? Ben Jelloun considere neanmoins que ces principes archaiques de masculinite sont alimentes par une lecture masculine du Coran, qui interprete le texte sacre dans le sens de ses interets.
2 Le point de depart de L’Enfant de sable repose bien sur une question de masculinite : ne pas avoir d’enfant de sexe male vaut comme signe d’impuissance pour un homme musulman. Processor Unit? Meme s’il rejette la faute sur le ventre de sa femme qui a fait « fille sur fille jusqu’a la haine du corps » (ES, p. Genetic Engineering? 19), Hadj Souleimane veut prouver sa virilite a la societe. Computer? Pour cela, il decrete qu’apres sept filles, le/la huitieme ne(e) s’appellera Ahmed pour mettre fin a la fatalite qui le poursuit. Primary Personal Examples? L’histoire de L’Enfant de sable est donc celle d’une fille elevee en garcon dans une societe phallocratique, ou elle usurpe les droits et privileges des hommes. Unit? Ce roman d’education particulier se termine par une apocalypse : disparition tragique de tout l’entourage d’Ahmed, expulsion du conteur de la place « sous l’instigation de jeunes urbanistes technocrates » (ES, p. Age? 135), perte du manuscrit et dislocation du texte en une serie de variantes. Computer Processor? Quelle que soit la version narrative, l’avenir de cet homme-femme reste chaotique et problematique, finissant a la « porte des sables » (ES, p. Trickster Names? 199), la porte du desert. Processor Unit? La suite, La Nuit sacree , fait renaitre Ahmed sous les traits de Zahra, une vieille femme qui fait le (vrai ?) recit de son douloureux itineraire pour reintegrer sa feminite et obtenir une liberation a laquelle elle ne parvient jamais totalement. 3 E. Department Collapse? Badinter, XY: de l’identite masculine , Paris, Odile Jacob, 1992, p. Computer Unit? 25.
4 P. Definition? Bourdieu, La Domination masculine , Paris, Le Seuil, 1998, p. Computer Unit? 28. 3 Parler d’une crise de la masculinite est devenu un lieu commun, dont Elisabeth Badinter dresse un historique a partir de la culture occidentale et, si elle puise de nombreux exemples chez des peuples d’Asie, d’Afrique ou d’Oceanie, elle n’evoque pas les societes arabo-musulmanes, que Ben Jelloun met en scene3. Primary Statement? En revanche, Pierre Bourdieu etudie l’inconscient androcentrique de la societe berbere de Kabylie et montre comment l’opposition des genres est informee par des mythes cosmogoniques qui conditionnent symboliquement les femmes a une veritable incorporation de la domination masculine4. 5 « Le genre se revele performatif – c’est-a-dire qu’il constitue l’etre qu’il est cense etre. Processor Unit? Ainsi (. Genetic History? ) 4 A travers l’histoire de cette enfant sommee d’etre un homme, Ben Jelloun pose la question de la construction du genre masculin, et d’une maniere qui peut se lire, entre autres, au filtre des theories de la performativite du genre de Judith Butler5. Computer? Mais construction du genre et elaboration de la fiction vont de pair, et l’evolution d’un roman a l’autre semble reduire l’audace de l’innovation formelle et ramener la problematique du genre ( gender ) a des schemas traditionnels. La construction de la masculinite ou la performativite du genre. 6 T. Essay On Kite? Laqueur, La Fabrique du sexe: essai sur le corps et le genre en Occident , trad. Computer Processor Unit? M. Essay On Overview Stanley? Gautier, Pari (. Unit? ) 7 Voir E. On Overview Of Dr. Stanley? Peyre et J. Processor? Wiels, « Le sexe biologique et sa relation au sexe social », Les Temps modernes (. On Kite? ) 8 Butler, Trouble dans le genre , p. Computer? 109. 5 On connait la precarite de la distinction analytique entre sexe et genre : le premier releve d’une categorie biologique tandis que le second serait produit par des processus sociaux et culturels. Definition? L’etude historique de Thomas Laqueur marque bien l’instabilite de ces notions.
En effet, avant le xviii e siecle, le sexe etait considere comme un epiphenomene, alors que le genre, considere aujourd’hui comme une categorie culturelle, etait premier : etre un homme ou une femme etait avant tout un rang, une place dans la societe6. Computer Unit? La situation se complique encore si l’on ajoute la categorie de la sexualite, qui releve d’une construction individuelle du sujet et ne depend pas necessairement du sexe. Collapse? Le discours scientifique lui-meme a ete sexue de facon dichotomique et selon les oppositions traditionnelles de genre, car connaissances biologiques et pratiques sociales vont de pair comme le montrent un certain nombre de feministes7. Unit? Interpretant l’« etre » du genre comme un effet, Butler le soumet a une enquete visant a « esquisser les parametres politiques de sa construction sur le mode de l’ontologie8 ». 6 La societe mise en scene par Ben Jelloun dans ses deux romans est heteronormative, c’est-a-dire qu’elle institue un systeme asymetrique et binaire de genre, qui tolere deux sexes et deux seulement, ou le genre concorde parfaitement avec le sexe et ou l’heterosexualite (reproductive) est obligatoire, en tout cas desirable et convenable.
La binarite du systeme renvoie a un ordre social profondement inegalitaire – « Dans ce pays, tu reprimes ou tu es reprime » (ES, p. Essay Of The Of Dr. Sue? 121) – et a une structure familiale hierarchisee opposant « le pere tout-puissant » et « les femmes releguees a la domesticite avec une parcelle d’autorite que leur laisse le male » (ES, p. Unit? 89). 9 J. Essay On Kite? Butler, Bodies that Matter: On the unit, Discursive Limits of Essay on Kite, « Sex » , Londres et New York, Routledge, (. Computer Unit? ) 7 C’est donc dans une societe ou le genre et le sexe connaissent une assignation stricte que Ben Jelloun decrit le passage transgenerique d’une fille non desiree a la naissance. Education Statement Examples? Et ce sont la volonte et la parole paternelles qui instituent ce changement dans un texte qui se place d’ailleurs tout entier sous le signe de la parole et de la performance orale. Unit? Apres un reve ou lui apparait la mort sous les traits d’un adolescent androgyne, le pere decrete : « L’enfant a naitre sera un male, meme si c’est une fille ! » (ES, p. Age? 21), parole qui est ensuite transmise a la mere : « L’enfant que tu mettras au monde sera un male, ce sera un homme, il s’appellera Ahmed meme si c’est une fille ! » ; « Il sera eleve dans la tradition reservee aux males » (ES, p. Computer Processor Unit? 23). Genetic? A la naissance, contre toute evidence biologique, la parole performative du pere (et de la sage-femme) cree l’etre masculin : « C’est un homme, un homme, un homme. Processor Unit? » (ES, p. Essay On Overview Of Dr.? 26) Le texte met en scene le processus decrit par Butler comme « boying », par opposition a « girling », ce qui fait du genre le resultat pragmatique d’un enonce9. 10 Butler, Trouble dans le genre , introduction de 1999, p. Computer Processor Unit? 36. 8 A propos du drag queen , Butler parle de performance inversee du genre, mais precise que le genre ne se reduit pas a une action theatrale : il ne suffit pas de se travestir pour subvertir la puissance du genre. Essay On Kite? Pour elle, l’action du genre requiert une performance repetee : elle est reiteration tout comme elle est assignation normative.
Le genre n’est pas notre essence, qui se revelerait dans nos pratiques, mais ce sont les pratiques du corps dont la repetition institue le genre : « L’idee que le genre est performatif a ete concue pour montrer que ce que nous voyons dans le genre comme une essence interieure est fabrique a travers une serie ininterrompue d’actes, que cette essence est posee en tant que telle dans et par la stylisation genree du corps10. Unit? » Ce que signifie Butler, c’est que l’identite sexuelle ne preexiste pas a nos actions car celles-ci sont elles-memes agies – conditionnees : le genre est l’effet des normes de genre. 9 Cette allegation se verifie dans la construction de la masculinite d’Ahmed. Definition? Le pere, demiurge plus que geniteur, faconne un corps masculin par son discours : « Regarde comme il est beau, touche ses petits testicules, touche son penis, c’est deja un homme. Computer Processor Unit? » (ES, p. Trickster Names? 27) Des lors, il grandira « selon la loi du pere » (ES, p. Processor Unit? 32). Career Stanley? Badinter dit nettement que la masculinite est une reaction plus qu’une adhesion, une protestation de virilite pour effacer tout soupcon de feminite11. Processor? La regulation du genre s’exprime donc en termes de restriction, de prohibition et de regulation. Essay On Overview Of Dr. Sue? Battu par d’autres enfants, Ahmed recoit une gifle : « tu n’es pas une fille pour pleurer ! Un homme ne pleure pas. Unit? » (ES, p. Definition? 39) La petite fille devient un male par une serie de pratiques sociales dictees par le pere : la coercition du corps (poitrine bandee, cheveux coupes tous les mois et interdiction du henne « reserve aux filles »), une parodie de circoncision et une education a l’ecole coranique avec ses pairs, « d’autres garcons » (ES, p. Unit? 32-33).
Au hammam, il quitte un jour le cote des femmes, espace de la parole et des mots interdits « autour du sexe » (ES, p. Essay Of Dr.? 35), pour celui des hommes, communaute du silence, des plaisirs illicites et des epanchements solitaires. Computer Processor Unit? C’est d’ailleurs au hammam, espace ou les corps se mettent a nu, que se deroule une scene tres lacanienne : Ahmed regarde son bas-ventre dans un miroir afin de se convaincre que le sien ne ressemble pas a ceux « charnus et poilus » des femmes qu’il cotoie au bain (ES, p. Trickster Names? 36). Computer Processor? La construction de la masculinite passe par une serie d’epreuves qui requiert un certain stoicisme de la part du jeune homme. Definition Of Gilded Age? Cependant, si Ahmed se construit en homme par l’injonction paternelle, il devient aussi feminin par l’experience (passive) de la menstruation (ES, p. Processor? 46). Engineering? A l’image de ces creatures qui finissent par depasser leur createur, Ahmed veut prendre le jeu a son compte et substituer sa propre volonte a celle de son pere : « Pere, tu m’as fait homme, je dois le rester. Computer Processor Unit? » (ES, p. Statement Examples? 51) Radicalisant les normes de genre qu’il enonce – la femme se soumet et s’enveloppe dans « un linceul de silence » (ES, p. Unit? 53) –, il decide de confronter sa masculinite a une epreuve supreme : le mariage avec sa cousine Fatima, fille reprouvee car epileptique. Trickster Names? Le « oui » du mariage heterosexuel est le second performatif decisif apres celui de la naissance, selon Butler, or, la encore, il y a detournement du genre. 12 Butler, Trouble dans le genre , p. Computer Processor Unit? 261. 10 Dans La Nuit sacree , Ahmed fait le chemin a l’envers pour devenir Zahra. Education Statement Examples? Neanmoins, il a deja entame ce parcours dans L’Enfant de sable et le retour passe par une « performance » theatrale puisque dans une fete foraine, a cote de la « femme a barbe », on processor lui propose de jouer un role androgyne – homme puis femme fatale (ES, p. Genetic? 121). Processor? S’affirme ici la dimension parodique qu’evoque Butler a propos du drag queen chez celui qui sera « l’homme aux seins de femme ». Essay On Kite? Mais cette posture « ne presuppose pas l’existence d’un original qui serait imite », l’imitation serait « sans original »12. Computer? Pour Butler, il s’agit de prendre appui sur les exceptions (comme le drag queen ) pour penser la regle, non comme inversion, mais comme modele d’invention de nouvelles formations du sujet et, en meme temps, comme verite generale de la norme.
C’est l’exception, l’etrange qui permet de comprendre comment est constitue le monde ordinaire, que l’on considere comme « normal », des significations sexuelles. Essay Of The? Le jeu du travesti, parodique, fait prendre conscience de ce que l’on joue un role, quel que soit son propre degre de conformite aux normes de genre et de sexualite. Processor? Meme si le protagoniste, Ahmed/Zahra, ne va pas jusqu’aux performances ostentatoires du travesti, on trickster names observe chez elle/lui tout un jeu sur les composantes de son identite corporelle : le sexe anatomique, l’identite de genre et la performance du genre. 11 « Redevenue femme, du moins reconnue comme telle par le geniteur » (NS, p. Processor Unit? 34), Zahra peut tenter de mettre fin a vingt ans de mensonge, car elle a ete liberee par la parole du pere mourant. Primary Statement Examples? Avant de mourir, ce dernier resume son « ?uvre » : « Que de fois, je dus te rappeler que tu etais un petit homme, un garcon », avant de decreter : « Tu viens de naitre… Tu es une femme. Computer Processor? » (NS, p. Of Gilded? 32) La construction du genre apparait bien comme une performance : « Redevenue femme […], j’avais encore a jouer le jeu, le temps de regler les affaires de succession et d’heritage. Processor Unit? » (NS, p. On Kite? 34) Elle doit ensuite plier son corps a de nouvelles postures, decouvrir un nouveau langage corporel : « marcher avec souplesse » (NS, p. Computer Unit? 35) ou se deplacer dans la rue « en tenant un homme par le bras » (NS, p. Essay On Overview Career Of Dr. Sue? 123). Processor? Toutefois, pour avoir trop longtemps vecu dans le simulacre, Zahra reste prisonniere de son histoire et fixee sur le « monstre » que son pere avait fabrique (NS, p. Runner? 55 et 172). Processor? Ce blocage amplifie son alienation : « Mon corps s’etait arrete dans son evolution ; il ne muait plus […] ni un corps de femme plein et avide, ni un corps d’homme serein et fort ; j’etais entre les deux, c’est-a-dire en enfer. Engineering History? » (NS, p. Computer Processor? 178) N’ayant pas pris un genre fixe, Ahmed/Zahra s’avere inintelligible pour les autres mais aussi a lui/elle-meme. 13 Voir Butler, Bodies That Matter . 12 Pour Butler, la masculinite n’est pas une essence mais une ideologie, qui tend a justifier la domination masculine.
Le corps existe, mais il est le produit d’une histoire sociale incorporee. Definition Of Gilded? Neanmoins, l’emprise des normes n’empeche pas de penser une prise sur les normes et d’avoir une reflexion sur celles-ci. Computer Unit? Et, de fait, le personnage Ahmed/Zahra presente une conscience lucide de l’impact des forces sociales et politiques dans la fabrication du genre : il/elle dit la force de la loi patriarcale qui pese sur les etres dans la societe arabo-musulmane, notamment la subordination sexualisee de la femme et la violence qui pese sur elle du fait de l’ordre phallocentrique. Career Of Dr.? Butler concede que l’on ne peut parler d’un pur determinisme car la materialite du corps possede ses propres lois et obeit a une nature, mais elle choisit de s’interesser au corps, non comme realite prealable, mais comme effet bien reel des regulations sociales et des assignations normatives13. Le pouvoir, l’errance et la construction du genre. 14 J. Computer? W. Sampoong Department Store? Scott, « Genre: une categorie utile d’analyse historique », « Le genre de l’histoire », Les C (. Processor Unit? ) 13 En effet, pour Joan W. Essay? Scott, le genre est moins la construction sociale de la difference des sexes qu’« une facon premiere de signifier des rapports de pouvoir » et ces derniers s’incarnent dans la societe patriarcale qui tente d’assujettir et de contenir la femme14. Computer Unit? Comme pour echapper a l’action du pouvoir sur la construction du genre, les personnages de Ben Jelloun deviennent mobiles dans l’espace et la structure des romans s’organise davantage selon la spatialite que selon la chronologie : « J’ai perdu la notion du temps », reconnait Ahmed (ES, p. Education Statement Examples? 105).
Ainsi, la revolte du heros se traduit par sa decision de partir et consiste en la revendication d’un retour a son corps de femme, qu’il libere des bandages lui enserrant la poitrine et auquel il donne du plaisir par la caresse (ES, p. Computer Unit? 111). Primary Education Personal? De meme, dans La Nuit sacree, Ahmed/Zahra se lance dans un long periple qui doit lui permettre de defaire le genre qui lui a ete impose. Processor Unit? L’errance geographique est associee aux variations du genre, a l’image d’Antar, « un homme exemplaire, au courage legendaire », qui est en fait une femme et est devenu, apres sa mort, « un saint ou une sainte […] le marabout de l’errance » (ES, p. Trickster Names? 84-85). 15 Butler, Trouble dans le genre , p. Computer? 60. On Kite Runner? 16 Citee par Butler, Trouble dans le genre , p. Unit? 230. Essay On Overview Career Of Dr. Sue? 17 Voir I. Computer Unit? Lowy, L’Emprise du genre: masculinite, feminite, inegalite , Paris, La Dispute, coll. On Overview Of The Of Dr. Stanley? « Le g (. Computer Processor Unit? ) 14 Suivant les theories de Michel Foucault, Butler explique que nous sommes constitues en tant que sujets par le pouvoir15. Of Gilded? « Il y a une plastie du langage sur le reel », ecrit Monique Wittig, mais cette conception foucaldienne qui fait du langage une sorte de prison peut etre contestee16. Unit? Penser les normes qui nous definissent amene a reformuler la question de la domination, pour la poser en termes de pouvoir. On Kite Runner? Cela revient a dire que le pouvoir ne reprime pas seulement, il fait exister. Unit? L’assignation que nous endossons et reprenons a notre compte est la condition paradoxale de notre capacite, voire de notre puissance d’agir ( agency ). Primary Personal Statement Examples? Ahmed/Zahra est une femme faite homme par une volonte masculine, puis une femme qui souhaite renouer avec son identite corporelle, mais sans pour autant accepter les roles sociaux impartis au genre feminin. Computer Unit? En cela, elle experimente toute l’asymetrie qui existe entre une masculinite se construisant de maniere autonome, et une feminite s’organisant dans sa relation a l’autre sexe17. Primary Education Personal Examples? Par les modulations de son genre, Ahmed/Zahra entre bien dans le programme de Butler, pour laquelle l’exception et l’etrange constituent une propedeutique a la remise en cause des categories toutes faites.
15 Si Ben Jelloun donne a voir le caractere veritablement transformationnel et performatif du genre, notamment masculin, ce qui lui permet de depasser la logique binaire et hierarchisante de la difference sexuelle, il n’en demeure pas moins que le discours romanesque n’echappe pas completement au dualisme et vient fournir au systeme – l’hegemonie masculine et la structure patriarcale – les arguments de sa propre perpetuation. Jeux de la fiction ou le retour aux normes de genre. 16 La difference de structure narrative entre les deux romans, tout en soulignant l’impossible reconciliation du masculin et du feminin dans l’entreprise de liberation amorcee par Ahmed/Zahra, signale finalement le retour en force de la Loi et des stereotypes du genre, comme si la realite de la transgression ne pouvait etre maintenue. Processor? C’est un certain type de litterature qui prend alors le relais, le conte et aussi la poesie, releguant la problematique du genre dans un univers fantastico-merveilleux. 18 L. Sampoong Department Store? Kohn-Pireaux, Tahar Ben Jelloun, « L’Enfant de sable » et « La Nuit sacree » , Paris, Ellipses, 2 (. Unit? ) 17 La parole se met en scene sur la place Jemaa El Fna de Marrakech, veritable forum public, sinuant sous les volutes de l’hyperbole et les arabesques de la metaphore, puis s’egarant dans le dedale des sept portes de la medina. Runner? Comme le montre Laurence Kohn-Pireaux, L’Enfant de sable est pris en charge par une chaine de sept conteurs, chacun abandonnant son histoire pour ceder la parole a un autre conteur18. Processor? Le premier, anonyme, transmet la parole a Si Abdel Malek, le frere de Fatima. Store Collapse? Quand le manuscrit disparait, les conteurs revent, chacun a sa maniere, l’histoire d’Ahmed/Zahra, qu’il s’agisse de Salem, le fils d’un esclave ramene du Senegal, d’Amar, le vieil instituteur retraite ou de Fatouma. Computer Unit? Ensuite, le troubadour aveugle, en qui l’on reconnait Borges, pretend avoir rencontre Ahmed, redevenu femme, a Buenos Aires, avant de laisser la parole a l’etranger au turban bleu, qui conclut, mais sans l’achever, l’histoire. Primary Examples? Symboliquement, il renvoie le lecteur a un astre peu bavard pour connaitre le denouement – la lune, « quand elle sera entierement pleine » (ES, p. Processor Unit? 209). 19 Voir l’etude de R. Engineering? Elbaz, Tahar Ben Jelloun ou l’Inassouvissement du desir narratif , Paris, L’Harma (. Computer Processor Unit? ) 20 A. Essay On Overview Of The? Hafez-Ergaut, « Jeux de masques: L’Enfant de sable et La Nuit sacree de Tahar Ben Jelloun », ht(. Computer Processor? ) 21 Voir la lecture de J. Engineering History? Derrida faite par F. Computer Processor Unit? Regard, L’ e criture feminine en Angleterre , Paris, PUF, c (. Essay On Kite Runner? ) 18 La construction puis la deconstruction de la masculinite d’Ahmed/Zahra passent ainsi par une esthetique du fragment : « Fragmentaire mais non depourvu de sens, l’evenement s’impose a ma conscience de tous les cotes.
Le manuscrit que je voulais lire tombe en morceaux […]. Computer Unit? » (ES, p. Engineering History? 108) Chaque fragment, chaque microrecit constitue un nouveau commencement narratif qui tente de pallier le manque dans lequel s’origine le texte, travaille par son « inassouvissement narratif19 ». Computer Unit? La parole publique du conteur devoile l’ecriture secrete du journal intime redige par Ahmed/Zahra, dont le roman donne a lire quelques extraits, mais ce texte se caracterise par des lacunes, des ellipses – « un espace blanc, des pages nues » (ES, p. Definition Of Gilded? 41-42), ou il est demande au lecteur/auditeur d’imaginer l’adolescence du personnage. Processor? Faute de pouvoir etre racontee jusqu’au bout – les conteurs multiplient les defaillances –, l’histoire s’interrompt, laissee a l’interpretation du public, incapable de dire le devenir d’un etre au genre ambivalent, un veritable etre de sable, liquide mineral impossible a modeler et a saisir20. Education Statement? La parole se livre a une incessante correction du recit, conjugue repetition et alterite, difference et differe et, en cela, procede de la deconstruction derridienne, d’une ecriture de la differ a nce. Unit? La genese du sujet se fait dans l’espacement, l’ecartement : le personnage d’Ahmed/Zahra existe « entre », il explore infiniment de nouveaux contextes, deploie des simulacres dans une interaction constante du feminin et du masculin, mais resiste a toute assignation a une identite fixe21. On Kite Runner? Le roman L’Enfant de sable elabore ainsi une veritable cryptographie, echouant a dire le secret de l’etre. 22 « There is computer processor, no space from trickster names which the processor, sexed subaltern can speak », G. Primary Statement? C. Processor Unit? Spivak, « Can the trickster names, Subaltern S (. Computer Processor Unit? ) 19 La fragmentation extreme de la descente aux enfers que constitue L’Enfant de sable se resout dans La Nuit sacree . Statement Examples? Certes, l’on retrouve le conteur au turban bleu au debut du roman, mais c’est Zahra qui assume son propre mandat narratif. Computer Processor Unit? Hormis quelques narrateurs secondaires ponctuels, La Nuit sacree prend une allure autobiographique et met en scene une voix unifiante, celle d’Ahmed/Zahra devenu(e) femme, apparemment libere(e) du role que son pere lui avait assigne. Trickster Names? La parole restituee dit l’histoire incorporee de/par Zahra : parole de temoignage, de souffrance et d’affirmation de soi, de celle/celui qui a voulu disposer de son corps et de sa liberte, malgre la marginalite et l’errance. Unit? A sa maniere, ce personnage de femme marocaine semble contredire les allegations de Gayatri Spivak, pour laquelle il n’y a pas de lieu possible d’expression pour la femme subalterne22. On Kite Runner? En fait, le recit de Zahra, relaye par le consul qui tente de denouer le labyrinthe de son histoire par l’ecriture (NS, p. Processor? 169), retrace l’itineraire d’un etre qui s’efforce de reconstruire son genre, mais au prix d’un retour aux principes de la masculinite la plus archaique. Sampoong? Parallelement, de L’Enfant de sable a La Nuit sacree , Ben Jelloun passe d’une esthetique postmoderniste a la Borges a une forme romanesque plus canonique, comme s’il voulait effacer les audaces de l’experimentation mise en ?uvre pour la construction « genree » de son protagoniste.
Le retour aux stereotypes du genre feminin. 20 Liberee et re-nee la vingt-septieme nuit du Ramadan, celle de la premiere revelation faite a Mahomet par l’archange Gabriel dans une grotte du mont Hira en Arabie, Zahra accomplit un parcours qui, loin de la liberer, l’enferme dans le cycle des malheurs reserves aux femmes, dans la reification d’une configuration ancestrale qui hierarchise les genres. Computer Processor Unit? Zahra, ou Ahmed dans sa vie anterieure, connait une serie d’epreuves dans sa quete d’identite et de feminite, imposee par la violence de la societe patriarcale. Personal Statement Examples? Tout d’abord, c’est par un viol commis par un homme « sans visage » qu’elle devient femme (NS, p. Computer Processor Unit? 63). On Overview Of The Career Of Dr.? L’image evoquant cet acte est sans doute ambivalente, « [u]n poignard caressant le dos » (NS, p. Computer? 58), mais elle conforte d’une certaine facon un prejuge masculin, selon lequel le viol est toujours secretement desire par la victime. Genetic Engineering? Quant au premier acte sexuel consenti avec l’homme qu’elle aime, le consul, il s’accomplit dans le cadre du bordel et par ruse : Zahra se fait passer pour une prostituee, en profitant de ce que son partenaire est aveugle (NS, p. Computer Processor? 126). Definition Of Gilded? Zahra se trouve plus tard condamnee a quinze ans de prison pour le meurtre de son oncle, le pere de Fatima, son epouse lorsqu’elle etait Ahmed. Computer? Dans une scene aux limites du fantastique, ses s?urs reviennent, membres d’une « secte de s?urs musulmanes, fanatiques et brutales » (NS, p. Trickster Names? 157), version arabo-islamique des Eumenides ou des Erinyes.
Avides de se venger de l’usurpation du suppose Ahmed, qui leur a indument impose une tutelle masculine, elles s’attaquent a la feminite meme de Zahra : apres l’avoir tondue, elles pratiquent une excision sauvage, lui cousent le sexe, contrepoint tragique du simulacre de circoncision qu’avait subi Ahmed enfant. Processor Unit? La plupart des experiences de Zahra dans la reconquete de sa feminite tendent a illustrer l’alienation du corps feminin, brutalement soumis a la loi d’une societe phallocratique et rarement sujet de son desir propre. 23 « Il n’est plus une volonte du pere. On Overview Of The Career Stanley Sue? Il va devenir sa propre volonte. Processor Unit? » (ES, p. Trickster Names? 48) 24 E. Computer Processor Unit? Varikas, Penser le sexe et le genre , Paris, PUF, coll. Trickster Names? « Question d’ethique », 2006, p. Computer Unit? 123. Sue? Com (. Computer Processor? ) 21 Un destin tragique pese sur Ahmed/Zahra, peut-etre provoque par l’hybris du pere qui avait voulu faconner un homme a partir d’un corps feminin, et cette faute paternelle, endossee par le heros qui a pris le jeu a son compte et l’a radicalise23, semble peser jusqu’au bout. Trickster Names? Grace a l’amour du consul, l’enfant de sable est certes devenu une « statue de chair desiree et desirante » (NS, p. Computer Processor Unit? 138), mais elle continue a considerer son corps comme « un sac de sable » (NS, p. Of The Stanley Sue? 167). Processor? Malediction et/ou disposition personnelle, Zahra est vouee a l’incompletude et au malheur, qui revet les formes multiples de la repression imposee aux femmes et illustre indirectement le determinisme qui agit sur la construction du genre. History? Un graffiti representant un « vagin avec des dents » (NS, p. Computer Processor? 77), avatar du vagin dente de « Berenice » d’E. Statement? A. Processor Unit? Poe, allegorise la difficulte d’etre femme. Education Personal Examples? En definitive, la liberation du desir passe pour Zahra par un champ de ruines et de morts – maison effondree du pere, assassinat de l’oncle, violences de la prison –, et le parcours initiatique qui la malmene – on computer serait tente de dire « male-mene » – ne remet pas en cause la hierarchie des genres edifiee par la societe arabo-musulmane.
Le desir provoque certes un elan et une regeneration, mais l’etre feminin n’est pas decolonise. Sampoong Department Store Collapse? Toutefois, ce dernier accede a la parole, ce qui est significatif dans une societe ou les femmes sont enfermees dans le silence. Computer Unit? Et, comme le dit Eleni Varikas a propos des recits d’esclaves, « la reconstitution creatrice de la narration a la premiere personne qui transforme le bien meuble en sujet parlant […] revele des aspects inedits de la domination et de la liberte24 ». Le detour du conte ou la necessite de la derealisation. 22 Ahmed/Zahra est un etre profondement subversif : nee femme, elle est faite homme, avant de tenter de renouer avec son identite d’origine. Definition Of Gilded? Cet episode transgenre a ete inspire a Ben Jelloun par un fait divers, mais ne donne pas lieu a un recit realiste. Computer Unit? En fait, la transgression est double, par la nature des faits relates et par l’identite de la narratrice dans La Nuit sacree : une femme, meme agee, ne peut tout dire « frontalement ». Sampoong Department? Dans les societes arabo-musulmanes, le poids des tabous est tel que la liberte d’agir, de disposer de soi et de s’exprimer librement n’est pas donnee a une femme (ni a un homme sans doute). 23 Le recit apparait comme « derealise » par le recours au conte et la transgression est relativisee par sa projection dans le registre du merveilleux, ce qui est aussi un moyen d’operer une restylisation du feminin, et du genre en general.
L’audace de la transformation generique d’Ahmed/Zahra est ainsi contenue par une forme litteraire ancestrale et canonique du monde arabe. Processor? En effet, la structure de L’Enfant de sable met en scene toute une serie de conteurs, heritiers de la tradition orale, meme si le dispositif retenu rappelle davantage les complexites borgesiennes que Les Mille et Une Nuits , tandis que l’espace narratif et discursif se trouve projete dans un monde perdu et quasi utopique, le Maghreb precolonial. Education Personal Statement? Dans La Nuit sacree , la multiplication des scenes oniriques eloigne le texte du canon realiste et destabilise le lecteur. Computer? Le roman se clot d’ailleurs par une vision de Zahra ou elle retrouve le consul, scene en conformite avec l’indecidabilite generale d’un texte tiraille entre reel et surreel. 24 Le chapitre de La Nuit sacree intitule « le Jardin parfume » (NS, p. Trickster Names? 39-49), inspire par la poesie d’Abu-I-Ala, al-Ma’arri, le Risalat al-Ghufran 25, est significatif de cette tendance de l’ecriture. Processor? Enlevee par un Cheikh, Zahra est conduite dans un lieu utopique, le village des enfants – « une petite republique revee et vecue par les enfants » (NS, p. Primary Personal Statement Examples? 41) –, espace regi par l’oubli et ou se reunissent ceux « dont le c?ur a souffert et qui ne nourri[ssen]t plus d’illusion sur le genre humain » (NS, p. Processor? 42). Essay Runner? L’imagerie de ce « jardin parfume » rappelle bien sur le Coran et son paradis aux parfums enivrants, aux fruits exquis et aux jeunes filles toujours pures, mais il s’agit ici d’un monde d’enfants, d’avant la sexualite, representant sans doute pour Zahra la nostalgie d’un temps d’innocence, qu’elle n’a pas connu sous l’identite d’Ahmed. Processor Unit? Ce lieu utopique est toutefois synonyme de mort car les enfants y vivent « en dehors du temps » et « a l’abri des vivants » (NS, p. Genetic? 49). Unit? L’amnesie et la denegation de la sexualite sont mortiferes et Zahra doit fuir si elle veut vivre et tenter d’etre elle-meme. Primary Statement? Le registre du conte merveilleux, meme s’il a partie liee avec la sexualite – Bruno Bettelheim l’a bien montre –, offre une cryptographie, une serie de codes symboliques, reconnus et admissibles par une culture, qui permettent a la fois d’idealiser et d’euphemiser une realite trop crue.
26 Ibn Arabi a vecu en Andalousie au temps de l’apogee de la civilisation musulmane (1165-1240); El Ha (. Unit? ) 25 Tendant au merveilleux, la parole est egalement sacralisee par les references au livre fondateur de la civilisation arabo-musulmane, le Coran. Department Store? Le « Journal » d’Ahmed est d’ailleurs explicitement assimile au livre sacre : « Des phrases ou des versets se levent pour dissiper la brume de l’attente. Unit? » (ES, p. Genetic Engineering History? 107) Quant au manuscrit, sa presentation suit un veritable rituel qui le sacralise et sa lecture consiste en fait en une recitation, ce qui rejoint le sens meme du mot « Coran », qui signifie recitation. Computer Processor Unit? Contestant les recuperations theologiques, le consul declare aimer le Coran « comme une poesie superbe » (NS, p. Definition Of Gilded Age? 79), et l’ecriture de Ben Jelloun se fait prose poetique. Processor Unit? Fatima se retire pour lire les poetes mystiques (ES, p. Engineering? 104), egalement presents dans les propos du conteur Amar, qui cite Ibn Arabi et El Hallaj (ES, p. Processor Unit? 146-147), deux grands theoriciens et poetes du soufisme, qui font d’ailleurs figure de passeurs entre islam et christianisme26. Engineering? Il est vrai que les variations identitaires d’Ahmed/Zahra ne sont pas sans evoquer « la maniere de nos poetes mystiques pour qui l’apparence etait le masque le plus pervers de la verite » (NS, p. Computer Unit? 134). Of Gilded? La encore, Ben Jelloun joue sur les attentes culturelles de son lectorat ; il englobe le discours du genre et du sexe, dont le caractere prosaique et potentiellement subversif s’absorbe dans la scansion d’une parole fortement metaphorique, dans la recitation sacralisante d’un texte profondement poetique. 26 On peut lire le diptyque de Tahar Ben Jelloun comme une mise en crise de la masculinite a travers l’itineraire douloureux de l’etre double Ahmed/Zahra. Computer Unit? La societe arabo-musulmane qu’il met en scene se caracterise par le pouvoir absolu du pater familias , consacre par la loi et la coutume et impose par la coercition economique et la force physique, ce qui fait apparaitre les categories de la masculinite et de la feminite comme stables et immuables.
Cependant, loin de proposer une definition essentialiste des genres, la fiction illustre bien plus une approche constructionniste : le genre s’elabore a partir de la repetition d’un certain nombre d’actes, definis par les normes sociales. Trickster Names? Comme le dit le texte, Ahmed n’est pas « une erreur de la nature mais un detournement social » (ES, p. Computer? 160). 27 La portee potentiellement subversive du discours de Ben Jelloun sur la masculinite est neanmoins reduite par le proces de l’ecriture et l’apparent retour a la norme accompli par son personnage, qui se retrouve assujetti aux stereotypes du feminin. Genetic? La Nuit sacree semble ratifier l’asymetrie des genres et le systeme patriarcal tandis que la transgression peut passer pour une exception confirmant la regle de l’ordre symbolique traditionnel. Unit? De maniere visible, les structures de la fiction euphemisent la mise en crise de la masculinite, d’une part en passant de la structure narrative polyphonique et fragmentaire de L’Enfant de sable a la monophonie de La Nuit sacree , texte a la construction plus classique, d’autre part en recourant au registre du merveilleux et au fonds culturel traditionnel du conte arabe, qui tendent a metaphoriser les deviances et a derealiser le substrat ideologique. 28 L’orientation prise par La Nuit sacree peut ainsi inviter a interpreter l’?uvre de Ben Jelloun comme un jeu fictionnel sur les identites sexuelles, mais qui se bornerait au constat du patriarcat universel et indepassable. Genetic History? Ben Jelloun recreerait ainsi un Orient litteraire, ou predomine l’oppression du genre feminin par un masculin hegemonique et totalitaire et, ce faisant, jouerait avec l’hypertexte colonial et les stereotypes occidentaux sur l’Orient eternel et cruel, mais profondement fascinant. Computer Unit? Toutefois, la transgression absolue de L’Enfant de sable est loin d’etre abolie par le dispositif fictionnel, et elle ouvre la voie aux lectures feministes, a la denonciation d’une barbarie archaique, et a la revendication de l’egalite des sexes dans un monde ou elle parait impensable. 1 T. Definition Of Gilded? Ben Jelloun, L’Enfant de sable , Paris, Le Seuil, coll. Unit? « Points Romans », 1985 et La Nuit sacree , Le Seuil, coll. Sampoong Collapse? « Points Romans », 1987. Computer Processor? Les references seront respectivement precedees des mentions ES et NS.
2 J. Education? Minces, Le Coran et les Femmes , Paris, Hachette, 1996, p. Unit? 78-79. 3 E. Age? Badinter, XY: de l’identite masculine , Paris, Odile Jacob, 1992, p. Computer Processor? 25. 4 P. Essay On Kite Runner? Bourdieu, La Domination masculine , Paris, Le Seuil, 1998, p. Processor Unit? 28. 5 « Le genre se revele performatif – c’est-a-dire qu’il constitue l’etre qu’il est cense etre. Primary Personal? Ainsi le genre est toujours un faire, mais non le fait d’un sujet qui precederait ce faire », J. Processor Unit? Butler, Trouble dans le genre: pour un feminisme de la subversion , trad. Essay On Kite Runner? C. Unit? Kraus, Paris, La Decouverte, 2005, p. Sampoong Department? 96; Gender Trouble: Feminism and unit the Politics of collapse, Subversion (1990), Londres et New York, Routledge, 1999. 6 T. Computer Processor Unit? Laqueur, La Fabrique du sexe: essai sur le corps et le genre en Occident , trad. On Kite? M. Computer? Gautier, Paris, Gallimard, coll. Essay On Kite Runner? « NRF Essais », 1992. 7 Voir E. Computer? Peyre et J. Essay On Overview Career Of Dr. Stanley Sue? Wiels, « Le sexe biologique et sa relation au sexe social », Les Temps modernes , n o 593, 1997, p. Computer? 14-48. 8 Butler, Trouble dans le genre , p. Essay? 109. 9 J. Computer Processor Unit? Butler, Bodies that Matter: On the primary education examples, Discursive Limits of processor, « Sex » , Londres et New York, Routledge, 1997, p. Engineering? 7.
10 Butler, Trouble dans le genre , introduction de 1999, p. Unit? 36. 12 Butler, Trouble dans le genre , p. Trickster Names? 261. 13 Voir Butler, Bodies That Matter . 14 J. Computer Unit? W. Trickster Names? Scott, « Genre: une categorie utile d’analyse historique », « Le genre de l’histoire », Les Cahiers du GRIF , n o 37-38, printemps 1988, p. Computer Processor? 125-153; « Gender: A Useful Category of definition, Historical Analysis », dans Gender and computer unit the Politics of trickster names, History , New York, Columbia University Press, 1988. 15 Butler, Trouble dans le genre , p. Unit? 60. 16 Citee par Butler, Trouble dans le genre , p. On Overview Of Dr. Stanley Sue? 230.
17 Voir I. Processor Unit? Lowy, L’Emprise du genre: masculinite, feminite, inegalite , Paris, La Dispute, coll. History? « Le genre du monde », 2006, quatrieme de couverture. 18 L. Computer Processor Unit? Kohn-Pireaux, Tahar Ben Jelloun, « L’Enfant de sable » et « La Nuit sacree » , Paris, Ellipses, 2000, p. History? 18. 19 Voir l’etude de R. Unit? Elbaz, Tahar Ben Jelloun ou l’Inassouvissement du desir narratif , Paris, L’Harmattan, 1996, p. Of Gilded? 38. 20 A. Computer Processor Unit? Hafez-Ergaut, « Jeux de masques: L’Enfant de sable et La Nuit sacree de Tahar Ben Jelloun », http://www.arts.uwa.edu.au/MotsPluriels/MP1099ahe.html (consulte le 1 er septembre 2007). 21 Voir la lecture de J. Genetic History? Derrida faite par F. Computer? Regard, L’ e criture feminine en Angleterre , Paris, PUF, coll. Department Store Collapse? « Perspectives anglo-saxonnes », 2002, p. Unit? 72-81. 22 « There is primary personal statement examples, no space from processor which the primary statement examples, sexed subaltern can speak », G. Processor Unit? C. Age? Spivak, « Can the computer, Subaltern Speak? », dans P. Sampoong Department Store? Williams et L. Computer Processor Unit? Chrisman, dir., Colonial Discourse and trickster names Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader , Hemel Hempstead, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993, p. Computer? 103. 23 « Il n’est plus une volonte du pere. Trickster Names? Il va devenir sa propre volonte. Processor? » (ES, p. Trickster Names? 48) 24 E. Computer Processor Unit? Varikas, Penser le sexe et le genre , Paris, PUF, coll. Of Gilded Age? « Question d’ethique », 2006, p. Processor Unit? 123.
Comme d’autres theoriciennes feministes, Varikas reproche a Butler une conception du genre ou tout est gouverne par la fonction reiterative et performative du langage. Engineering? Elle postule la singularite irreductible du processus cognitif, fait de moments discursifs et non discursifs, et la possibilite de configurations totalement inedites. 25 Voir Kohn-Pireaux, op. Computer Processor Unit? cit. Essay? , p. Computer Processor Unit? 42. 26 Ibn Arabi a vecu en Andalousie au temps de l’apogee de la civilisation musulmane (1165-1240); El Hallaj a vecu a Bagdad ou il a ete crucifie pour blaspheme en 922. Runner? Le soufisme se caracterise d’abord par le denuement materiel et le refus des biens de ce monde avant de devenir une theosophie. Processor Unit? Voir A.-J. Career Of Dr. Sue? Arberry, Le Soufisme: la mystique de l’islam , trad.
J. Computer Processor Unit? Gouillard, Paris, Le Mail, 1998. Yves Clavaron , « La vie d’Ahmed/Zahra ou la mise en crise de la masculinite chez Tahar Ben Jelloun », Itineraires , Numero inaugural | 2008, 149-161. Yves Clavaron , « La vie d’Ahmed/Zahra ou la mise en crise de la masculinite chez Tahar Ben Jelloun », Itineraires [En ligne], Numero inaugural | 2008, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2008, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. Department Store? URL : http://itineraires.revues.org/2219 ; DOI : 10.4000/itineraires.2219. Celec, universite Jean-Monnet, Saint-Etienne. « Banlieues » : entre imaginaires et experiences 2016-2 | 2017. Livre, serialite et transmedialite 2016-1 | 2016. Ecrire et creer avec les villes en mouvement 2015-3 | 2016. Ethos numeriques 2015-2 | 2016. Stumbling blocks. Computer Processor? Entraves et obstacles aux circulations 2015-1 | 2015.
Recits de societe 2014-3 | 2015. Le polar en Europe : reecritures du genre 2014-2 | 2015. Tisseurs : transtextualisation et interculturalites 2014-1 | 2015. Textualites numeriques 2013-2 | 2014. Sade et les femmes 2013-1 | 2013. La fiction aujourd’hui 2012-3 | 2013. Lire les villes marocaines 2012-2 | 2012. Intime et politique 2012-1 | 2012. Genres et avant-gardes 2011-4 | 2011. Ecrivains communistes francais 2011-3 | 2011. Recits du corps au Maroc et au Japon 2011-2 | 2011.
Le concept de memoire 2011-1 | 2011. Les Memoires, une question de genre ? 2010-4 | 2010. Modernites shakespeariennes 2010-3 | 2010. Medievalisme 2010-2 | 2010. Les blogs 2010-1 | 2010. Vies possibles, vies romanesques 2009-4 | 2009.
Pour une histoire de l’intime et de ses variations 2009-3 | 2009. Modernites occidentales et extra-occidentales 2009-2 | 2009. Caraibe et ocean Indien 2009-1 | 2009. Corpographeses Numero inaugural | 2008. ISSN electronique 2427-920X.
Informations Titre : Itineraires Litterature, textes, cultures En bref : Revue etudiant l’emergence de nouveaux espaces litteraires, en termes d’aires culturelles, de supports, d’ideologie, de representation du sujet.
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Revised “What Do You Want To Be When You Grow Up?” We are usually asked this question very . early in life: “What do you want to be when you grow up?” It’s one of the of gilded age biggest questions asked of children, from toddlers to teenagers. It’s always asked to help encourage kids to think of computer, their future. After all, how many children really know what they want to examples, do with the rest of unit, their lives? Oh yeah, there are those lucky few who have a special calling. Genetic Engineering History! Many kids will say they want to be a police. Academic degree , High school , Hotel 1117 Words | 3 Pages. January 18, 2013 Why do I want to teach? I always wanted to become a teacher . Processor Unit! The . main reason for this is that I want to do something to help the community, and primary personal statement, give back some of the computer unit privileges that I enjoyed. Some of these privileges included a great education, and of the Stanley Sue, caring teachers . Everyone has gotten to where they are in life because they had a teacher . By definition, a teacher is someone who gives instruction and communicates skills. The lives most impacted by computer unit, teachers are those of our children. Education , Future , Need 427 Words | 2 Pages.
motivational speech How Bad Do You Want It? There was a young man, you know, who wanted to make . a lot of money and so he went to this guru, right. And he told the guru you know I wanna be on the same level you are, and the guru said if you wanna be on on Kite Runner, the same level I’m on, I’ll met you tomorrow at the beach. So the young man got there 4 A.M. he’s all ready to rock n’ roll. Got on a suit, should of processor unit, wore shorts. The old man grabs his hand and said: How bad do you wanna be successful? He said. LeBron James 1300 Words | 4 Pages.
How can teachers be advocates for children in and out of the store classroom? Teachers play an important role, everyone knows . that, but does anyone actually know how much teachers do for us? It seems that teachers are just an authority figure at school, but it is so much more than that. Teachers are in a classroom with about 25 children who thirst for an education. Teachers quench this thirst with the knowledge that they teach in the classroom.
Teachers do not just advocate children in the classroom;. Certified teacher , Education , History of computer processor unit, education 1325 Words | 4 Pages. How to Become a Effective Teacher. How to Become an Effective Teacher In general, education is trickster names a term often used to refer to formal education, which . covers a range of experiences, from computer formal learning to the building of understanding and knowledge through day-to-day experiences. In fact, individuals receive informal education from a variety of sources, such as family members, peers, books and mass media. All of trickster names, them have exerted a strong influence on informal education of the individual. On the other hand, throughout. Education , Educational psychology , History of education 2014 Words | 5 Pages.
Review of: Why You Do the Things You Do. | Review of:Why You Do The Things You Do Clinton, Dr. Tim amp; Sibcy, Dr. Gary. (2006). Computer Unit! . Why You Do the trickster names Things You Do : The Secret of Healthy Relationships. Computer Unit! Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Summary Relationships are in our everyday life all around us, but the most intimate relationships we have include God, our parents, our children and our spouse. God implanted the desire for intimacy or relationship within us when He created Adam and Eve. God hardwired the desire for relationship in us. Conceptions of God , Family , God 2184 Words | 6 Pages. Why Do I Want to on Overview Career of Dr. Stanley Sue, Become a Teacher?
Why do I want to processor unit, become a teacher ? All of of the Career Stanley, my experience for the past 10 years since . I have been in USA led me to realizing that I am passionate about teaching and working with children. I migrated to this country from Slovak Republic right after graduating from Comenius University with the major in computer processor Biochemistry. Runner! Being only 22 years old I wanted to processor unit, experience some adventure before getting the department store regular 9-5 job at some Research Laboratory. I signed up for a Summer Program with YMCA and came to Poland. Education 485 Words | 2 Pages. how to become an elementary teacher. great elementary teacher When being in high school we are often asked “What do you want to be in processor . life? “, most of us have high expectations of ourselves like doctor or scientist, others, walk in to the wrong profession and trickster names, end up going back to processor, school wanting to become an elementary teacher not having a clue on primary personal, how to computer processor unit, get there and sampoong collapse, those high school students that say “I want to be an elementary teacher ” don’t have the slightest clue on how to computer unit, get to the position. But don’t worry when you have finished. Certified teacher , College , Education 1598 Words | 4 Pages. Philosophy of Education / Why I want to become a teacher ? Philosophies vary from time to time . because we live in a world that moves at definition age, a very fast pace, and we have to move our ideas with it.
I have pursued a BA in Communications and a MA in Secondary Education with a concentration in educational technology. Now, I teach with my English minor, and I absolutely love it. As an educator, I want prepare students not only for college, but for the world we live in today. Computer Unit! My philosophy of education. 21st century , Academic degree , Education 499 Words | 2 Pages. Philosophy of Education The word “ teacher ” does the profession no service.
A teacher is really a combination of the Essay most . important professions in computer processor unit the world. Besides the store collapse parents, an educator is the biggest influence in processor unit a child’s life. Essay Of The! The age span in which children are in school is the most impressionable years of their lives. Computer Processor Unit! A student’s educational experience can mold the on Kite Runner events of his or her future. That is why I want to unit, become a teacher . I want to be a mold for younger generations, and I hope. Education , History of trickster names, education , Learning 803 Words | 3 Pages. 2. What do we want to learn? What are the key concepts (form, function, causation, change, connection, . perspective, responsibility, reflection) to be emphasized within this inquiry Key concepts: ? Form, responsibility, connection Related concepts:? cooperation? or ? conflict, interdependence What lines of inquiry will define the scope of the inquiry into the central idea? What teacher questions/provocations will drive these inquiries? Lines of inquiry . Friendship 1327 Words | 10 Pages.
? Why I Chose to computer processor unit, Become a Teacher … By Mack S. Primary Education! Tribble My choice to become a teacher . was not made lightly. This decision was a culmination of computer, a process of reflection about Essay on Kite Runner, what I wanted to do with my life. I have chosen a career in education because I believe that it is one of the most important functions performed in computer processor unit our culture. I believe that teachers individually and collectively have the ability to not only change the world, but to statement, improve it. Within the process of teaching, I hope to find. Education , Knowledge , Lesson plan 851 Words | 2 Pages. expectations. Whether you are a teacher , student, husband, wife, CEO, manager, son, daughter, friend and so forth, anyone at all, . living in the society, you are expected to behave in a certain manner. When you traverse the boundaries, you are suddenly out processor unit there in definition the open, unprotected and vulnerable.
You have to protect yourself now, you have to processor, safeguard the expectations and save your relationship. If you hide the information, if no one gets to Essay Career of Dr., know you crossed the line, if you are perceived to be. Lie , Mind , Reason 949 Words | 3 Pages. has not lived that long yet. Today teens like me are expected to know what they want do later in computer processor life. Maybe if it were not the . twenty first century I could be imaginative but that would be childish (In case you didn't know this is Runner a CHILDRENS essay competition). However after a decade and a half I would like to be in computer processor unit a profession that is trickster names considered neither here nor there in processor unit terms of childishness. I would like to become a fiction writer.
A fiction writer is a person who invents stories, a non-fiction. John Banville , Man Booker Prize , The Sea 1002 Words | 3 Pages. Who is a Teacher ? By Joe Waldron In the early years of sampoong store collapse, school we are asked to computer processor, participate in Show and Tell. Some people dread the . experience, some people like it so much they spend the rest of their life looking for things they can share with others. When the Essay Runner Show and processor, Tell bug has bitten the young person the student may become a teacher . There are many good teachers we meet in life; a few of us take it up as a profession. Why are some people like this? The best of teachers simply enjoy.
Assessment , Education , Educational psychology 2579 Words | 7 Pages. How Do You Become a Great Artist? Do It Wrong. Do it wrong. Cartoonists, writers, musicians, actors, filmmakers, we all get the same questions. And we all have boring, stock answers . like ‘draw every day’ or ‘practice a lot’. Sometimes it’s because we don’t know what we did right. But the definition real reason is that every bit of unit, advice we give you has an expiration date. The world of art is always changing. The things people like, the way those things are distributed and sold is always changing. By the time you put in Runner all that practice to get.
2007 singles , 2008 singles , Art 1217 Words | 4 Pages. always wanted to become a teacher . The main reason for this is that I want to do something to help . the community, and give back some of the privileges that I enjoyed. Some of these privileges included a great education, and processor unit, caring teachers . I could see myself accomplishing this task through teaching. New York City needs hard working, caring, and of the Career of Dr., responsible teachers , and I want to become a part of it. I believe that to become a teacher , your heart really needs to be in processor unit it and you need to be committed. Calculus , College , Education 522 Words | 2 Pages. forget why you do what you do and who you do it for, and genetic engineering, . make sure everything you do honors that. Unit! What I’ve seen happen often times (especially in… yup, you guessed it: the education reform movement), is that intentions start out good but the sword starts to swing the other way when money, power, and statistics are valued over the lives and humanity of students. “Kids first” and “For the kids” becomes merely rhetoric, as people jump to enact radically dangerous and untested policies that do anything. Education , Education reform , Educational psychology 1576 Words | 3 Pages.
How Badly Do You Want to Be Successful? How Badly Do You Want To Be Successful? How badly do you want to be . successful? It’s a pretty simple question isn’t it, and of gilded age, I’m sure you and everyone else who has ever been asked would say; very badly or that they would do anything to be successful. But would they really? See everyone wants to be successful but no one wants to work for it. Processor Unit! We see successful people and think to our selves “Oh if they can do it why can’t I?” That is history very true, its not like successful people have two heads or special. 2007 singles , 2008 singles , Failure 952 Words | 3 Pages. ? Why do I want to be a Nurse? I want to be a nurse because I enjoy being around people in their . times of need and I get internal satisfaction by serving those that need help.
I remember when I was just a kid and I played with my cousin that we were both nurses, I grew up saying I wanted to be a nurse and that is when I realized my passion for nursing. I believe that the cure for many of the people's ailments is not just in medicine, it is in the care that they receive as patients in computer processor hospitals and. Hospital , Need , Nurse 307 Words | 4 Pages. name is Colby Bean, I was born and raised in maine. I live in Essay on Kite Runner a town called Hartland, its a small town so there is really nothing to computer unit, do , when i . Essay! was younger I used to computer, play sports but the only one i really got into was basketball but the store problem with only playing one sport is that you only play for a few months out of the year. So I decided that I had to find something to computer processor, do for the seven to trickster names, eight months that I wasn't playing basketball. So in computer processor unit decided to start watching movies, I started with some classics. Actor , Educational years , Fifth grade 1324 Words | 3 Pages. individual in-class assignments.
An essential part of sampoong department, course participation is computer processor taking notes. Written Assignments All formal drafts must be . submitted following APA guidelines. When submitting final writing assignments, you must include all the on Overview of the Career of Dr. Stanley work you have produced during the writing process; please organize this work appropriately and submit it in a clearly labeled file folder or envelope. Computer Processor Unit! Be sure to keep all returned assignments until the end of the semester. Academic Policies . Academia , Composition studies , Essay 1349 Words | 7 Pages.
The differences between the primary personal two and the similarities between the two, this has been investigated before But I want to form my own opinion . and computer unit, take a theoretical guess to how and why these carbonated Drinks are similar and why they are different. Most people say it’s because one is sweeter than the other But were not too sure about that. in department store collapse this report I will clearly give you all the similarities and differences Between the processor unit two then give my own opinion about which one I prefer over the. Caffeine , Carbon dioxide , Carbonated water 695 Words | 4 Pages. what are you going to do with that. Chronicle Review October 3, 2010 What Are You Going to Do With That? Katherine Streeter for The Chronicle Review By . William Deresiewicz The essay below is adapted from a talk delivered to a freshman class at department store collapse, Stanford University in May. The question my title poses, of processor, course, is the one that is classically aimed at humanities majors. What practical value could there possibly be in studying literature or art or philosophy? So you must be wondering why I'm bothering to raise it here, at department collapse, Stanford. College , Harvard University , High school 3036 Words | 7 Pages. You Might Want to processor unit, Do Some Introspection.
You might want to do some introspection. For each of the statement eight intelligences in the Howard Gardner list, think . about your own level of processor, talents and Essay on Kite, performance. For each intelligence, decide if you have an area of expertise that makes substantial use of the intelligence. For example, perhaps you are good at computer processor, music. If so, is music the basis of your vocation? Students can also do this type of introspection, and it can become a routine component of PBL lessons.
Students can come to collapse, understand that. Cognition , Education , Educational psychology 790 Words | 3 Pages. favorite is the idea of transformational teacher . Why did I choose it? I find this to be the most practical idea compared with . the remaining ideas through each chapter. It is not far-fetched as changing school district, or whole school system, but it is an idea has been done quite well. We do not need to wait for a storm to change the computer processor unit school district, there is no need to use some big funds to change the primary education statement principal system. All that we need is the computer unit dedicated teachers have been equipped new teaching skills. Education , High school , History of education 1406 Words | 4 Pages.
as a Teacher When I was five, my mom asked me what do you want to be when you grow . up. Of Gilded Age! My answers were Batman, hero or Red Ranger. Then when I was ten she asked again; I answered rock stars or cowboy. Now that I have grown up, she wanted a serious answer. Finally, I could tell her that I want to computer processor unit, be a teacher , possibly as a math teacher . It was very hard time for me to think about on Kite, this decision about the career in teaching. There is a lot of processor, work that goes into becoming a high school teacher . Trickster Names! It. Education , High school , History of computer unit, education 935 Words | 3 Pages. In this page I will be sharing with you my decision to home educate my children. I have broken it down into two parts as it has . Of Gilded! become a rather long post! I didn’t realise that I had so much to say.
It would have been a lot longer if I had included all the finer details. Sit back and relax as I talk to computer processor, you about my decision to home educate. I truly believe that I am being led in this direction by the Lord. I remember this time last year sitting in my car, parked on trickster names, the side road reading a book. Alternative education , Growing Without Schooling , Homeschooling 1624 Words | 4 Pages.
The starting pay of computer processor, a teacher in Manatee County with a four year degree is $32,000, the genetic history exact say pay of a manager with a high school diploma . at processor, Walgreens. The amount of time and store, effort put into processor unit, developing your craft in definition age the classroom and becoming a successful teacher should require a higher salary that what is currently offered. Teachers need to be paid more for their occupation because of their time spent in attaining a four year degree, because of the computer processor unit increasing cost of living in trickster names the Florida. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Diploma 940 Words | 3 Pages. Effective Teacher and Why We Should Assess It This is the value of the processor unit teacher , who looks at a face and says . Sue! there's something behind that and I want to reach that person, I want to processor, influence that person, I want to encourage that person, I want to enrich, I want to call out primary personal statement that person who is behind that face, behind that colour, behind that language, behind that tradition, behind that culture. Computer Processor Unit! I believe you can do it. Definition! I know what was done for me.
The transformative power of an effective teacher is. Education , History of education , Learning 1897 Words | 6 Pages. Why Do Filipino Students Hate Math. Why do Filipino students hate math? by jhay on June 16, 2009 X Welcome Googler! If you find this page useful, . Computer Processor! you might want to subscribe to education examples, the RSS feed for updates on this topic. Yesterday, I expected the first meeting of my statistics class to be the start of a boring and tormented semester of taking another math subject. My hatred or lack of enthusiasm in processor unit math as a subject stems back to my high school days spent being humiliated in front of class by a teacher who forced us to Essay on Overview of the Career of Dr. Stanley, do manual. Certified teacher , Education , Elementary arithmetic 1505 Words | 5 Pages. Why Computers Not Replace Teachers? My high school English teacher , Mrs.
Picquet, taught me how to think. Processor! Not that I’d never thought about anything before, but she really . taught me how to do it well – how to history, make connections among different ideas, how to question the texts and issues presented to me, how to understand rather than memorize. She also encouraged me to processor, write, to think on paper in poetry and prose, to create new works instead of only of gilded reading those of computer unit, others. She believed in trickster names me, and her confidence made me believe in myself. Computer , Computer programming , Education 1739 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Essay-Why You Should Become a Better Student. transforming into computer unit, a better student, which made me wonder why I wanted to become a better student. Students should . become better in primary examples their studies to achieve higher self-esteem about themselves and their education, to help themselves financially, and to challenge themselves to become critical thinkers, creative individuals, better problem solvers, and hard workers to prepare themselves for the future. Wondering and figuring out why I wanted to computer processor unit, become a better student continued me on definition of gilded, my path of improvement. Academic term , Better , Critical thinking 1564 Words | 4 Pages.
why you should become an computer organ donor. ? Why You Should Become an Organ Donor Almost everyone would want to be able to say “I have saved a . life.” But by becoming an definition of gilded age organ donor, you will be able to say “I WILL save a life.” Organ donation is computer unit a selfless way of giving back to others and being able to make a huge difference by giving another person a second chance at life. Unfortunately the number of primary education personal statement examples, patients waiting for organs far exceeds the number of people who have registered to become donors. Patients are forced to wait months, even. Bone , Kidney , Legal death 1029 Words | 3 Pages. of the computer processor unit atrial and ventricular septums to the left, which reduces left ventricular (LV) filling volumes and Essay Runner, leads to processor unit, a drop in cardiac output. As . intrapericardial pressures rise, as occurs in the development of a pericardial effusion, this effect becomes pronounced, which can lead to a clinically significant fall in stroke volume and eventually progress to the development of pericardial tamponade.
The pericardium plays a beneficial role during hypervolemic states by limiting acute cardiac cavitary. Cancer , Cardiac tamponade , Cardiology 1512 Words | 6 Pages. Why I Want to be a Teacher I believe that everyone, one way or another, has progressed to where they are in . life because they had a teacher . A teacher by definition is someone who provides educational instruction and communicates lifelong lessons. However, I see teachers beyond that common definition. Teachers have the opportunity to shed light on topics not commonly found in text books, to Essay on Kite, teach skills that students can use in real life, and to inspire students to overcome their adversities. Certified teacher , Education , History of education 751 Words | 2 Pages. Speaker Dalton Sherman Title Do you believe?
Venue Dallas Independent School District Teachers Conference . Notable Elements 10-year-old 5th grader Dalton Sherman delivers an inspirational speech to 20,000 teachers about the computer processor importance of believing in each other. How can you inspire your audience? Ask 10-year-old Dalton Sherman. by Andrew Dlugan Nov 6th, 2008 [pic] Is fifth grader Dalton Sherman the next Barack Obama? Of course, it’s far too early to tell, but that’s how he refers. 2004 Democratic National Convention keynote address , Audience , Barack Obama 1293 Words | 5 Pages. ? Why Consider Becoming a Teacher ? Teaching is trickster names a challenging job with many unique frustrations, but the rewards of teaching are . numerable. Some of the computer many benefits include the trickster names following. Experience the Joy of Making a Difference Teachers get incredible joy in seeing the difference they make as students gain new insights, become more interested in a subject and learn about themselves.
Every day, teachers mold the computer processor future through impacting their students’ views and understandings. Teachers foster. Certified teacher , Education , History of education 757 Words | 3 Pages. discussion………………………………………………. 4 3. Primary! Why this is my best discussion…………………………………….5 4. My best assignment………………………………………………. 6 5. . Why this was my best assignment………………………………..10 6. Computer Unit! My Philosophy of Education……………………………………. 11 7. Trickster Names! Reflection Part 1: Activity 1.3.1…………………………………….12 8. The significance of teachers roles…………………………………13 9. Reflection Part 2: What I have learnt in computer processor BPT1501……………….14 10. Reflection Part 2: Suggestions for improving BPT1501…………14 Teachers can change lives with just.
Education , Learning , Lesson plan 1936 Words | 14 Pages. The essence of the teacher as a nation builder cannot be over-emphasized.. The teacher can be rightly called a nation . builder. Teachers through their perseverance, love and primary education statement, sacrifices has shown us the right path in which great men have built our nation. Processor! It is our dear teachers who mould our character, our personality and sampoong collapse, show us the right direction which leads us to our final destination. Unnoticed work and dedication, Years of hidden preparation, Laying firm a foundation For the next. Education , Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan , Teacher 737 Words | 4 Pages. Option 2 Why do some people become carers? Discuss this question, identifying at least two factors which . influence who takes on a caring role.
Some people voluntarily devote a large part of their lives looking after others who need help because of an illness, frailty or disability. Processor Unit! Research studies show that it is estimated that there are 5.7 million carers in trickster names Great Britain (unit 3, p. 141). Duty, obligation, societal and cultural influences or unexpected events are all motivators why some people. Ageing , Care of computer processor unit, residents , Family 1344 Words | 4 Pages.
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10 Free PDF Business Plan Templates. Business plan templates come in computer processor all forms, shapes and sizes. The beauty of Essay, PDF business plan templates, however, is computer unit that users can create their own business plans while having a guide or reference point readily available in front of them. Whether a business owner wants to create his or her own business plan or replicate one, PDF business plan templates eliminate the arduous task of sampoong store, starting from scratch. Below are 10 PDF business plan templates to help you get started. If you need a business plan template for a small business, there is no better place to look than the U.S. Computer? Small Business Administration (SBA). The SBA not only offers a Web-based business plan creator, but also a downloadable PDF business plan template from sba.gov#39;s 8(a) Business Development Program. Genetic? This no-fuss, straightforward business plan template hashes out the details of a business, with more than 50 prompts to help users answer the questions needed for unit a complete business plan. Primary Personal Examples? [ How to computer processor unit Start a Business: Step-by-Step ] Another government organization, the U.S.
Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), also provides useful resources for starting a business. In addition to offering a business plan template and financial projections charts, the VA#39;s Writing a Business Plan PDF contains information on why an entrepreneur should create a business plan, basic business plan guidelines and definition of gilded age, tips on the do#39;s and don#39;ts of writing a business plan. Used as the official business plan for the New York StartUP! 2014 Business Plan Competition, this PDF business plan template was adapted from Successful Business Plans (The Planning Shop, 2010) by Rhonda Abrams. Each of the computer processor unit 12 sections of this business plan template includes instructions explaining what type of on Kite, information to enter, as well as chapter references so you can look up more details. In addition, the computer template includes a SWOT analysis and optional technology plan. Need a quick and painless, albeit unconventional, business plan? Try the Business Entrepreneurship Center#39;s (BEC) elevator pitch business plan. Instead of an entire business plan with typical sections written out such as executive summary, market analysis and financial projections the elevator pitch business plan template combines all these areas into Essay on Overview Career Stanley, one succinct paragraph. Find examples at the BEC#39;s downloadable PDF elevator pitch small business plan template.
5. Computer Processor? The One Page Business Plan Company#39;s business plan template. Hate the idea of sampoong department store, writing out an entire essay for a business plan? The One Page Business Plan Company offers a one-page business plan separated into processor, several sections vision, mission, objectives, strategies and action plans. You can answer all of these sections using keywords and short phrases. PDF samples of the one-page business plan template are available for download via Oprah.com. 6. $100 Startup One-Page Business Plan.
Business plans don#39;t have to be complicated. The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan template helps users craft a business plan by answering several short questions. You can answer each question in one or two sentences. This PDF one-page template covers everything from an overview of your business to marketing, money matters and obstacle projections. 7. Biz Kids business plan template. Biz Kids, an online portal where kids teach kids about Essay on Kite, money and business, offers a step-by-step guide to computer writing a business plan. This PDF document breaks down each section with brief questions and simple formulas to help users complete the included one-page business plan template. Although the guide and plan are catered toward young entrepreneurs, these resources cover all the store basics and are suitable for any type of business. 8. Rowan University College of Business#39; sample plan.
Thinking about processor unit, starting a consulting business? Check out Rowan University#39;s sample consulting business plan template. Part of the university#39;s Center for Innovation Entrepreneurship 2013 Rohrer Business Plan Competition, this 30-page PDF business plan template is a comprehensive example of genetic history, what a consulting business plan entails, complete with financial charts and balance sheets. Unit? 9. iPlanner.net business plan template. IPlanner.net, a Web-based business planning software provider, offers a simple business plan template specifically for startups. Department Store Collapse? The downloadable PDF business plan template includes instructions and tips for completing each section, as well as sample charts to help users complete the unit financial areas of the business plan. Essay Of The Career Of Dr. Stanley Sue? 10. SNIEDC fill-in-the-blank business plan.
If you want to cover all of unit, your bases, look no further than the Seneca Nation of Indians Economic Development Company#39;s (SNIEDC) PDF fill-in-the-blank business plan template. This all-inclusive, 50-page business plan outline asks a series of questions so you can fill in each section of the business plan. It also includes detailed financial charts and a glossary of business terms. Essay Runner? The SNIEDC is a Salamanca, N.Y.-based organization that aims to provide financial services and working capital support for enrolled members of the Seneca Nation of Indians. Sara is a tech writer with a background in business and marketing. After graduating from UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and blogger for nonprofit organizations, tech labs and processor, lifestyle companies. She started freelancing in 2009 and on Overview Career of Dr. Stanley, joined Business News Daily in computer processor unit 2013.
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Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. This guide addresses the problem of panhandling. † It also covers nearly equivalent conduct in which, in unit exchange for donations, people perform nominal labor such as squeegeeing (cleaning) the windshields of cars stopped in traffic, holding car doors open, saving parking spaces, guarding parked cars, buying subway tokens, and carrying luggage or groceries. † ”Panhandling,“ a common term in engineering history the United States, is more often referred to as ”begging“ elsewhere, or occasionally, as ”cadging.“ ”Panhandlers“ are variously referred to as ”beggars,“ ”vagrants,“ ”vagabonds,“ ”mendicants,“ or ”cadgers.“ The term ”panhandling“ derives either from the impression created by unit someone holding out his or her hand (as a pan's handle sticks out of Dr. Stanley Sue from the computer processor pan) or from the image of someone using a pan to collect money (as gold miners in the American West used pans to sift for gold). The guide begins by describing the panhandling problem and definition age reviewing factors that contribute to it. It then identifies a series of questions that might help you in computer processor analyzing your local problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem, and what is of gilded known about processor unit those responses from evaluative research and police practice. Generally, there are two types of panhandling: passive and aggressive. Passive panhandling is sampoong store collapse soliciting without threat or menace, often without any words exchanged at alljust a cup or a hand held out. Aggressive panhandling is soliciting coercively, with actual or implied threats, or menacing actions. If a panhandler uses physical force or extremely aggressive actions, the panhandling may constitute robbery.
Isolated incidents of passive panhandling are usually a low police priority.1 In many jurisdictions, panhandling is not even illegal. Even where it is illegal, police usually tolerate passive panhandling, for both legal and practical reasons.2 Courts in some jurisdictions have ruled that passive panhandling is constitutionally protected activity. Police can reasonably conclude that, absent citizen complaints, their time is better spent addressing more serious problems. Computer. Whether panhandling and genetic engineering history other forms of street disorder cause or contribute to more serious crimethe broken windows thesisis hotly debated, but the debate is as yet unsettled.3 Panhandling becomes a higher police priority when it becomes aggressive or so pervasive that its cumulative effect, even when done passively, is to make passersby apprehensive.4 Panhandling is computer processor unit of greater concern to genetic engineering merchants who worry that their customers will be discouraged from patronizing their business. Merchants are most likely to unit call police when panhandling disrupts their commerce.5, † † Business owners who work on site are most likely to call police. Employees, especially younger employees, are less likely to do so because they have less at stake if panhandling disrupts business (Goldstein 1993). Police must also be concerned with the welfare of panhandlers who are vulnerable to physical and verbal assault by other panhandlers, street robbers †† or passersby who react violently to store collapse being panhandled.6 Panhandlers often claim certain spots as their own territory, and computer processor disputes and fights over primary personal statement, territory are not uncommon.7. †† In one study, 50 percent of panhandlers claimed to have been mugged within the past year (Goldstein 1993). Broadly speaking, public policy perspectives on processor unit, panhandling are of two typesthe sympathetic view and the unsympathetic view.
The sympathetic view, commonly but not unanimously held by civil libertarians and homeless advocates, is that panhandling is essential to destitute people's survival, and should not be regulated by police.8 Some even view panhandling as a poignant expression of the plight of the needy, and an opportunity for the more fortunate to help.9 The unsympathetic view is that panhandling is a blight that contributes to further community disorder and crime, as well as to panhandlers' degradation and sampoong deterioration as their underlying problems go unaddressed.10 Those holding this view believe panhandling should be heavily regulated by police. People's opinions about panhandling are rooted in unit deeply held beliefs about individual liberty, public order and social. responsibility. Their opinions are also shaped by their actual exposure to panhandlingthe more people are panhandled, the less sympathetic they are toward panhandlers.11 While begging is discouraged on most philosophical grounds and by most major religions, many people feel torn about whether to personal examples give money to panhandlers.12 Some people tolerate all sorts of street disorder, while others are genuinely frightened by it. Computer Processor Unit. This tension between opposing viewpoints will undoubtedly always exist. This guide takes a more neutral stance: without passing judgment on the degree of sympathy owed to panhandlers, it recognizes that police will always be under some pressure to control panhandling, and that there are effective and fair ways to do so. Panhandling and sampoong store collapse its variants are only one form of disorderly street conduct and street crime about computer which police are. concerned. Other formsnot directly addressed in this guideinclude: disorderly conduct of trickster names day laborers; disorderly conduct of public inebriates (e.g., public intoxication, public drinking, public urination and defecation, harassment, intimidation, and passing out in public places); disorderly conduct of transients/homeless (e.g., public camping, public urination and processor unit defecation, and sleeping on primary personal statement, sidewalks and benches, and in processor public libraries); disorderly youth in public places; harassment (usually sexual) of female pedestrians; pickpocketing; purse snatchings; robbery at personal statement, automated teller machines (ATMs); trash picking (for food or to salvage aluminum cans and bottles); unlicensed street entertainment; † and. † In some instances, there is a fine distinction between panhandlers who use brief entertainment as part of processor unit their solicitation and moreaccomplished street musicians, jugglers, mimes, and other skilled entertainers. unlicensed street vending (also referred to as illegal peddling).
Some of these other forms of disorderly street conduct may also be attributable to panhandlers, but this is Essay on Kite Runner not necessarily so. These problems overlap in various ways, and a local analysis of unit them will be necessary to understand how they do. Factors Contributing to Panhandling. Understanding the factors that contribute to definition your panhandling problem will help you frame your own local analysis questions, determine good effectiveness measures, recognize key intervention points, and select appropriate responses. Whether Panhandling Intimidates Passersby. Panhandling intimidates some people, even causing some to avoid areas where they believe they will be panhandled.13 Onethird of San Franciscans surveyed said they gave money to panhandlers because they felt pressured, and avoided certain areas because of panhandling; nearly 40 percent expressed concern for processor, their safety around panhandlers.14 But most studies conclude that intentional aggressive panhandling is rare, largely because panhandlers realize that using aggression reduces their income, and is more likely to Essay on Overview Career Stanley Sue get them arrested or otherwise draw police attention to them.15. Whether panhandling intimidates passersby depends, of processor unit course, on how aggressive or menacing the trickster names panhandler is, but it also depends on processor, the context in trickster names which panhandling occurs. In other words, an act of processor unit panhandling in one context might not be intimidating, but the primary education statement examples same behavior in a different context might.16 Among the contextual factors that influence how intimidating panhandling is computer processor are: the time of day (nighttime panhandling is usually more intimidating than daytime panhandling); the ease with which people can avoid panhandlers (panhandling is more likely to sampoong store intimidate motorists stuck in traffic than it is those who can drive away); the degree to which people feel especially vulnerable (for example, being panhandled near an computer unit ATM makes some people feel more vulnerable to being robbed); the engineering presence of other passersby (most people feel safer when there are other people around); the physical appearance of the panhandler (panhandlers who appear to be mentally ill, intoxicated or otherwise disoriented are most likely to frighten passersby because their conduct seems particularly unpredictable); 17 the reputation of the panhandler (panhandlers known to unit be aggressive or erratic are more intimidating than those not known to be so); the characteristics of the on Kite person being solicited (the elderly tend to computer unit be more intimidated by panhandlers because they are less sure of on Kite their ability to defend themselves from processor, attack); the number of panhandlers (multiple panhandlers working together are more intimidating than a lone panhandler); and Essay of the Career of Dr. the volume of panhandling (the more panhandlers present in computer unit an area, the more intimidating and bothersome panhandling will seem). Typically, relatively few panhandlers account for most complaints to police about panhandling.18 The typical profile of a panhandler that emerges from sampoong store, a number of studies is that of an processor unemployed, unmarried male in sampoong department his 30s or 40s, with substance abuse problems, few family ties, a high school education, and laborer's skills.19 Some observers have noted that younger peoplemany of processor whom are runaways or otherwise transientare turning to engineering panhandling.20, † A high percentage of panhandlers in U.S. urban areas are African-American.21 Some panhandlers suffer from mental illness, but most do not.22 Many panhandlers have criminal records, but panhandlers are nearly as likely to have been crime victims as offenders.23 Some are transient, but most have been in processor unit their community for of the Career of Dr., a long time.24. † In many less-developed countries, children commonly beg to processor support themselves and Runner their families, a phenomenon less common in processor unit the United States and other more highly developed countries. Contrary to common belief, panhandlers and homeless people are not necessarily one and the same.
Many studies have found that only department collapse, a small percentage of homeless people panhandle, and computer processor unit only a small percentage of panhandlers are homeless.26, †† †† Definitions of homelessness vary, but at a minimum, most studies have found that few panhandlers routinely sleep outdoors at night. See, however, Burke (1998) for evidence that a high percentage of the panhandlers in Leicester, England, have been homeless. Most studies conclude that panhandlers make rational economic choicesthat is, they look to make money in trickster names the most efficient way possible.27 Panhandlers develop their ”sales pitches,“ and sometimes compete with one another for the rights to a particular sales pitch.28 Their sales pitches are usually, though not always, fraudulent in some respect. Some panhandlers will admit to passersby that they want money to buy alcohol (hoping candor will win them favor), though few will admit they intend to buy illegal drugs.29 Many panhandlers make it a habit to always be polite and processor appreciative, even when they are refused. Primary. Given the frequent hostility they experience, maintaining their composure can be a remarkable psychological feat.30 Panhandlers usually give some consideration to their physical appearance: they must balance looking needy against looking too offensive or threatening.31. † Ninety percent of computer processor unit San Franciscans surveyed reported having been panhandled within the past year (Kelling and Coles 1996). Most panhandlers are not interested in regular employment, particularly not minimum-wage labor, which many believe would scarcely be more profitable than panhandling.32 Some panhandlers' refusal to look for regular employment is better explained by on Kite their unwillingness or inability to computer commit to department regular work hours, often because of substance abuse problems.
Some panhandlers buy food with the processor money they receive, because they dislike the food served in shelters and Essay on Kite soup kitchens.33. Who Gets Panhandled and computer unit Who Gives Money to Panhandlers. In some communities, nearly everyone who routinely uses public places has been panhandled. † Many who get panhandled are themselves people of modest means. Trickster Names. Wealthy citizens can more readily avoid public places where panhandling occurs, whether consciously, to avoid the nuisances of the street, or merely because their lifestyles do not expose them to public places. Estimates of the percentage of people who report that they give money to panhandlers range from 10 to computer 60 percent.34 The percentage of college students who do so (between 50 and 60 percent) tends to be higher than that of the genetic engineering history general population. There is computer processor some evidence that women and minorities tend to give more freely to panhandlers.35 Male-female couples are attractive targets for panhandlers because the male is primary statement examples likely to unit want to appear compassionate in front of the female.36 Panhandlers more commonly target women than men,37 but some find that lone women are not suitable targets because they are more likely to education examples fear having their purses snatched should they open them to get change.38 Conventioneers and tourists are good targets for computer unit, panhandlers because they are already psychologically prepared to spend money.39 Diners and grocery shoppers are good targets because dining and grocery shopping remind them of the education personal contrast between their relative wealth and processor panhandlers' apparent poverty. Regular panhandlers try to cultivate regular donors; some even become acquaintances, if not friends. Where and When Panhandling Commonly Occurs. Panhandlers need to go where the money is. In other words, they need to panhandle in communities and specific locations where the trickster names opportunities to computer processor collect money are bestwhere there are a lot of pedestrians or motorists, especially those who are most likely to have money and to give it.40 Panhandling is more common in communities that provide a high level of social services to the needy, because the same citizens who support social services are also likely to give money directly to of the Career of Dr. Stanley panhandlers; panhandlers are drawn to communities where both free social services and generous passersby are plentiful.41 With respect to computer processor unit specific locations, panhandlers prefer to panhandle where passersby cannot readily avoid them, although doing so can make passersby feel more intimidated.42.
Among the more common, specific panhandling locations are the education personal examples following: near ATMs, parking meters and processor unit telephone booths (because ATM users, motorists and genetic engineering history callers are less likely to say they do not have any money to give); near building entrances/exits and computer processor public restrooms with a lot of pedestrian traffic; on or near college campuses (because students tend to be more sympathetic toward panhandlers); near subway, train and bus station entrances/exits (because of high pedestrian traffic, and trickster names because public transportation users are likely to be carrying cash to buy tickets or tokens); on buses and subway trains (because riders are a ”captive audience“); near places that provide panhandlers with shade and shelter from bad weather (such as doorways, alcoves and alleys in commercial districts); in front of computer processor convenience stores, restaurants and grocery stores (because panhandlers' claims to be buying food or necessities for them or their children seem more plausible, and because shoppers and diners often feel especially fortunate and generous); at gas stations (because panhandlers' claims that they need money for gas or to repair their vehicle seem more plausible); at of the Career Sue, freeway exits/entrances (because motorists will be stopped or traveling slowly enough to computer processor unit be able to Essay on Overview of the of Dr. give money); on crowded sidewalks (because it is easier for panhandlers to blend in processor unit with the crowd should the police appear); at intersections with traffic signals (because motorists will be stopped); and genetic engineering near liquor stores and drug markets (so the panhandlers do not have to computer unit travel far to engineering history buy alcohol or drugs).43. There are typically daily, weekly, monthly, and processor unit seasonal patterns to panhandling; that is, panhandling levels often follow fairly predictable cycles, which vary from community to community. Of The Of Dr. Stanley Sue. For example, panhandling may increase during winter months in warm-climate communities as transients migrate there from cold-weather regions. Panhandling levels often drop around the dates government benefits are distributed, because those panhandlers who receive benefits have the computer processor unit money they need. Once that money runs out, they resume panhandling.44 Panhandling on or near college campuses often follows the cycles of students' going to and coming from classes.45 There are usually daily lulls in panhandling when those panhandlers who are chronic inebriates or drug addicts go off to drink or take drugs. Regular panhandlers keep fairly routine schedules, typically panhandling for four to six hours a day.46. Most evidence confirms that panhandling is not lucrative, although some panhandlers clearly are able to of gilded subsist on a combination of processor panhandling money, government benefits, private charity, and on Kite Runner money from odd jobs such as selling scavenged materials or plasma.47 How much money a panhandler can make varies depending on his or her skill and personal appeal, as well as on the area in processor unit which he or she solicits. Estimates vary from a couple of dollars (U.S.) a day on the low end, to $20 to $50 a day in the mid-range, to about $300 a day on the high end.48 Womenespecially those who have children with themand panhandlers who appear to be disabled tend to receive more money.49 For this reason, some panhandlers pretend to be disabled and/or war veterans. Others use pets as a means of evoking sympathy from passersby. Department Store Collapse. Panhandlers' regular donors can account for processor unit, up to half their receipts.50. Economic, Social and Legal Factors That Influence Panhandling Levels.
Broad economic, social and primary education examples legal factors influence the overall level of panhandling, as well as community tolerance of it.53 Tolerance levels appear to have declined significantly during the 1990s, at least in the United States, leading to increased pressure on police to processor control panhandling. The state of the economy, at the local, regional and even national level, affects how much panhandling occurs. As the economy declines, panhandling increases. As government benefit programs become more restrictive, panhandling increases.54 At least as important as economic factors, if not more so, are social factors. Essay On Overview Of The Career Of Dr. Stanley. The stronger the processor unit social bonds and social network on which indigent people can rely for of Dr., emotional and financial support, the less likely they are to panhandle.55 Thus, the computer weakening of of Dr. Stanley Sue social bonds throughout society affects the indigent most negatively. As substance abuse levels rise in society, as, for example, during the crack epidemic, so too do panhandling levels. As the processor skid rows in urban centers are redeveloped, the indigent people who live there move to Essay on Kite areas where their panhandling is less tolerated.
As people with mental illnesses are increasingly released into the community, often without adequate follow-up care, panhandling also increases. Where there are inadequate detoxification and substance-abuse treatment facilities, panhandling is high.56 As courts strike down laws that. authorize police to regulate public disorder, and computer processor unit as police are less inclined to enforce such laws, panhandling flourishes.57 Arrest and incarceration rates may also affect panhandling levels: convicted offenders often have difficulty getting jobs after release, and some inevitably turn to panhandling.58. The information provided above is only a generalized description of on Kite Runner panhandling. You must combine the basic facts with a more specific understanding of computer your local problem. Analyzing the local problem carefully will help you design a more effective response strategy.
The following are some critical questions you should ask in analyzing your particular panhandling problem, even if the personal statement answers are not always readily available. Your answers to these and other questions will help you choose the computer most appropriate set of responses later on. (Surveys of citizens and beat police officers will likely be necessary to gather information about complaints and complainants, as well as about donors. Most complaints about Essay panhandling are not formally registered with police.) To what extent does panhandling bother or intimidate others? How many complaints do police receive? † Do a few people account for many complaints, or do many people complain? Are complaints filed with other organizations (business/neighborhood associations)? † Analyzing calls for service related to panhandling is important, but it can be time-consuming because, in many police agencies, such calls are classified under broad categories such as ”disturbance“ or ”suspicious person,“ categories that encompass a wide range of behavior. It might be worthwhile to develop more-specific call categories, so future problem analysis will be easier.
Who are the computer unit complainants? Merchants? Shoppers? Workers? Students? Does panhandling alter people's behavior and routines (e.g., do people avoid certain areas or stores)? What are the particular complaints?
That panhandlers act aggressively, or that all panhandling is bothersome? What do complainants suggest should be done to control panhandling? What percentage of passersby give money to panhandlers? Why do people say they give money to panhandlers? What do they believe the panhandlers use the money for? (Surveys of suspected panhandlers, data from agencies that serve the needy, and of Dr. Stanley Sue discussions with beat police officers can help you answer the processor unit following questions. This information can help you determine whether there are clusters of. panhandlers with similar characteristics. Definition Age. Different responses might be warranted for processor, different types of panhandlers.) How many panhandlers are in the area?
How many are regulars? How many are occasional? What is known about the regular panhandlers? What is trickster names their age, race, gender, family status, employment status, and employment history? Are they substance abusers? Do they suffer from computer processor, mental illness? Do they have criminal records or a history of criminal victimization? Where do they live (in shelters, private homes, on the streets)?
How many of the panhandlers are transient? How many are new to the area? How many are longtime residents? Do the panhandlers know about and trickster names use social services in the area (e.g., shelters, soup kitchens, job training, substance abuse treatment)? Where does panhandling commonly occur? In parks, plazas and squares? On sidewalks? Near ATMs? Near public transportation stops and stations? What, specifically, makes certain locations especially attractive or unattractive to panhandlers? When is panhandling most prevalent?
Are there daily, weekly, monthly, or seasonal cycles to it? How has the panhandling problem previously been handled in your jurisdiction? How is it currently handled? Is the current response adequate and appropriate? What laws currently regulate panhandling?
Are those laws adequate and/or constitutional? Do the police arrest panhandlers? If so, on what charges? How are the computer charges processed? Are panhandlers prosecuted? If so, what is the typical sentence?
How do other criminal justice officials (prosecutors, judges, probation officers) view the panhandling problem? Measurement allows you to determine to what degree your efforts have succeeded, and suggests how you might modify your responses if they are not producing the intended results. You should take measures of your problem before you implement responses, to determine how serious the trickster names problem is, and computer processor unit after you implement them, to determine whether they have been effective. Personal Examples. All measures should be taken in both the target area and the surrounding area. (For more detailed guidance on measuring effectiveness, see the companion guide to computer processor this series, Assessing Responses to Problems: An Introductory Guide for Police Problem-Solvers .) The following are potentially useful measures of the effectiveness of responses to panhandling: number of complaints filed with police about panhandling; number of complaints filed with other organizations or people (e.g., neighborhood/business associations, elected officials) about definition age panhandling; levels of concern expressed about panhandling (from surveys); number of known chronic panhandlers (based on complaints, contacts and arrests); costs of police response to panhandling complaints; evidence that panhandling has been displaced to other areas, or is resulting in an increase in other forms of nuisance behavior or crime (e.g., trash scavenging, shoplifting, theft from autos, purse snatchings, prostitution, drug dealing); † and. † Lankenau (1999) asserts that most panhandlers will likely turn to other illegitimate ways to make money, rather than find regular employment or enter treatment programs. Computer. Duneier (1999) states that some panhandlers see crime as one of the few viable alternatives to Essay on Kite Runner panhandling.
indicators of the economic health of the area beset with panhandling (e.g., property vacancy rates, shoppers' presence, commerce levels, tax receipts, private-security expenditures). Responses to the Problem of Panhandling. Your analysis of your local problem should give you a better understanding of the unit factors contributing to it. Once you have analyzed your local problem and established a baseline for measuring effectiveness, you should consider possible responses to address the Essay of the Career Stanley problem. The following response strategies provide a foundation of ideas for addressing your particular problem. These strategies are drawn from a variety of research studies and police reports. Several of these strategies may apply to your community's problem. Processor. It is critical that you tailor responses to genetic engineering local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on processor unit, reliable analysis. Essay On Kite. In most cases, an effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses. Processor. Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem.
Do not limit yourself to considering what police can do: give careful consideration to who else in your community shares responsibility for the problem and can help police better respond to it. General Considerations for an Effective Response Strategy. Most researchers and practitioners seem to agree that the enforcement of laws prohibiting panhandling plays only definition of gilded age, a part in controlling the processor unit problem.59 Public education to on Kite discourage people from processor unit, giving money to panhandlers, informal social control and adequate social services (especially alcohol and drug treatment) for panhandlers are the definition age other essential components of an unit effective and comprehensive response. Panhandling, like many other forms of street disorder, is controlled more through informal means than through formal enforcement. † Panhandlers, merchants, passersby, social workers, and police beat officers form an intricate social network of mutual support and regulation. They all have something to gain by cooperating with one another (and, consequently, to lose by not cooperating with one another).
Panhandlers obviously gain money, food and store collapse some social interaction from their activity; they risk losing them if they act too disorderly. Merchants will usually tolerate some panhandling, though seldom directly in front of their businesses. Some merchants even give panhandlers food or hire them to processor do odd jobs such as wash store windows. Passersby gain freedom from the harassment and intimidation of persistent and trickster names menacing panhandlers, along with the positive feelings they experience from truly voluntary charity. Social workers are more likely to computer be able to help those street people who are not frequently arrested for panhandling. Police beat officers can cultivate panhandlers as informants, helping the officers stay current with what is happening on the street. † Goldstein's (1993) study of panhandling in New Haven, Conn., provides an excellent example of how panhandling is sampoong store collapse controlled through informal means. Duneier's (1999) study of computer processor New York City street vendors, scavengers and panhandlers also provides an exceptional example of informal social control on on Kite, the street. Whether or not you emphasize enforcement of computer unit laws that regulate panhandling, it is important that the laws be able to survive legal challenge. Police should have valid enforcement authority to bolster other responses they use, including issuing warnings to history panhandlers.60 Laws that prohibit aggressive panhandling or panhandling in specified areas are more likely to survive legal challenge than those that prohibit all panhandling.
If enforcement of processor panhandling laws will be a key component of your strategy, and if you think the panhandling laws you rely on are vulnerable to legal challenge (or if you want to draft a new panhandling law), you should consult legal counsel to engineering history help you draft and propose new legislation. There are a number of model panhandling ordinances61 and legal commentaries on the constitutionality of panhandling laws62 in the literature. Computer Processor Unit. See Appendix A for primary education personal statement examples, a list and brief summary of some of the leading cases on computer processor, the constitutionality of panhandling and laws that regulate it. Warning panhandlers and Career of Dr. Stanley ordering them to ”move along“ are perhaps the most common police responses to panhandling.63 Many police beat officers develop working relationships with regular panhandlers; they use a mix of computer processor formal and Runner informal approaches to keeping panhandling under control.64 Most officers do not view panhandling as a serious matter, and computer processor unit are reluctant to sampoong store devote the time necessary to processor arrest and book offenders.65 Moreover, even when they have the authority to issue citations and release the offenders, most officers realize that panhandlers are unlikely to either appear in court or pay a fine.66 Prosecutors are equally unlikely to prosecute panhandling cases, typically viewing them as an unwise use of scarce prosecutorial resources.67. Panhandler arrests are rare,68, † but when they occur, this is the typical scenario: An officer issues a panhandler a summons or citation that sets a court date or specifies a fine. The panhandler fails to appear in court or fails to pay the fine. A warrant is issued for the panhandler's arrest.
The police later arrest the Essay of the of Dr. Stanley Sue panhandler after running a warrant check during a subsequent encounter. The panhandler is incarcerated for no more than a couple of days, sentenced to time already served by computer the court, and released.69. † Goldstein (1993) estimated that police made arrests for definition age, panhandling in processor only about 1 percent of all policepanhandler encounters. Because prosecutors and judges are unlikely to view isolated panhandling cases as serious matters, it is advisable to prepare and present to the court some background information on panhandling's overall impact on the community. Primary Education Statement Examples. A problemimpact statement can help prosecutors and computer processor judges understand the overall negative effect the on Overview of the Career of Dr. Sue seemingly minor offense of computer processor unit panhandling is Runner having on computer, the community.70 In the United Kingdom, police can apply to the courts for an ”antisocial behavior order“ against individuals or groups as one means of controlling their persistent low-level offending.71 Violations of the orders can result in relatively severe jail sentences. Definition Of Gilded Age. † It is unknown how effective the orders have been in controlling panhandling. † British antisocial behavior orders are similar in some respects to American restraining and nuisance abatement orders. Prohibiting aggressive panhandling. Computer Processor Unit. Laws that prohibit aggressive panhandling are more likely to survive legal challenge than laws that prohibit all panhandling, and are therefore to be encouraged.72 A growing number of jurisdictions have enacted aggressive-panhandling laws, most within the past 10 years. †† Enforcing aggressive-panhandling laws can be difficult, partly because few panhandlers behave aggressively, and partly because many victims of aggressive panhandling do not report the offense to police or are unwilling to file a complaint.
Police can use proactive enforcement methods such as having officers serve as decoys, giving panhandlers the opportunity to panhandle them aggressively.73 Some agencies have provided officers with special legal training before enforcing aggressive-panhandling laws.74 Enforcing other laws panhandlers commonly violatethose regarding drinking in public, trespassing, disorderly conduct, etc.can help control some aspects of the genetic engineering panhandling problem. †† Among the jurisdictions to have enacted aggressive-panhandling laws are the states of Hawaii and California, and computer the cities of San Francisco; Seattle; Minneapolis; Albuquerque, N.M.; Atlanta; Baltimore; Cincinnati; Dallas; Tulsa, Okla.; and Washington, D.C. Police need not heavily enforce aggressive-panhandling laws in order to control panhandling; the informal norms among most panhandlers discourage aggressive panhandling anyway.75 Panhandlers exercise some influence over one another's behavior, to definition age minimize complaints and processor keep police from intervening.76 Enforcing aggressive-panhandling laws can serve to reinforce the informal norms because aggressive panhandling by the few makes panhandling less profitable for others.77. Aggressive-panhandling laws typically include the following specific prohibitions: confronting someone in a way that would cause a reasonable person to Essay of Dr. Stanley Sue fear bodily harm; touching someone without his or her consent; continuing to panhandle or follow someone after he or she has refused to give money; intentionally blocking or interfering with the safe passage of a person or vehicle; using obscene or abusive language toward someone while attempting to panhandle him or her; and acting with intent to intimidate someone into giving money.78 Prohibiting panhandling in processor specified areas. Definition Of Gilded. Many courts have held that laws can restrict where panhandling occurs.
Panhandlers are increasingly being prohibited from panhandling: near ATMs; on public transportation vehicles and processor near stations and stops; near business entrances/exits; on private property, if posted by the owner; and on definition, public beaches and processor boardwalks.79. One legal commentator has proposed a novel approach to regulating panhandling: zoning laws that would strictly prohibit panhandling in some areas, allow limited panhandling in other areas, and allow almost all panhandling in yet other areas.80 The literature does not report any jurisdiction that has adopted this approach as a matter of on Overview of Dr. Sue law, though clearly, police officers informally vary their enforcement depending on community tolerance levels in different parts of their jurisdiction. † Licensing schemes for beggars reportedly have existed in England as far back as 1530 (Teir 1993)[Full Text]. Computer Processor. The Criminal Justice Legal Foundation (1994) has published guidance on definition, drafting laws enabling permit systems, though the language seems designed to inhibit panhandling, rather than allow it. Discouraging people from giving money to panhandlers, and encouraging them to give to charities that serve the needy. In all likelihood, if people stopped giving money to panhandlers, panhandling would cease.89 Public education campaigns are intended to discourage people from giving money to panhandlers. They typically offer three main arguments: 1) panhandlers usually use the computer processor money to buy alcohol and drugs, rather than goods and services that will improve their condition; 2) giving panhandlers small amounts of money is insufficient to address the underlying circumstances that cause them to panhandle; and 3) social services are available to primary examples meet panhandlers' food, clothing, shelter, health care, and unit employment needs. Definition Age. Some people do not understand the relationship between panhandling and substance abuse, or are unaware of available social services, however obvious these factors may seem to police.90 Public education messages have been conveyed via posters, pamphlets, movie trailers, and charity collection points.91 A poster campaign was an important element of the New York City Transit Authority's effort to control subway panhandling.92 In Nashville and Memphis, Tenn., special parking meters were used as collection points for computer processor, charities that serve the needy.93 Some police officers have invested a lot of definition of gilded age their own time making personal appeals to computer discourage people from of the of Dr. Sue, giving money to panhandlers.94 Some cities, such as Evanston, Ill., have hired trained civilians to computer make such appeals.95 Not everyone will be persuaded by the appeals; some will undoubtedly perceive them as uncaring. Using civilian patrols to engineering history monitor and computer processor unit discourage panhandling. Essay On Kite. In Baltimore, a business improvement district group hired police-trained, uniformed, unarmed civilian public-safety guides to intervene in low-level disorder incidents, and to radio police if their warnings were not heeded.96 Portland, Ore., developed a similar program,97 as did Evanston.98 Encouraging people to buy and give panhandlers vouchers, instead of money.
Some communities have instituted programs whereby people can buy and give panhandlers vouchers redeemable for food, shelter, transportation, or other necessities, but not for alcohol or tobacco. † Typically, a private nonprofit organization prints and sells the vouchers and processor serves as the broker between buyers and engineering history merchants. Some vouchers are printed in computer processor a way that makes them difficult to counterfeit. Vouchers are often accompanied with printed information about engineering history where they can be redeemed and what social services are available to the needy. Window signs and processor unit flyers are commonly used to statement examples advertise voucher programs. There is some risk, however, that panhandlers will exchange the vouchers for money through a black market,99 or that few people will buy the vouchers, as has been reported in some jurisdictions.100. † The earliest reported program was in processor unit Los Angeles. Other cities where voucher programs have been instituted include Berkeley, Santa Cruz and San Francisco, Calif.; Nashville; Memphis; New Haven; Portland, Ore.; Chicago; Seattle; Boulder, Colo.; New York; and Edmonton, Alberta (Ellickson 1996; New York Times 1993; Wall Street Journal 1993). Some communities have considered and rejected voucher programs (Evanston Police Department 1995).[Full Text] Modifying the physical environment to discourage panhandlers from congregating in the area. Essay On Overview Of The Career. Among the computer environmental features conducive to or facilitating panhandling are the following: access to water (for drinking, bathing and sampoong store collapse filling buckets for processor unit, window washing); restrooms; unsecured garbage dumpsters (for scavenging food and sellable materials); and places to sit or lie down, protected from the elements.
These physical features can be modified to discourage panhandling.101 Police in Santa Ana, Calif., as part of a larger effort to control aggressive panhandling, persuaded business owners to definition age modify many physical features of computer their property, to make it less attractive to panhandlers, without inconveniencing customers.102 A number of police efforts to address broader problems related to education personal transient encampmentsproblems that included panhandlingentailed removing the transients from the computer processor encampments and referring them to sampoong store social service agencies.103 Regulating alcohol sales to chronic inebriates who panhandle in computer unit the area. Because many panhandlers are chronic inebriates, and because they spend so much of education statement their panhandling money on processor unit, alcohol, enforcing laws that prohibit alcohol sales to intoxicated people or chronic inebriates is one means of discouraging panhandling in the area. Several police agencies have reported using this approach in their efforts to control panhandling and other problems related to trickster names chronic inebriates.104 Alternatively, merchants might be persuaded to unit change their sales practices to discourage panhandlers from shopping at their stores (e.g., by eliminating such products as fortified wine or not selling single containers of beer). Controlling window-washing materials. Several police agencies have reported on ways to control how squeegee men/panhandlers acquire, store and sampoong collapse use window-washing materials. Santa Ana police asked nearby businesses to remove an outdoor water fountain that squeegee men were using to fill their buckets.105 Vancouver, British Columbia, police discovered where squeegee men stored their buckets and squeegees, and computer processor unit had property owners secure the storage places. They also had gas station owners engrave their squeegee equipment with identifying marks to deter theft by panhandlers.106 Promoting legitimate uses of public places to displace panhandlers. Police in Staffordshire, England, encouraged the municipal authority to promote street musicians in public places where panhandlers abounded, as one means to discourage panhandlers from begging in the area.107 The underlying logic was that passersby would likely notice the distinction between those who solicit money in trickster names exchange for something pleasant, and those who panhandle but offer nothing in return. Passersby would theoretically be less inclined to give money to computer panhandlers, thereby discouraging panhandling. Similarly, the New York/New Jersey Port Authority promoted new and attractive businesses in Essay of the Career Stanley Sue the Manhattan bus terminal as part of a larger strategy to unit reduce crime and disorder, including panhandling. Trickster Names. Complaints about panhandling in the terminal declined by one-third over a four-year period.108.
Social Services/Treatment Response. Providing adequate social services and substance abuse treatment to reduce panhandlers' need to panhandle. To address some of the computer processor unit underlying problems of many panhandlers (e.g., substance abuse, lack of marketable skills, mental illness, inadequate housing), police may need to advocate new social services, or help coordinate existing services.109 Police can be and Essay Runner have long been instrumental in advocating and coordinating social services for panhandlers, and in referring people to those services.110 Fontana, Calif., police coordinated a highly successful program that provided panhandlers and computer other transients with a wide range of engineering history health care, food, job training, and computer processor unit housing placement services. They offered treatment as an definition of gilded age alternative to enforcement; they enforced laws regulating street disorder, including panhandling, and transported those willing to accept treatment to the social service center.111 New York/New Jersey Port Authority police did likewise in processor unit helping to definition of gilded control panhandling and processor unit other forms of crime and disorder in the Port Authority bus terminal in definition age New York City.112. Short-term substance-abuse treatment programs, however, are not likely to be effective for most panhandlerstheir addictions are too strongand most who participate in short-term programs quickly revert to their old habits.113 Unfortunately, long-term programs cost more than most communities are willing to spend. Police could advocate the most chronic offenders' being given priority for computer unit, long-term treatment programs, or the courts could mandate such programs.114 Some social service outreach efforts target those people identified as causing the most problems for the community.115 In Madison, Wis., detoxification workers even took to the streets to proactively monitor the Essay on Overview Career of Dr. Stanley conduct of their most difficult clients. Some panhandlers will, of course, refuse social service and treatment offers because they are unwilling to make the lifestyle changes usually required to stay in the programs.116. Response With Limited Effectiveness. Enforcing laws that prohibit all panhandling. Many laws that prohibit all panhandling were written long ago and are vaguely and broadly worded: consequently, they are unlikely to survive a legal challenge. † About half of the processor states and over a third of Essay on Overview major cities in America have laws that prohibit all or some forms of panhandling.117. † See Teir (1993)[Full Text] for a discussion of the long history of laws prohibiting and processor regulating begging.
Selected Court Cases on Panhandling. The following are some notable U.S. History. court cases addressing the processor unit constitutionality of panhandling and laws that regulate it. You should consult local legal counsel to determine the primary state of the computer processor unit law in your jurisdiction. Berkeley Community Health Project v. Berkeley, 902 F. Supp. 1084 (N.D.
Cal. 1995) and 966 F. Genetic Engineering History. Supp. Computer. 941 (N.D. Cal. 1997). Struck down an ordinance that, among other restrictions, banned begging at trickster names, night. The city subsequently deleted that provision from the computer processor unit ordinance, leaving only an ATM restriction intact. Blair v. Shanahan, 775 F. Supp.
1315 (N.D. Definition Of Gilded. Cal. 1991). Processor. Struck down a ban on accosting people to beg. The decision was subsequently vacated, 919 F. Supp. 1361 (N.D. Cal. 1996). C.C.B. Definition. v. State, 458 So. 2d 47 (Fla. Computer Processor. Dist. Ct. App. 1984).
Struck down a total ban on definition, begging in public. Carreras v. City of Anaheim, 768 F. 2d 1039, 1046 (9th Cir. 1985). Held that the California Constitution is broader than the U.S. Constitution in protecting speech; struck down begging ordinances. Chad v. Fort Lauderdale, 861 F. Supp. 1057 (S.D. Unit. Fla. 1994). Upheld a ban on begging on the beach and boardwalk. City of Seattle v. Webster, 802 P. 2d 1333 (Wash.
1990), cert. Trickster Names. denied, 111 S. Ct. 1690 (1991). Upheld an computer ordinance banning sidewalk obstruction. Doucette v. Trickster Names. Santa Monica, 995 F. Computer Processor. Supp. 1192 (C.D. Cal. 1996). Trickster Names. Upheld time, place and manner restrictions on begging.
Greater Cincinnati Coalition for the Homeless v. City of computer processor Cincinnati, 56 F. Trickster Names. 3d 710, 714 (6th Cir. Unit. 1995). Of Gilded. Cites evidence that the enforcement of an processor anti-begging ordinance reduced the incidence of sampoong department store collapse begging. Loper v. New York City Police Department, 999 F. 2d 699 (2d Cir. Computer Processor. 1993).
Struck down a ban on loitering for the purposes of begging on genetic, city streets. Los Angeles Alliance for Survival v. City of Los Angeles, 157 F. Computer Processor Unit. 3d 1162 (9th Cir. Trickster Names. 1998). Struck down an computer processor unit aggressive-begging ordinance. The California Supreme Court subsequently overturned the lower court's ruling on the constitutionality of the ordinance, sending the case back to the federal district court.
State ex rel. Williams v. City Court of Tucson, 520 P. Definition Of Gilded Age. 2d 1166 (Ariz. Ct. App. 1974). Upheld a loitering-for-the-purpose-of-begging ordinance. Ulmer v. Municipal Court for computer processor, Oakland-Piedmont Judicial District, 55 Cal. App.
3d 263, 127 Cal. Rpt. 445 (1976). Upheld a ban on begging that was later struck down by genetic engineering the Blair court. Young v. New York City Transit Authority, 903 F. 2d 146 (2d Cir. 1990). Upheld a ban on begging in the subway. Abstracts of publications that have appeared since this guide was written.
Buddy, can you spare a dime? Homelessness, panhandling, and the public. Lee, B.A., and C.R. Farrell (2003). Computer Processor Unit. Urban Affairs Review, 38(3): 299-324. This study examines the practice of on Overview of the Career Stanley panhandling among the homeless and the public's response to it. Data were obtained from two national surveys: the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (Burt et al., 1999), and a Columbia University survey of U.S. residents regarding their reactions to and encounters with panhandling (Link et al., 1994). A comparison of homeless panhandlers and non-panhandlers shows the former group to be more isolated, troubled, and computer unit disadvantaged than the latter. Although only engineering, a minority of homeless say that they panhandle, a majority of domiciled individuals report being the objects of panhandling, and most give money occasionally.
Such encounters, however, have mixed but limited effects on public attitudes and behaviors. Nonetheless, these findings challenge the notion that panhandling constitutes an processor especially threatening feature of urban life, signaling a possible mismatch between public opinion and policy. On Kite Runner. The most promising policy responses to processor panhandling, therefore, would appear to involve steps that increase income; although any policy intervention in education examples this area would also benefit from stronger empirical grounding and less reliance on assumptions and stereotypes about computer unit panhandling. The table below summarizes the responses to panhandling, the mechanism by which they are intended to education personal statement examples work, the conditions under which they ought to work best, and some factors you should consider before implementing a particular response. It is critical that you tailor responses to local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on reliable analysis. In most cases, an computer processor effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses. Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem.  Cosgrove and department store Grant (1997).  Kelling and computer processor Coles (1996, 1994); Kozlowski (1999); Leoussis (1995) [Full Text]; Harcourt (1998) [Full Text];  Kelling and Coles (1996, 1994); Ellickson (1996); Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Fontana Police Department (1998).[Full Text]  Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993); Fontana Police Department (1998) [Full Text]; Manning (2000) [Full Text].  Burke (1998); Goldstein (1993); Teir (1993) [Full Text]; Lankenau (1999); St.
Petersburg Police.  Goldstein (1993); Vancouver Police Department (1999).[Full Text]  See Ammann (2000) [Full Text]; Barta (1999) [Abstract only]; Burns (1992) [Full Text]; Hershkoff position in age Hershkoff and computer processor Conner (1993) [Full Text]; Lankenau (1999); Munzer (1997); Harcourt (1998) [Full Text].  See Kelling and genetic engineering history Coles (1996); Ellickson (1996); Burke (2000); Teir (1998, 1993) [Full Text][Full Text]; Conner. position in Hershkoff and Conner (1993) [Full Text]; Criminal Justice Legal Foundation (1994).  Kelling and Coles (1996); Ellickson (1996).  Kelling and Coles (1996).  Burke (2000); Lankenau (1999).
 Kelling and computer unit Coles (1996, 1994); Kelling (1999) [Full Text].  Ellickson (1996); Goldstein (1993); University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of. Police and Security (1997) [Full Text]; St. Petersburg Police Department (1997) [Full Text]; Alexandria Police Department (1995) [Full Text]; Evanston Police Department (1995) [Full Text]; Sampson and definition Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce, Fla., case study) [Full Text]; Higdon and Huber (1987) (Dundalk project); Manning (2000) [Full Text].  Burke (1998); Stark (1992); Lankenau (1999); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); Evanston. Police Department (1995, n.d.) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993); Santa Ana Police Department (1993);[Full Text] Chicago Tribune (1994); Manning (2000) [Full Text].  Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); Evanston Police. Department (1995) [Full Text]; Duneier (1999).
 Goldstein (1993); Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Burke (1998); Luckenbach. and Acosta (1993).  Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); New York City Police Department. (1994); St. Petersburg Police Department (1997) [Full Text]; Chicago Tribune (1994); Evanston Police. Department (n.d.); Higdon and Huber (1987) (Dundalk project); Manning (2000) [Full Text].  Goldstein (1993); St. Petersburg Police Department (1997) [Full Text]; University of processor unit Wisconsin- Madison Department of Police and Runner Security (1997).[Full Text]  Ellickson (1996); Stark (1992); Goldstein (1993).
 Ellickson (1996); Teir (1998) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993); Fontana Police Department (1998) [Full Text]; Chicago Tribune (1994); Manning (2000) [Full Text].  Burke (1998); Lankenau (1999).  Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993).  Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993).
 Goldstein (1993); Ellickson (1996).  Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993).  Ellickson (1996); Kelling and Coles (1996); Butterfield (1988).  Stark (1992); St. Petersburg Police Department (1997).[Full Text]  Ellickson (1996); Burke (1998); Stark (1992); Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993); Duneier.  Ellickson (1996); Fontana Police Department (1998) [Full Text]; University of computer unit Wisconsin-Madison. Department of Police and Security (1997) [Full Text]; Santa Ana Police Department (1993).[Full Text]  Stark (1992); Seattle Police Department (2000); Sampson and Essay Career of Dr. Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce.
 University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Police and Security (1997).[Full Text]  Goldstein (1993); Burke (1998); Luckenbach and unit Acosta (1993); Evanston Police. Department (n.d.); Ellickson (1996); Stark (1992); Duneier (1999).  Ellickson (1996); Mabry (1994) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); Manning (2000) [Full Text]; Duneier (1999).  Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993).  Burke (1998); Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Essay on Kite Acosta (1993).
 Stark (1992); Goldstein (1993).  Burke (1998); Ellickson (1996).  Kelling and Coles (1996, 1994); Teir (1993).[Full Text]  Goldstein (1993); Cosgrove and processor Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Evanston Police Department (1995).[Full Text]  Ellickson (1996); Goldstein (1993).  Teir (1993) [Full Text]; Center for the Community Interest (1996) [Full Text]; Criminal Justice Legal Foundation (1994).  Kelling and on Overview of Dr. Sue Coles (1996); Barta (1999) [Abstract only]; Ellickson (1996); Delmonico (1996) [Full Text]; Kozlowski (1999); Leoussis (1995) [Full Text]; Mabry (1994) [Full Text]; Mitchell (1994); Nichols (1997) [Full Text]; Teir (1998, 1993) [Full Text][Full Text]; Walston (1999); Hershkoff and Conner (1993) [Full Text]; Munzer (1997).  Kelling and Coles (1996); Ellickson (1996).  Santa Ana Police Department (1993) [Full Text]; Little (1992).  Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Goldstein (1993).  New York City Police Department (1994); Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Burke (1998); Leoussis (1995) [Full Text]; Teir (1993) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993).  St.
Petersburg Police Department (1997) [Full Text]; Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Higdon and computer processor unit Huber (1987) (Dundalk project); Savannah Police Department (1995).[Full Text]  Kelling and Coles (1996); Kelling (1999) [Full Text].  Savannah Police Department (1995).[Full Text]  Kelling and Coles (1996) (discussing Seattle's response to panhandling); Santa Ana Police Department (1993) [Full Text]; Felson et al. (1996).  Ellickson (1996); Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993).  Kelling and Coles (1996).  Kelling and Coles (1996); Cosgrove and on Overview of the Career of Dr. Stanley Sue Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Mabry (1994) [Full Text]; Teir (1998) [Full Text]; Kozlowski (1999) (citing a Fort Lauderdale law).  Ellickson (1996); see Munzer (1997) for computer processor unit, a critique of Essay on Kite Runner Ellickson's zoning proposal.  Kelling and Coles (1996) (citing a Seattle law).  Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; New York City Police Department (1994).  University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Police and computer processor Security (1997).[Full Text]  Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Mabry (1994) [Full Text]; Ybarra (1996); Santa Ana Police Department (1993).[Full Text]  Ellickson (1996); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); Santa Ana Police Department (1993) [Full Text]; Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Evanston Police Department (1995) [Full Text]; Higdon and education statement examples Huber (1987); Manning (2000) [Full Text]; Cosgrove and computer processor Grant (1997).  University of Essay on Overview Career of Dr. Stanley Sue Wisconsin-Madison Department of Police and Security (1997) [Full Text]; Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce case study). [Full Text]  Evanston Police Department (1995).[Full Text]  Kelling and Coles (1996).
 Nkrumah (1998); Egan (1993).  Evanston Police Department (1995).[Full Text]  Burns (1992) [Full Text]; Green Bay Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce case study) [Full Text]; Felson et al. (1996) [Full Text]; Duneier (1999).  Santa Ana Police Department (1993).[Full Text]  Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce and unit San Diego case studies) [Full Text]; Santa Ana Police Department (1993) [Full Text]; Kelling and Coles (1996) (discussion of San Francisco's Operation Matrix).  Seattle Police Department (2000); Alexandria Police Department (1995) [Full Text]; Green Bay Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Higdon and Essay Runner Huber (1987) (Dundalk project).  Santa Ana Police Department (1993).[Full Text]  Vancouver Police Department (1999).  Bittner (1967); Kelling and Coles (1994); Burke (1998); Goldstein (1993); Little (1992); Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce case study) [Full Text]; Fontana Police Department (1998) [Full Text]; Higdon and Huber (1987) (Dundalk project); Manning (2000) [Full Text]; Felson et al. (1996). [Full Text]  Fontana Police Department (1998).[Full Text]  University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Police and Security (1997) [Full Text]; Manning (2000) [Full Text].  Manning (2000) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993); Stark (1992); Kelling and Coles (1994); Evanston Police Department (1995) [Full Text].
Alexandria (Va.) Police Department (1995). “Alexandria Alcohol Interdiction Program.” Submission for the Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing. [Full Text] Ammann, J. (2000). “Addressing Quality-of-Life Crimes in Our Cities: Criminalization, Community Courts and Community Compassion.” Saint Louis University Law Journal 44:811-820. Processor Unit. [Full Text] Barta, P. (1999). Definition Of Gilded. “Giuliani, Broken Windows and the Right To Beg.” Georgetown Journal of Poverty Law Policy 6:165-194. [Abstract only] Bittner, E. (1967). “The Police on Skid Row: A Study of Peace Keeping.” American Sociological Review 32(5):699-715. Bland, N., and computer processor unit T. Read (2000). Policing Anti-Social Behaviour. Police Research Series, Paper 123. Primary. London: Home Office. Computer Processor Unit. [Full Text] Burke, R. Essay Career Of Dr. Stanley. (2000). “The Regulation of Begging and processor Vagrancy: A Critical Discussion.” Crime Prevention and trickster names Community Safety 2(2):43-52. -----(1998). “Begging, Vagrancy and Disorder.” In R.H. Burke (ed.), Zero Tolerance Policing.
Leicester, England: Perpetuity Press. Burns, M. (1992). “Fearing the Mirror: Responding to Beggars In a 'Kinder and processor unit Gentler' America.” Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 19(3):783-844. [Full Text] Butterfield, F. (1988). “New Yorkers Growing Angry Over Aggressive Panhandlers.” New York Times, July 28, p. A1. Center for the Community Interest (1996). “Aggressive Panhandling (Model Ordinance).” Washington, D.C.: Center for the Community Interest. Chicago Tribune (1994). Trickster Names. “Evanston Fights Panhandlers-With a Smile.” May 27, p. 1. Cosgrove, C., and A. Grant (1997). National Survey of Municipal Police Departments on Urban Quality-of-Life Initiatives. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum. Criminal Justice Legal Foundation (1994).
A Guide To Regulating Panhandling. Sacramento, Calif.: Criminal Justice Legal Foundation. Delmonico, D. (1996). “Aggressive Panhandling Legislation and the Constitution: Evisceration of Fundamental Rights-Or Valid Restrictions Upon Offensive Conduct?” Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 23:557-590. [Full Text] Duneier, M. Processor. (1999). Sidewalk. New York: Farrar, Straus and trickster names Giroux. Egan, T. (1993). Processor Unit. “In 3 Progressive Cities, It's Law vs.
Street People.” New York Times, Dec. 12. Ellickson, R. (1996). “Controlling Chronic Misconduct in City Spaces: Of Panhandlers, Skid Rows and Public-Space Zoning.” Yale Law Journal 105(5):1165-1248. Evanston Police Department (1995). Of The Career Of Dr.. “Anti-Panhandling Strategy.” Submission for the Herman Goldstein Award for processor unit, Excellence in department store collapse Problem-Oriented Policing. [Full text] Cited in Sampson, R., and M. Scott (2000). Tackling Crime and Other Public-Safety Problems: Case Studies in Problem-Solving. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. [Full Text] Also published as Mulholland, J., J. Sowa and E. Steinhoff (1997). “Evanston Reduces Aggressive Panhandling by Influencing the Behavior of Givers.” Problem-Solving Quarterly 10(1):9-12. Unit. [Full Text] ----- (n.d.). “Panhandling in store Evanston: Preliminary Report.” Evanston, Ill.: Evanston Police Department. Felson, M., M. Processor Unit. Belanger, G. Bichler, C. Bruzinski, G. Campbell, C. Primary Education Examples. Fried, K. Grofik, I. Mazur, A. O'Regan, P. Sweeney, A. Ullman, and L. Computer Processor. Williams (1996). “Redesigning Hell: Preventing Crime and Disorder at the Port Authority Bus Terminal.” In R. Clarke (ed.), Preventing Mass Transit Crime. Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. Essay Of The Career Stanley. 6. Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press. Computer Processor Unit. [Full Text] Fontana Police Department (1998). “Transient Enrichment Network.” Submission for the Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing. [Full Text]
Goldstein, B. Trickster Names. (1993). “Panhandlers at Yale: A Case Study in processor the Limits of Law.” Indiana Law Review 27(2):295-359. Green Bay (Wis.) Police Department (1999). “Street Sweeping, Broadway Style.” Submission for Essay on Kite, the Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing. Published in Police Executive Research Forum, National Institute of processor Justice and Office of sampoong department Community Oriented Policing Services (2000). Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing: The 1999 Herman Goldstein Award Winners. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of Justice. [Full Text] Harcourt, B. (1998). Processor. “Reflecting on the Subject: A Critique of the trickster names Social Influence Conception of Deterrence, the Broken Windows Theory and Order-Maintenance Policing, New York Style.” Michigan Law Review 97:291-389. Processor Unit. [Full Text] Heimberger, B. (1992). “Working the primary education personal Nightshift.” ProblemSolving Quarterly 5(4):1-2. [Full Text] Hershkoff, H., and R. Conner (1993). Computer Processor Unit. “Aggressive Panhandling Laws.” ABA Journal 79 (June):40-41. [Full Text] Higdon, R. and P. Huber (1987).
How To Fight Fear: The COPE Program Package. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum. Kelling, G. (1999). 'Broken Windows' and Police Discretion. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice. Genetic Engineering History. [Full Text] Kelling, G., and C. Coles (1996). Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities. New York: Free Press. -----(1994). “Disorder and the Court.” Public Interest 116 (Summer):57-74. Kozlowski, J. (1999). “Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? Panhandling in processor unit Public Parks and Places.” NRPA Law Review 34 (December):34-41.
Lankenau, S. (1999). “Stronger Than Dirt: Public Humiliation and Status Enhancement Among Panhandlers.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 28(3):288-318. Leoussis, F. (1995). “The New Constitutional Right To Beg-Is Begging Really Protected Speech?” Saint Louis University Public Law Review 14(2):529-550. Trickster Names. [Full Text] Little, J. (1992). “Moral Dilemma.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, June 7, p. Processor. C1. Luckenbach, R., and P. Acosta (1993). “The Street Beggar: Victim or Con Artist?” The Police Chief (October):126-128. Mabry, C. (1994). “Brother, Can You Spare Some Change?-And Your Privacy, Too?: Avoiding a Fatal Collision Between Public Interests and Beggars' First Amendment Rights.” University of San Francisco Law Review 28(2):310-341. [Full Text] Manning, N. (2000). Personal Statement Examples. “The Make-It-Count Scheme: A Partnership Response to Begging in Stoke-on-Trent City Centre.” Problem-Solving Quarterly 13(3):5-8. [Full Text] Mitchell, C. (1994). “Aggressive Panhandling Legislation and Free Speech Claims: Begging for Trouble.” New York Law School Law Review 39(4):697-717.
Munzer, S. Processor. (1997). “Ellickson on 'Chronic Misconduct' in Urban Spaces: Of Panhandlers, Bench Squatters and Day Laborers.” Harvard Civil Rights - Civil Liberties Law Review 32:1-48. New York City Police Department (1994). Police Strategy No. 5: Reclaiming the Public Spaces of New York. New York: New York City Police Department. New York Times (1993). “Plan Helps Panhandlers With Vouchers, Not Quarters.” Current Events Edition. On Kite. Sept. 26, p. I42. Nichols, P. (1997). “The Panhandler's First Amendment Right: A Critique of Loper v. New York City Police Department and Related Academic Commentary.” South Carolina Law Review 48:267-291. [Full Text] Nkrumah, W. (1998). “Shoppers Can Get Vouchers To Offer Panhandlers.” The Oregonian. St.
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Walston, G. (1999). “Examining the Constitutional Implications of Begging Prohibitions in California.” Whittier Law Review 20:547-575. Wilson, G. (1991). “Exposure to Panhandling and Beliefs About Poverty Causation.” Sociology and processor Social Research 76(1):14-19. Ybarra, M. (1996). “Don't Ask, Don't Beg, Don't Sit.” New York Times, May 19. The quality and focus of these submissions vary considerably. With the exception of Essay on Overview Career Stanley Sue those submissions selected as winners or finalists, these documents are unedited and are reproduced in the condition in which they were submitted. They may nevertheless contain useful information or may report innovative projects. Alcoholic Vagrants, University of Wisconsin-Madison Police Department (WI, US), 1997. Alexandria Alcohol Interdiction Program [ Goldstein Award Finalist ], Alexandria Police Department (VA, US), 1995. Crime Suppression Unit, Savannah Police Department (GA, US), 1995. Harbor Plaza [ Goldstein Award Winner ], Santa Ana Police Department (CA, US), 1993. Intersecting Solutions [ Goldstein Award Finalist ], Vancouver Police Department (BC, US), 1999.
Operation Dodger [ Goldstein Award Finalist ], Sussex Police (Sussex, UK), 2005. Operation Spotlight [ Goldstein Award Finalist ], Arlington Police Department (TX, US), 2008. Street Sweeping, Broadway Style [ Goldstein Award Winner ], Green Bay Police Department (WI, US), 1999. The Homeless Outreach Program, Fort Lauderdale Police Department (FL, US), 2008. The Transient Enrichment Network (TEN-4) [ Goldstein Award Finalist ], Fontana Police Department (CA, US), 1998. Free Bound Copies of the Problem Guides. You may order free bound copies in computer processor unit any of three ways: Phone: 800-421-6770 or 202-307-1480. Allow several days for delivery.
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