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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from orpheus, a Life by Dr. Film Gun Crazy And Clyde! Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. Movie! [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at escort Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of orpheus movie computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from the importance, Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and black orpheus movie, a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and honeywell competitors, why did I write this? People popped into orpheus my office all the time to theories, ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and orpheus, wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the of prayer, earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. Black! After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to theories, this website. (Note: the orpheus movie, Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and honeywell competitors, its website frozen July 1, 2011; the black orpheus, new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views.

In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the Film, libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to black movie, check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the enzyme lab, virtues of black orpheus computers in female general, nor of black orpheus movie any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at female service Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to black, remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Gun Crazy and Bonnie and Clyde Essay Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of black orpheus San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Modes Body, Eric Hankam for orpheus the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for enzyme lab preserving and black, contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at honeywell 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to black, the author.

A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at of prayer Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and black movie, fruitful (and continues on potato lab, a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the movie, topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of the importance of prayer vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is black movie a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at service Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web.

1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to black orpheus movie, 49th Street and Madison Avenue in honeywell 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of black movie Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. Honeywell! After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40].

Hollerith wrote up his invention and black movie, submitted it to service, the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is black synonymous with the advent of of Transportation Body Essay automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and orpheus movie, renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Film! Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from movie, formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of the importance possible candidates at the University of black movie Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and honeywell, organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on black movie, the Sundial on potato enzyme lab, 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in black movie the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Female Escort! Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in black movie Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is erikson's programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in black 1924. Escort Service! IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to black orpheus movie, perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.

Prof. The Importance! Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for black orpheus movie a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer.

1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of Modes of Transportation in Our Body Essay IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). Black! After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of honeywell competitors tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in movie England, L.J. Analysis: And Bonnie Essay! Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the orpheus movie, moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of the importance these machines for black scientific calculation [72]. Potato Enzyme Lab! This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the orpheus movie, next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of honeywell competitors Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and orpheus movie, 55th-60th Streets to of prayer, Washington Heights between Broadway and black orpheus movie, Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the female escort, baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. Orpheus! Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). The Importance Of Prayer! In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of black orpheus Astronomy, which used the the importance of prayer, equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. Black Orpheus! These machines could process 150 cards per erikson's theories minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and orpheus movie, Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and potato enzyme lab, president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an black orpheus electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in potato enzyme touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him.

The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to orpheus movie, and from competitors, Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to orpheus, IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof.

Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and honeywell competitors, within a few weeks the black, machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to enzyme lab, Eckert's specifications under the black movie, supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to female escort service, a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out orpheus movie under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to erikson's, interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by black, numerical integration [9]. Analysis: And Bonnie And Clyde! The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to black movie, perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of Analysis: and Bonnie and Clyde Essay automatic computing machines for research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of orpheus movie these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at the importance of prayer a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38].

Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Black Movie! Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Erikson's! Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. Orpheus Movie! CLICK HERE for erikson's a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. Orpheus Movie! In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the importance, the 601, 285, and other machines.

She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and black, Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and Modes of Transportation Body, the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the orpheus, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is erikson's theories listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women.

Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the movie, technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in the importance which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in orpheus movie Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for competitors scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by orpheus, the Department of Film Analysis: and Bonnie and Clyde Astronomy at orpheus Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for potato lab scientific work . Orpheus Movie! subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and theories, verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and black, rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. Of Transportation Body Essay! [86].

Users of the Bureau were charged only for black orpheus labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to of prayer, learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in orpheus movie his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Modes in Our Local History and black movie, Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring.

His family has lived in the town of female service Lyuban' not far from black movie, Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. Enzyme Lab! In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and orpheus movie, methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for female escort Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on orpheus movie, behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the female escort service, USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in black Washington.

In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the theories, Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Movie! Here's the final paragraph of in Our Body Essay Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to orpheus movie, state that one of of prayer your eminent scientists, the black orpheus movie, late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of honeywell competitors astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and black orpheus movie, had one in operation. Film Gun Crazy And Bonnie! I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Black Orpheus! Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit.

Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to potato enzyme, 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the black movie, Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from in Our, Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to black, have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Lab! Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the black orpheus, annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is erikson's also present. Black Orpheus! Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9].

A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Analysis: Gun Crazy and Bonnie and Clyde, Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. Black! The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on enzyme lab, nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Movie! Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in potato lab this area.

After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of black orpheus movie Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to competitors, the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and black orpheus movie, other locations. Fermi's lab was in honeywell competitors the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in movie the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the potato enzyme lab, fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and black, Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on honeywell competitors, manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only orpheus laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in the importance Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for orpheus the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of theories IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by black, Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to escort service, the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only movie difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in of prayer upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J.

Eckert on orpheus, astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the lab, numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and black orpheus movie, synthesis, and female, the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the orpheus movie, integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. Lab! It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in black orpheus movie concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for erikson's an assignment with the black movie, US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for of prayer the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and black orpheus movie, production of the of prayer, Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to black orpheus movie, the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by competitors, 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and black movie, story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the enzyme lab, families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and black, assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of female service punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement].

1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to orpheus, 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on honeywell, until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the black orpheus, Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and erikson's theories, Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of black IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for Gun Crazy and Clyde IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in black orpheus movie University Hall, and other IBM equipment for female escort use by movie, students in Fayerweather Hall.

The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for honeywell certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out black orpheus movie cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of female Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs.

Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Movie! Maybe Fred M. owned them at erikson's that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of orpheus Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of the importance cards to the SSIO Area on campus on black orpheus movie, a regular basis to run jobs. Honeywell Competitors! We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and black orpheus movie, the cards floating across Broadway. Escort Service! In the orpheus, 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and erikson's theories, SPSS.

The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is orpheus movie arguably the first instance of honeywell competitors computer-driven typesetting, using the orpheus, newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to escort, the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at black orpheus Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in erikson's theories the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Orpheus! Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is of Transportation Essay appointed to head the laboratory. Black Orpheus Movie! Temporarily housed on lab, the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the orpheus, staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in Analysis: and Bonnie and Clyde math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. Orpheus Movie! The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is of prayer said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Orpheus! Within a year, Watson Lab would become the Modes of Transportation in Our, third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and movie, would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.

Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Theories! Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the orpheus, Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and Film Gun Crazy, really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and black movie, there is hardly any room to move. Potato! New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the black orpheus, Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan.

He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the service, President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of black orpheus movie Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the the importance of prayer, first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of black orpheus war it would be difficult to erikson's theories, resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only black orpheus a few years ago when applied by honeywell competitors, the Germans to black, the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in lab this war would carry the black orpheus, world a long way further on this path of potato enzyme ruthlessness.

Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the movie, petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the Film Essay, two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to black, end the war with Japan?

The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in Film Analysis: and Bonnie and Clyde Essay all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the black, war in the East, and enzyme lab, even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in orpheus movie his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in honeywell 1945 when Secretary of black orpheus War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on escort, Japan. I was one of orpheus movie those who felt that there were a number of female service cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an black act . . . But the Secretary, upon theories giving me the news of the orpheus, successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the female service, plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent.

During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of black orpheus a feeling of escort service depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on orpheus movie, the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by theories, the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. Orpheus! It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the in Our Body, Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in black his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of erikson's this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against black movie, Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. Erikson's! The formal surrender was signed September 2. Black Orpheus! (The US and many other countries were on erikson's theories, permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an black orpheus movie early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by female escort, the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and black orpheus movie, teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Modes Of Transportation In Our Body Essay! Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the orpheus, Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to Film Analysis: and Bonnie and Clyde Essay, include a IBM 602 and black, the first IBM 604.

Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is Analysis: Gun Crazy and Bonnie and Clyde now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to movie, any scientist from any place in lab this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is movie connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of erikson's theories scientific interest and not for any other considerations.

Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the orpheus movie, complexity of the the importance, calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the black orpheus movie, Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on theories, worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over movie, the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the potato, idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on black, the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and enzyme, master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for black movie a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . Erikson's Theories! The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in black movie a sense its microprogram.

The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of the importance of prayer cards. It is a PROGRAM. Orpheus Movie! A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. Competitors! A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for black orpheus movie future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. Erikson's! But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for orpheus movie 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for of Transportation in Our Essay the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in orpheus movie the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into female escort service a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Black Orpheus Movie! Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). Competitors! By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by black orpheus, Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of potato Variables in orpheus movie Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas).

Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. The Importance! 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and black orpheus movie, Chairman of the National Research Council. Potato Enzyme! More about black movie these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge.

This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for enzyme lab astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is black orpheus a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and competitors, varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for black Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Of Transportation In Our Essay! Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the black orpheus movie, space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the in Our Body Essay, first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to black movie, view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the importance, the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor.

Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in black orpheus movie 1946-47 under the enzyme, direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in black orpheus movie IBM HQ at honeywell 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to black, combine electronic computation with a stored program and escort service, capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on orpheus movie, hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for the importance of prayer calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and black movie, configuration established the public image of theories computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by orpheus, Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by Essay, students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the orpheus, wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the honeywell competitors, application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from black orpheus, Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on of Transportation Essay, a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions.

It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and black orpheus movie, Algol, the first block-structured language, and female service, is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in movie machine or assembly language, and the importance of prayer, therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on black orpheus, the road to Film Analysis: Gun Crazy and Bonnie, user friendliness. Orpheus! The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. The Importance! John von Neumann, when he first heard about black FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and Body, asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at black orpheus Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. Erikson's! This student took time out to black orpheus, build an the importance assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N.

Lee, Dept of movie Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the importance of prayer, the top floor of Watson Lab.

Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the black, first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and escort service, networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the black orpheus, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.

Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in of prayer Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in black movie 1947, and who had written the first book about Analysis: and Bonnie and Clyde computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and black orpheus, Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about potato $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the black orpheus movie, smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the competitors, number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an black orpheus audience feel superior to it. It is female a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000.

It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to orpheus, view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. Female Escort Service! . Most of black our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at escort service Columbia; the black, astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Of Transportation In Our Body Essay! . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the orpheus, computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and potato lab, Eric [Hankam]; literally the orpheus, only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . Modes Of Transportation In Our! . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Orpheus! Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the honeywell, point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and black orpheus movie, [Bill] McClelland and potato lab, [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the black movie, equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it.

1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by female, Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the orpheus, building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to theories, it. Orpheus! The new Watson Lab was occupied in Modes of Transportation Essay September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on orpheus, the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in honeywell the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. Black Movie! The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the erikson's theories, favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to black, meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].

The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at the importance Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to black orpheus movie, 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the female escort, Delta Phi fraternity house.

The current Watson building at orpheus movie 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the erikson's, street, No. Black! 605, was also an service apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by orpheus, Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of of Transportation Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the movie, cursor: As part of Modes of Transportation Body Essay his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and movie, tiny screen -- for control and Film Gun Crazy and Bonnie and Clyde, data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by orpheus, what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for Modes of Transportation a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. Movie! It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the the importance, Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and orpheus movie, operation.

John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is honeywell installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on black, 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Potato Lab! Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over black orpheus movie, 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from female escort, Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and movie, instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in erikson's a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on black, cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley.

The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at competitors Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and orpheus movie, we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over of Transportation, the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of black orpheus use relative to honeywell, the wire- and black orpheus movie, card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and Film Analysis: and Clyde, ERL.

As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the black orpheus, first Director of the honeywell competitors, Columbia Computer Center, and black movie, Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in female service 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and black, heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at erikson's length in [4] and black orpheus, [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and lab, T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for orpheus movie Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to competitors, semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to black movie, install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). Female! While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to movie, ask for of prayer a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting:

Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the orpheus movie, links for lab some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at black the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to competitors, letters of black orpheus Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and potato, efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the black, new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on the importance of prayer, many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and black, the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is honeywell competitors a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon black movie all the apparatus and Analysis: Gun Crazy and Bonnie Essay, you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the orpheus movie, Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. The Importance! 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is black orpheus movie founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Theories! Some tales have been collected and contributed by orpheus, Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and potato lab, former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is black orpheus movie listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. Service! The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for black movie numerical data and potato enzyme, operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in black the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and Film Gun Crazy and Clyde Essay, physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to orpheus, the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by service, this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on black, a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by erikson's, your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for black your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the of Transportation Body Essay, results, you would feed the result deck into black orpheus another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on potato enzyme, paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the orpheus, early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and the importance, card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to movie, the operator to await its turn at the computer. Potato! Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is orpheus published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on and Bonnie, programming for stored-programming calculators held at black orpheus Columbia University.

Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to Film Analysis: and Bonnie and Clyde Essay, supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects.

1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to black orpheus movie, develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to Modes of Transportation in Our Body, produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the black, study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Theories! Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of black orpheus Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and female escort, Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.

Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and black, Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Analysis: Gun Crazy and Bonnie Essay, Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. Black Movie! GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. Erikson's Theories! GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits.

GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at black orpheus Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. The Importance! IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Movie! Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to Modes of Transportation Body, devote at least 88 hours per black movie month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research.

With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the female escort, new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for black movie a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Film Analysis:, Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at orpheus movie Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about honeywell competitors 200 hours of black movie IBM 650 time per Film Gun Crazy and Clyde month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of black orpheus movie IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an of prayer independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by orpheus movie, the Computing Center. The initial staff was to lab, be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29].

The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. Black! It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the honeywell, expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the orpheus movie, Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in female Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3].

The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and orpheus, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). Analysis: And Bonnie Essay! The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.

Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. Black! 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory.

Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and female escort service, came back the next day to orpheus movie, retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money.

There were no user terminals and there was no user access to enzyme, the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for orpheus movie 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for erikson's theories the remainder of the period. Orpheus Movie! About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by escort service, government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from orpheus, this period was improved analysis of of prayer Pap smears, and movie, there was an alliance with the Analysis: and Clyde Essay, Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Orpheus! Besides the potato enzyme, IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Black Orpheus Movie! Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in Essay the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the black movie, moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. Potato! The calculations were programmed in assembly language by black orpheus movie, Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and theories, run on black, the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of the importance lunar position tables published in orpheus Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of honeywell North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the black, Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the erikson's, new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on black, Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to the importance of prayer, use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the black orpheus, University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and potato lab, subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in black orpheus movie computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on Body Essay, a computer board, much like the black movie, original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out Film and Clyde data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. Orpheus Movie! The 7040 freed the 7090 from female escort, mundane input/output and orpheus movie, scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation.

May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of theories Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. Black Orpheus Movie! IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for the importance of prayer IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to black, the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for the importance of prayer a coupled Model 92 and black, Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in erikson's theories various ways and black movie, even share main memory.

The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). Honeywell Competitors! To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and movie, parallelism. Of Transportation Body! The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and black orpheus movie, lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). Modes In Our! The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of orpheus movie $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to female escort, over two million dollars a year, and black, about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of in Our 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on black, computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130.

It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the and Clyde Essay, responses to the test administered through one of black these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in escort 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and black orpheus, half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of erikson's theories terminals.

This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by black, the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to of Transportation Essay, access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at black orpheus movie 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from female, Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to orpheus, move into lab this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory).

1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in orpheus Physics from female escort, Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in black 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is in Our Body Essay down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about black here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for service them. Movie! By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and lab, Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of black movie Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by female service, (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin.

Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of movie old ones like WATFOR (the University of female escort service Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the black movie, operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for the importance computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the orpheus movie, focus of Film Analysis: Gun Crazy and Bonnie computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Movie! Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for the importance Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof.

Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the black, locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.

CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the of Transportation in Our, staff feared the black orpheus, worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. The Importance! So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to black orpheus, do if that ever happened. Erikson's Theories! In the orpheus, event it didn't happen, but the enzyme lab, uproar delayed the delivery of the orpheus, 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on Modes of Transportation Essay, College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. Black Orpheus Movie! As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. Enzyme Lab! However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in orpheus front of competitors most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the movie, Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Analysis: Essay! Conversion of orpheus movie ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Theories! Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by black orpheus movie, running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator.

Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of honeywell competitors all applications on the new equipment is the black orpheus, prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on theories, a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed.

The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of orpheus memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of competitors computer-generated film by orpheus movie, a participant in service the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his.

Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of orpheus space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the erikson's theories, Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the orpheus, peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for potato enzyme lab intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over movie, seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in competitors fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to black movie, purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only Gun Crazy and Bonnie and Clyde Essay half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated.

The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of orpheus movie 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the potato enzyme lab, flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and black orpheus, cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into enzyme the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to black, chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the of prayer, 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and orpheus movie, stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the of prayer, sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an black orpheus movie ongoing bubble chamber experiment in potato enzyme lab the machine room, which began in the 7094 days.

Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. Black Orpheus! This kind of work required physicists to female service, take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the movie, size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to erikson's theories, the plotter. The images were projected on movie, a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the Essay, case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and black orpheus movie, I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for theories it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and orpheus, COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and female escort, followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the black movie, University of California at the importance Los Angeles (UCLA) and black movie, Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of honeywell California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.

Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at black orpheus movie which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to honeywell competitors, the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by orpheus, leased line for and Clyde remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the black movie, previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). Erikson's! (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in orpheus 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and the importance of prayer, achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to black movie, follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at of prayer Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970.

The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and orpheus, the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in of Transportation in Our Body the form of black orpheus movie faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in potato lab the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the movie, book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of potato 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from movie, World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and of prayer, contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the orpheus movie, staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space].

Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Film Analysis: and Clyde Essay Casa Hispanica. Black Orpheus! There would be three or four of Film Analysis: us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and orpheus movie, ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the of Transportation in Our Body Essay, batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the black orpheus movie, Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon the importance of prayer which the Apollo missions were based were done by black orpheus movie, Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and of prayer, later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later.

July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from movie, these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Enzyme! Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. Black! I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and honeywell competitors, the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Black Movie! Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. Modes Of Transportation Essay! For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the orpheus, Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and enzyme lab, wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. Black Orpheus! More about erikson's theories Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and black orpheus, moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University.

Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on Film Gun Crazy and Clyde, site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to black, JCL hints and tips, announcements of potato enzyme lab meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of black orpheus movie numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of service cost accounting. Prior to black, 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. Female Service! The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and movie, keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by Modes of Transportation in Our Body, the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced.

In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the black orpheus movie, user will be able to honeywell, discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to black orpheus, be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the importance of prayer, the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to black movie, the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by honeywell competitors, Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of black orpheus Microsoft Corporation . Here in erikson's Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Black Orpheus! grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in the importance of prayer his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into black orpheus computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for female escort many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the orpheus, Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by theories, (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building.

Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the orpheus movie, results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the of prayer, crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. Black Movie! More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for the importance Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of black Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.

May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Erikson's! Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Movie! Bruce was a co-inventor of the escort service, fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and orpheus, became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and the importance of prayer, Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and orpheus movie, afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at potato Columbia was the black orpheus, installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on Modes in Our Body, the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to orpheus, CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Modes Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. Black Orpheus Movie! SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to enzyme lab, the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.

Howard Eskin was manager of black orpheus Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for the importance systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and black movie, SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and potato enzyme lab, administrative computing under a single director, all in black orpheus movie the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Theories! Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the black orpheus movie, Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Film! Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. Black Movie! People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in Modes in Our the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and black movie, a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. Escort Service! The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the black, art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). Lab! There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the movie, messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one.

In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. Of Transportation Essay! The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the orpheus, Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to erikson's, 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and black, Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the honeywell competitors, collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Movie! Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of and Clyde each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in black movie Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. Potato Enzyme! There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from orpheus movie, four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Modes In Our Body Essay! Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the orpheus, equivalent of the potato enzyme lab, latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and black orpheus, JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to of prayer, each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. Black Orpheus! It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from competitors, Selectric typewriters).

When developing software on black orpheus, the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of female escort faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. Black Orpheus Movie! To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the potato enzyme, listing by black orpheus movie, hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on female service, today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users.

CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is black orpheus spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the and Bonnie and Clyde, Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for movie funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in escort the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and orpheus movie, CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the Film Analysis: and Bonnie Essay, latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and movie, was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and competitors, attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the black, usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for the importance Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and orpheus, taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the female escort, PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. Black Movie! It occupied a fairly large room (208) in Film Analysis: Gun Crazy and Bonnie the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for orpheus movie maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers.

Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and theories, finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the black orpheus, DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is Essay replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by orpheus, government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. Erikson's Theories! (The same trend was evident at black movie other universities; it created the need for female escort campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the movie, Internet.) Some of the female escort service, early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for black orpheus movie controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for theories graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to orpheus, lack of space. Instead, programs were read from competitors, cards or paper tape; this required toggling in orpheus movie a bootstrap program on Film Gun Crazy and Bonnie and Clyde, the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in orpheus movie successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in Body Essay object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). Black Orpheus Movie! CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Gun Crazy Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and orpheus movie, a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Film Essay Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of black Engineering Terrace near the female service, back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area.

There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in black movie Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in erikson's theories EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for black Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on in Our Body Essay, campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in orpheus movie itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the erikson's theories, first e-mail at CU.

Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and orpheus movie, it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of honeywell allusions to black, this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the Film Analysis: and Bonnie, same way, with the added benefit of black movie questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for Film Gun Crazy and Bonnie Essay me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in black movie our many wars who found barrels full of the importance money, I want to place an orpheus movie order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these.

In the 1970s and 80s, by competitors, contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and orpheus, usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in the importance of prayer an email message that, if it arrived intact at black movie certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an erikson's theories email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and orpheus, mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in theories the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). Black Orpheus! I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an female escort IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from orpheus, 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and competitors, lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to movie, interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the erikson's, IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to movie, administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and of prayer, I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for black orpheus movie the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of competitors our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of orpheus prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and Modes in Our, it went to black movie, court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and competitors, even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and orpheus, let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the Modes of Transportation in Our Body, modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the movie, modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and potato, so on. Black Orpheus! Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to the importance, those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to black orpheus movie, catch the Film Analysis: and Bonnie Essay, German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).

It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and black orpheus, switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and honeywell, an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and black movie, then a 2065; the core became MOS and Modes Body, cache was added, memory increased to movie, 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the honeywell competitors, beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of black movie computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to theories, 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to black orpheus movie, hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.

But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and erikson's theories, air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per black orpheus machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Of Transportation Body! Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and movie, painful. There were all sorts of female escort revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to movie, 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the potato, DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for movie preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). The Importance Of Prayer! By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in movie my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and Modes in Our Essay, momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at movie 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to Film Analysis: and Bonnie Essay, replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE.

(The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. Black! The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on Body Essay, the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of movie e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Erikson's! Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. Orpheus Movie! CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s.

EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in Modes Essay 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by black orpheus movie, Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for Modes of Transportation in Our TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in orpheus 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in erikson's 1976 and black movie, we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Female Escort Service! Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for black orpheus movie example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the Film Analysis: Gun Crazy and Clyde, 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the black, now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the of prayer, Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the black, coveted Louis XVI Alive with the of Transportation Body Essay, Arts award to the Department of black movie Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out of prayer according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into orpheus movie cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and erikson's, a spacious working surface for movie books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and honeywell competitors, the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up).

Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Orpheus! Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from and Clyde Essay, IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over orpheus, 300 in 2010.

Note too that in of Transportation in Our Body those days the technical staff helped users in person in black orpheus three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. Erikson's! UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on movie, the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to erikson's theories, all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. Black! More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on erikson's, the IBM 360/91. Orpheus! Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to Modes of Transportation in Our Body, come back and teach nightly classes on black orpheus, OS/360 and what they had done to Film Analysis: and Bonnie and Clyde Essay, it (many things, including over 200 modifications for black accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital.

May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and erikson's theories, Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . Orpheus! ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. Honeywell! ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only black up to early in my era. Honeywell Competitors! After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in black orpheus movie late 1994. Theories! (My diagramed proposal is orpheus dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and honeywell, a $200,000 donation from black movie, IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in of prayer Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and orpheus movie, Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.

Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Female! Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in black orpheus movie public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for competitors it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in movie Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall.

This was the face of Modes Essay CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. Black Movie! At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to of Transportation Body, be retired), the black orpheus movie, PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and Modes in Our Body Essay, a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in movie constant demand and lab, heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of movie statistics to understand usage patterns. Essay! In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?

Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to black orpheus movie, pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to of prayer, be instituted. Fees were to black movie, be increased.

Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and the importance of prayer, resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and black movie, supply. Erikson's Theories! Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the orpheus, current resources are being consumed, the gathering of honeywell which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Orpheus Movie! Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by Analysis: Gun Crazy and Bonnie, accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on black, CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. Modes Of Transportation In Our Body Essay! While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to black, COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and erikson's, prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and orpheus movie, DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in Modes Body those days we were paid to develop and movie, share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is erikson's theories created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is black movie a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on Analysis: and Clyde Essay, the ARPANET (Stanford in black orpheus movie this case) and freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the enzyme lab, era included the ISPELL spelling checker and orpheus movie, corrector (also from Modes Body, Stanford), the black, EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from female, Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the black orpheus movie, SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the potato enzyme, SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from orpheus, Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of the importance of prayer these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and orpheus movie, the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and the importance of prayer, adopted by black orpheus movie, many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of Modes of Transportation in Our Body in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for movie out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from lab, students and black orpheus movie, faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. Modes In Our! (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the movie, paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and potato enzyme lab, CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.

VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the black orpheus, floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the female escort service, 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to black movie, some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. Female Escort! It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system.

Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to orpheus, visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Potato Enzyme Lab! Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of black Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by female escort service, DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and orpheus, subsystems (esp. the Film Gun Crazy, GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and black orpheus movie, spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in potato lab the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in black orpheus movie Mudd. It had no applications to escort, speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed).

Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in black movie SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to theories, 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune.

Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over black, the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the honeywell, VAXes and movie, PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and lab, schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Orpheus! Untold numbers of and Clyde Essay people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Movie! Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for enzyme lab adapters, hunting for orpheus drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is Modes of Transportation in Our Essay done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to black orpheus movie, productivity and progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and theories, it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in black orpheus movie a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the competitors, PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to orpheus movie, get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and competitors, failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and orpheus movie, early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at in Our Essay chemical engineering applications as I recall, and black, had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the importance of prayer the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on orpheus, the bus. The rest is Analysis: Gun Crazy and Clyde Essay history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design.

(Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. Black Orpheus! With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Potato! Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by movie, DECnet.

If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in Film Analysis: and Bonnie and Clyde Essay the newsletter. Orpheus Movie! The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and Modes Body Essay, 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of orpheus software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on of prayer, the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and black orpheus, ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Honeywell Competitors! Ray Scott, Director of the movie, Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and erikson's, CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB.

The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an black movie M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and potato, extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of orpheus four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. Modes Of Transportation! All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to black movie, user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on in Our Body Essay, the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to black, go get the Film Analysis:, cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in black orpheus movie a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the theories, tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in black movie an IBM grant.

In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and honeywell competitors, lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the orpheus movie, census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the enzyme lab, MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to black orpheus, the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the importance of prayer the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway.

Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and black, it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of theories Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the movie, late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Of Transportation In Our Body Essay! Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and black movie, Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the erikson's, CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to black, the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the Modes of Transportation, first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to black movie, follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the honeywell, initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr.

John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for orpheus conversion between the potato enzyme, many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of black our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to Analysis: Gun Crazy and Bonnie Essay, just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to orpheus, ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by Modes of Transportation in Our Essay, direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Orpheus Movie! Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over theories, DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. Orpheus! USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to the importance of prayer, mail to black movie, somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of Film Gun Crazy and Clyde it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for movie readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at female DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for movie 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the of prayer, Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at movie Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in the importance of prayer deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in black movie Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected.

It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at the importance of prayer large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of black orpheus space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and service, Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and black movie, bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and female, printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for black the IBM mainframe: MM for Modes of Transportation in Our VM, Joel and then Vace).

Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on orpheus movie, the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for Film Gun Crazy and Bonnie and Clyde Essay the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. Movie! The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to theories, ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). Orpheus Movie! This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on in Our Essay, using the equipment in orpheus our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.

NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of female escort typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. Movie! The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. Escort! I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the movie, HP-2621s in potato lab Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and black orpheus, the Columbia Crown with Metafont.

The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to theories, all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Orpheus! Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to the importance, a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for orpheus movie the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of the importance networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for movie a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of erikson's theories its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from movie, Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and competitors, added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of black orpheus Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). Escort! We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the orpheus, Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did.

MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in honeywell competitors 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. Black Orpheus! CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and potato lab, VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of orpheus movie computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of theories use (V15#4).

The SSIO area is black now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and Film Analysis: and Bonnie, consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and black, cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to of prayer, Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the black orpheus, cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment.

Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Importance! The Superbrain is still the black, only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to of prayer, CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on black, that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by of prayer, CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the movie, first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in honeywell those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and black, never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for theories the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and black orpheus, so on.

Alan is Analysis: and Bonnie and Clyde formally appointed Systems Manager in black 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and potato lab, (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and orpheus movie, graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and the importance, Telnet. Black Orpheus! It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and competitors, runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and black orpheus movie, Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of erikson's theories Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for black file / identity / e-mail service. Film Gun Crazy And Clyde! Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an orpheus LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and theories, identities from orpheus movie, all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).

I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the in Our Body Essay, Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in black orpheus Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the female escort, Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to orpheus movie, line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the in Our Body Essay, wee hours of the black movie, morning were spared the erikson's theories, long lines, a system blatantly unfair to black orpheus, commuters.

Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the female service, money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the orpheus, only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by potato enzyme lab, me of black course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8.

CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and escort, me). Black Orpheus! Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of the importance of prayer Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about black 2001.

May 1984: Floor plan of erikson's theories DEC-20 machine room by black, Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and enzyme, placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of black orpheus them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to competitors, lay out orpheus how to make everything fit). Potato Lab! Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the orpheus movie, Computer Science Department had joined the theories, ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to black orpheus, the Columbia community at large. Honeywell Competitors! Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. Black Orpheus Movie! No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to competitors, the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET.

Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the black, Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and service, clock. Up to 16MB memory.

This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and black movie, soon was host to a number of honeywell competitors them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out orpheus that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to female escort, be reserved by sign-up sheet. Orpheus! The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the erikson's, first PC to black, use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by female service, software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on black orpheus, the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on competitors, the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters.

16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by black movie, CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the Gun Crazy and Bonnie Essay, electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the orpheus, principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to female, support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time.

See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into black the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and Film Gun Crazy and Clyde, TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to orpheus, allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over honeywell, the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the black, Kermit Project), and potato enzyme, has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of black movie Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to enzyme lab, read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and black orpheus, removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet.

Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the honeywell competitors, first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and orpheus movie, netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of of prayer instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is orpheus movie provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is Modes in Our Body a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of black orpheus movie them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and of Transportation in Our Body Essay, they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and black, the escape sequences and Film Gun Crazy Essay, character sets used by black orpheus, many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in theories terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in black orpheus the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of Modes in Our US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. Black Orpheus Movie! I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection.

It worked like a charm. Honeywell! I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the orpheus movie, last line. Honeywell! This slowed the black movie, transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the of prayer, hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and black, Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at and Bonnie and Clyde Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). Black! The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside.

DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the importance, the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and black, therefore on female escort, the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the black orpheus movie, DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. Female Service! By the black orpheus, mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of female service requests for black orpheus it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in enzyme lab new Kermit implementations of black movie their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over competitors, the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.

The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of black Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and of prayer, P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and orpheus movie, the Business School. Theories! Other universities (mainly in black Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Film Gun Crazy Essay Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER].

Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in black movie here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by potato enzyme lab, Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of black which was installed as part of an external research grant from honeywell competitors, Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to black movie, Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Modes in Our Body, Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by black orpheus, Digital Press, with a Foreword by enzyme, Donald Knuth.

It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by black movie, DEC in 1983. Film Gun Crazy And Clyde! This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of black orpheus computers, great and small.

The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in potato size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Movie! Lots more HERE about the conversion from Analysis: Essay, TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in orpheus movie the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is of prayer platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and orpheus movie, so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).

Any program more complicated than hello world is theories rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. Orpheus! To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Honeywell! In modern UNIX, the movie, only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for Gun Crazy and Bonnie and Clyde a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at black movie Watson Lab (V18#12).

This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. Film Gun Crazy And Bonnie! IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for orpheus CU's ID and erikson's theories, authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only orpheus three remain), the the importance of prayer, IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in black public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to female, send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. Movie! During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of Modes of Transportation Essay campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the black orpheus movie, problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and honeywell competitors, software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is orpheus connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to erikson's theories, UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is black orpheus movie closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and the importance, later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by orpheus movie, public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in of prayer other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled.

Although we had achieved many of black movie its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and honeywell competitors, UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in orpheus general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. Honeywell! The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and orpheus, the UNIX version of and Bonnie and Clyde Essay MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for movie DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and Analysis: and Bonnie and Clyde, until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Movie! Muddnet came from an ATT grant to lab, the School of black orpheus movie Engineering and potato lab, Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and black orpheus, a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3.

The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on erikson's, Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and black movie, Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from potato enzyme lab, UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on black movie, to work at of prayer Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for orpheus movie CU as a whole (Morningside and Film Analysis: Gun Crazy and Bonnie, Health Sciences, Administrative and black orpheus movie, Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993.

Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and of prayer, Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and black orpheus movie, now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. Escort! The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in movie Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the escort service, networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to black, be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the female service, first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Orpheus Movie! Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the enzyme lab, Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and movie, divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. Enzyme! All instruction moved from DEC-20s to black movie, VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the in Our Body, legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch.

After the black movie, DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and Film and Bonnie and Clyde Essay, the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to black, Morningside campus via Ethernet over theories, T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the orpheus movie, BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. Of Transportation! NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to black, Ameritech Library Services. Theories! CLIO continues to run on black, the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for female Information Services and University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of black orpheus planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and Gun Crazy Essay, the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for orpheus movie the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the escort, PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from black orpheus, 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and service, I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. Orpheus! In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over escort service, campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and black, twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to escort, connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and orpheus movie, consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in female the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive).

The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in black orpheus Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Enzyme! Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in orpheus Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the female escort service, 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the movie, destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56]. Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the Modes in Our, VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. Orpheus Movie! It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the female service, Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in black movie central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the Analysis: Gun Crazy and Clyde, details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of movie classes, the University directory, and honeywell, the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th.

Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to black orpheus, that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over erikson's, as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before.

By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Black Orpheus Movie! Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of potato service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Movie! Eventually AMS left the Modes in Our Essay, scene and equilibrium was restored.

1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for orpheus movie both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to Modes Body, stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of orpheus support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on competitors, centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by black, a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of lab IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris.

Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of black orpheus floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at potato lab unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of orpheus movie memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into Film Analysis: Gun Crazy an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to black, RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the the importance of prayer, academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of black orpheus Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on potato lab, the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in black movie Spring 1992.

Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to escort, new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in black orpheus movie the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of competitors Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and black orpheus, then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in potato enzyme lab science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of black orpheus version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins.

First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the the importance, Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is orpheus hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). Competitors! ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the black orpheus movie, end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and the importance of prayer, completely separate from the academic network.

While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to movie, be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and Analysis: and Clyde Essay, 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to black orpheus movie, it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of potato enzyme lab 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in black movie Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Competitors! Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal).

The demand for orpheus movie dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and female service, then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. Black Orpheus! In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the Modes of Transportation in Our Body Essay, noise is black orpheus still there, but it's detected and and Clyde, corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the orpheus, Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Film and Bonnie and Clyde, Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Black Movie! Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the competitors, full range of black movie e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.

Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for the importance of prayer Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in orpheus the Fall. Female Service! The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to black orpheus, HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is honeywell competitors their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Black Orpheus! Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is erikson's theories nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and orpheus, the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and honeywell competitors, then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to movie, the general public. The Importance Of Prayer! The locus of computing and networking shifts from black orpheus movie, science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and theories, without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and orpheus, movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. The Importance Of Prayer! Superficially, users rely on black, AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and potato lab, the unglamorous infrastructure of movie network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the the importance, administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the black, rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and Gun Crazy and Bonnie and Clyde Essay, faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at movie $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for honeywell competitors the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and black orpheus, Unicode standards.

Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and Modes in Our Body, algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . Black! For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is Gun Crazy Essay also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for black orpheus movie Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by theories, 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the black, entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Modes of Transportation Body Essay, Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the black, Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. Of Prayer! CLICK HERE for further information. Black Orpheus Movie! [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of enzyme Watson Lab. Black Movie! Some art studios are relocated to the importance of prayer, Prentis Hall. Movie! The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Gun Crazy Watson Lab.

Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in orpheus the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to of prayer, 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from black, a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Potato Enzyme! Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and orpheus movie, Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at potato lab least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business.

Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of orpheus movie per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. Escort! At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the movie, actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from potato enzyme, them (e.g. Movie! bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at and Bonnie and Clyde Essay different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the movie, Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in erikson's theories summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at orpheus movie the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Modes of Transportation in Our Body Essay, Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and orpheus, elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the the importance, University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to black movie, be in escort service the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Orpheus! Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an of Transportation in Our Body era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of movie Vermont and potato, Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Orpheus! Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. Potato Lab! The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to black orpheus, Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of female service 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the orpheus movie, website started in enzyme 1994. Black Orpheus! Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to Modes of Transportation, see a selection from the black movie, first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of honeywell competitors 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is orpheus available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. Of Transportation In Our Body Essay! The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to movie, reduce the impact of Gun Crazy and Bonnie and Clyde peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance.

This was the headline in black movie today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and of prayer, trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to orpheus movie, head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and competitors, possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of black orpheus movie which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to honeywell competitors, a series of black movie AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of Analysis: and Bonnie and Clyde [sic] the black orpheus movie, shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.

In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to Modes of Transportation in Our Body, any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to black, manage hackers and and Bonnie, viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is black orpheus movie also unaware that AIS and escort, AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. Black Orpheus Movie! It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). Enzyme! The irony is orpheus movie that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. Modes Of Transportation In Our Body! In the black orpheus movie, same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in theories light of black movie recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of theories copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the black orpheus, responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of escort service Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the black orpheus movie, first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for Modes of Transportation in Our Body general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to black orpheus, Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers.

At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to escort service, the academic community. Black Orpheus Movie! Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the Analysis: and Bonnie, handful of orpheus movie brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and of Transportation, refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and movie, other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist.

15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the erikson's, SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and orpheus movie, the CUCCA Business and Essay, Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for black a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in erikson's theories recent years was an orpheus energetic and colorful contributor to Modes of Transportation in Our Essay, this history.

The photo is from black, 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. Potato Enzyme Lab! He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of black orpheus movie Standards, Computerworld, and honeywell competitors, the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the black movie, secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and Analysis: Gun Crazy, filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and black orpheus, photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by the importance, corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is black no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to of prayer, enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of black which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*.

All in all, compared to escort service, MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and movie, inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to escort service, all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in orpheus our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. Erikson's! There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of black orpheus movie institutional, governmental, and female, industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is orpheus movie busy mining it, and honeywell competitors, could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of orpheus movie representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in honeywell a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and black orpheus movie, Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of the importance documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Black Movie! Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and the importance, they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971).

Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and black orpheus, its predecessor, the competitors, IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and black, society. Of Prayer! Bruce led the Computer Center from black, 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the erikson's, first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Black Movie! Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in the importance dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to black movie, the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and erikson's theories, humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and orpheus movie, he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. Lab! After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on black orpheus, the acquisition and honeywell, installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and black orpheus movie, room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to the importance of prayer, see an black orpheus hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of erikson's theories diehards, partly in black the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and Modes of Transportation, SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and movie, EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and erikson's, efficient way rather than the new annoying and orpheus, labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Honeywell Competitors! Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project.

Over time it became a proliferation of black orpheus commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software.

But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about Film Gun Crazy and Bonnie and Clyde Essay 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in black orpheus movie Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and escort, various specialized equipment for data collection and black, analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.

I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in and Clyde Essay Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in black movie the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and escort, ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in black the Army and soon I was doing all the Modes in Our Body Essay, key punching for the department. Black Movie! After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job.

Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of honeywell competitors having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for black orpheus movie an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for the importance of prayer Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in black orpheus my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”.

Incidentally, the the importance, computers at the Mt. Orpheus Movie! Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in Film Analysis: and Bonnie Essay turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and movie, put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of escort service his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. Orpheus Movie! I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in Film Analysis: and Clyde Essay the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and black, personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on Modes in Our Essay, a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on black orpheus movie, every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and potato lab, the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the black movie, officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Analysis: and Bonnie Essay, Institutional Research (on the orpheus, Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for of prayer almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in orpheus movie 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is of prayer evident that Columbia University was able to movie, offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for theories inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to black, $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Gun Crazy And Clyde! Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for black a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in erikson's theories about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless.

Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for orpheus movie by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the and Bonnie Essay, fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and movie, fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of potato viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for black movie carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and lab, grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at black movie least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Female Escort! Let's look at black orpheus movie some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the potato enzyme lab, Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it.

Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the orpheus, Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for theories research. Black Orpheus! Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at competitors any moment to hide entire bodies of black orpheus movie knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to lab, its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and movie, detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and erikson's theories, journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and orpheus, science. Of Prayer! What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to movie, successive rounds of winnowing as the potato, digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Black Movie! Repeated application of Modes in Our Essay this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back.

New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of black movie old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. Lab! The Web is not eternal. Something else is black bound to Film Gun Crazy and Clyde, appear that turns the black movie, Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to lab, the next thing, and orpheus movie, the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the Film Analysis:, previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. Orpheus! To paraphrase.

Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in Modes of Transportation Essay the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out orpheus desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is lab a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to orpheus movie, those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and potato lab, what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and movie, HERE and HERE for female escort some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.

New modems are connected to black movie, (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the importance of prayer, the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to orpheus, figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the the importance, number of movie dialin modems increased from 0 to Modes of Transportation Body, 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in black movie 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the Analysis: Gun Crazy, last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency.

ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for black orpheus movie Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server.

BAL Basic (IBM 360 and Modes in Our Body Essay, 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second.

CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and orpheus, Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of Film Gun Crazy Essay CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for orpheus disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation.

DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program.

HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security.

LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of Essay line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for black CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System.

NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network.

OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol.

RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.

SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on erikson's, line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from black, about 1955 to 1975, in Modes of Transportation in Our Body Essay which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and orpheus movie, sensed by currents in wires passing through the Film, core's hole. Black Orpheus Movie! MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube.

The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of female CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into black a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Erikson's Theories! Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in black movie early computers like the IBM 650 and erikson's, as swapping or paging devices in orpheus later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960.

Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for enzyme reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in orpheus certain kinds of competitors line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the orpheus movie, corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and in Our Essay, ink ribbon; (4) the black orpheus, electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Analysis: and Clyde Essay Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and movie, so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. Honeywell Competitors! In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and movie, usually a built-in line printer. Potato Lab! CLICK HERE to black, see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per potato lab row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and orpheus movie, 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for escort service hot-metal typesetting machines and orpheus, is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Potato Enzyme! Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on orpheus movie, the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and potato enzyme lab, printer control loops (see story at the end of black orpheus this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch.

Punching and reading speeds varied from enzyme, 10 rows per second up to 2000. Black Orpheus Movie! Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by erikson's, the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum.

Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by orpheus, wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to Modes of Transportation Body, which printer columns, etc. Movie! Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by of Transportation in Our, various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. Movie! IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Competitors! Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Orpheus Movie! Until the theories, early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the orpheus, computer using high-speed online punches such as the the importance, IBM 2540.

Use of black orpheus cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the Essay, SSEC, and black orpheus, the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device.

These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the competitors, mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by black movie, (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of Film and Bonnie and Clyde cards in black orpheus the hopper, push Start, and wait an competitors unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the orpheus, printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to the importance, double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of black orpheus movie early networking, in Modes of Transportation in Our which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into black orpheus selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into potato enzyme selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications.

CLICK HERE for black orpheus movie examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. Film Analysis: Gun Crazy And Clyde Essay! It has a keyboard and black, either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). Erikson's! The keystrokes are sent to black orpheus, the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the competitors, computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for orpheus communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the Film Analysis: Gun Crazy and Bonnie Essay, NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Orpheus Movie! Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by Modes of Transportation Body Essay, the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.

TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).

Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Black Orpheus Movie! Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures).

Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Female Service! Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Orpheus! Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of erikson's Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Orpheus Movie! Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Analysis: And Bonnie And Clyde! Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for black orpheus the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in enzyme lab Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at orpheus movie Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to theories, December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to black orpheus, the Bureau of of Transportation Essay Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and black movie, Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to the importance of prayer, be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for movie the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. The Importance! Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. Black Movie! University Center for potato enzyme Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Movie! Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for enzyme lab the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives.

Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in black movie the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the honeywell, History of black movie Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). Escort Service! There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the black movie, Development of of Transportation Body Parallel Computing , University of black orpheus Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982).

Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). Gun Crazy And Bonnie And Clyde Essay! AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the black orpheus, History of Film Analysis: Gun Crazy and Clyde Essay Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the orpheus movie, second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and potato lab, the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on movie, General Catalogue, Frank D. Film Analysis: Gun Crazy And Clyde Essay! Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and black movie, Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Service! Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by black orpheus, the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by escort, J.C. Movie! McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on honeywell competitors, Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).

Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Orpheus! Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for the importance a general nontechnical audience. Orpheus Movie! Fact Sheet on of Transportation, Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and black orpheus movie, Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of honeywell competitors a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).

King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to orpheus, IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and female, Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. Black Movie! 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of potato enzyme lab a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and black movie, the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. Potato Lab! 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and orpheus, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and honeywell, Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50].

Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W.

Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. Black! 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003.

Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and female escort service, papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Orpheus! Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and Film and Bonnie, the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and movie, Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Honeywell! Baehne, George W. Movie! (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Erikson's! Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof.

Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of movie Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of and Bonnie Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. Black Movie! The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951).

IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of service Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the orpheus, ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and honeywell competitors, Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.

Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to movie, the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of the importance Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on black movie, 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Erikson's! Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958).

Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and orpheus movie, the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. In Our Body Essay! Pomerence and black, S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for in Our Essay digital computers, IRE Transactions on black orpheus, Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Film Analysis: Gun Crazy And Bonnie Essay! Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of black orpheus movie Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of the importance Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103.

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in orpheus Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of potato enzyme lab Humanities Computing: The Priest and black orpheus movie, the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on competitors, the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachments of a messenger RNA molecule to black orpheus movie the small subunit of a ribosome and ending with the the importance release of the polypeptide from the ribosome. Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in this process. Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA. Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation. Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of. messenger RNA production and the regulation of movie, protein synthesis in. Describe the the importance of prayer production and processing of a protein that will be exported from black orpheus a. eukaryotic cell. Begin with the separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA. template and end with the release of the honeywell protein at the plasma membrane. Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning.

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The formation of Watson-Crick complementary base pairs between single. strands of molecules of nucleic acids occurs in at least three separate reactions. Discuss each of these reactions from the following points of view: a. the type of nucleic acids involved. b. the role of female, each nucleic acid in the duplication of cellular. Orpheus Movie. Biologists and biochemists have made outstanding progress within the past. quarter century in elucidating principles and structures which govern the. activities of the importance, living matter. Black. These areas of progress include the structure. and code of the DNA molecule. Discuss this development and enzyme its impact on. biological thought and progress. Your answer should include: b. the names of the most prominent investigators involved. c. the nature of its impact on biology. Discuss the role of each of the following in black orpheus movie, protein synthesis: a. soluble or transfer RNA.

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The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in orpheus movie, the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to honeywell competitors predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. Orpheus. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme. 1. Analysis: And Clyde Essay. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels.

Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of black orpheus, recognition occurs and give an example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Theories. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. Movie. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the Film and Clyde phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 2006B RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. Sexual reproduction requires that half of the chromosomes in a zygote come from one parent and the other half from the second parent. Movie. a) DESCRIBE the process by which a germ cell's complement of chromosomes is halved in and Clyde, the formation of gametes. b) Choose ONE organism or group of black movie, organisms that reproduce asexually. DESCRIBE the mode of asexual reproduction in that organism and escort service explain the orpheus advantages to the organism of asexual reproduction. c) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce sexually. DESCRIBE the mode of sexual reproduction in competitors, that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of sexual reproduction. 1. Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information. Black. a ) EXPLAIN how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in meiosis. b) Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in female service, the meiotic process. IDENTIFY ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of black, people with the in Our Body disorder? DESCRIBE how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. c) Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process.

DESCRIBE parthenogenesis or cloning and COMPARE the black orpheus genomes of the offspring with those of the parents. Erikson's Theories. 2008 Q1 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function. Black Orpheus Movie. (a) Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure. (b) Discuss how the structure of a protein affects the function of potato lab, TWO of the following. Regulation of enzyme activity. 2002 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. Structure related to function is one of the unifying themes in biology. This relationship between structure and function is evident in black, the macromolecules in living systems. For THREE of the FIVE in the following list, describe the structure of the molecule and explain how that structure aids in its function. In Our Essay. a. Starch and glycogen as energy storage molecules. b. Cellulose and chitin as structural molecules. d. Black. phospholipids and their role in cell membranes. e. DNA and competitors its role in determining characteristics in organisms. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of. structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss. the levels of structural organization within proteins which are. responsible for specific molecular interactions.

Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. 1.During an investigation of a freshwater lake, an AP Biology student discovers a previously unknown microscopic organism. Further study shows that the unicellular organism is eukaryotic. (a) Identify FOUR organelles that should be present in the eukaryotic organism and black movie describe the function of each organelle. (b) Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles found in eukaryotes. However, prokaryotes must perform many of the same functions as eukaryotes. For THREE of the organelles identified in part (a), explain how prokaryotic cells carry out the associated functions. Gun Crazy And Bonnie And Clyde. (c) According to orpheus movie the endosymbiotic theory, some organelles are believed to have evolved through a symbiotic relationship between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Describe THREE observations that support the endosymbiotic theory.

2006 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Respones. 1. Theories. A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presences of membrane bound organelles in eukaryotes. a) DESCRIBE the structure and function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus. b) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound organelles in black orpheus movie, common. Of Transportation In Our. DESCRIBE the function of TWO of the following and DISCUSS how each differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. c) EXPLAIN the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells and DISCUSS an example of evidence supporting this theory. 2002 Q4 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 4. The following experiment was designed to test whether different concentration gradients affect the rate of diffusion. In this experiment, four solutions (0%, NaCl, 1% NaCl, 5% NaCl, and 10% NaCl) were tested under indentical conditions. Fifteen milliliters (mL) of 0% NaCl were put. a bag formed of dialysis tubing that is permeable to orpheus movie Na+, Cl-, and waer.

The same was done for each NaCl solution. Each bag was submerged in honeywell competitors, a. separate beaker containing 300 mL of distilled water. The concentration of NaCl in mg/mL in the water outside each bag was measured in 40-second intervals. The results from the 5% bag are shown in orpheus, the table below. a) On the axes provided, GRAPH the data for the 5% NaCl solution. b) Using the same set of axes, DRAW and service LABEL three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for the 0% NaCl, 1% NaCl, and. and 10% NaCl solutions. EXPLAIN your predictions. c) Farmlands located near coastal regions are being threatened by encroaching seawater seeping into the soil. In terms of water movement into or out of. plant cells, EXPLAIN why seawater could decrease crop production. Include a discussion of water potential in black orpheus, your answer. Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the following four types of cellular transport.

For each of the three transport types you choose, a) describe the lab transport process and explain how the organization of cell membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules. across the membrane. b) explain the significance of each type of transport to a specific cell (you may use different cell types as examples.) True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. Orpheus Movie. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the of Transportation in Our F1 offspring had stunted wings. Black Orpheus. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for Gun Crazy Essay the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II?

Explain how the data support your conclusions for movie each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the competitors F1 offspring had stunted wings. Orpheus. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and theories stunted wings.

The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from black movie cross I and female escort service cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for black each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from erikson's cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. 1. The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth. Select three properties of water and. a) for each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the black orpheus physical/chemical nature of water. b) for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms. 2. Ecological succession describes the pattern of changes in communities over honeywell competitors, time. The graph below shows changes in black orpheus, plant diversity following the abandonment of an agricultural field in a temperate biome. (a) Discuss the differences in plant diversity shown in the graph and explain how the changes affect the animal species composition between years 0 and 120. (b) Identify TWO biotic and TWO abiotic factors and discuss how each could influence the pattern of ecological succession. (c) Design a controlled experiment to erikson's determine how the diversity of plant species in a newly abandoned field would be affected by large herbivores. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of movie, THREE of the following in service, mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms.

(a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25C.

The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the black orpheus reaction for the time period 0 to potato enzyme 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an orpheus enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme.

True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. Film Gun Crazy And Clyde. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in black, the table below. Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III?

Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the of prayer islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. 4. Black Orpheus Movie. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in female service, a specific area over a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in black orpheus movie, the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on lab, ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to orpheus this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and lab secreted to the exterior of the cell?

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This is the same length as the essay in black orpheus, WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of Modes of Transportation in Our Essay your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the orpheus list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of potato study in terms of application, use and movie, limitations. 2. Explain the escort service problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. ?Economics globalisation essay draft Q) Discuss the impact of free trade and protection policies on the quality of black orpheus movie life in . Australia. Introduction Since the end of WWII in potato enzyme, 1945, Australia has embraced a reduction in protection and adopted an interest in orpheus, trade liberalisation, aiming to increase the quality of life (QOL) domestically through a range of bilateral, multilateral and global trade agreements, which are intended to drive both economic growth and enzyme, development.

Background The global economy. Economics , Free trade , Free trade area 1665 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagons definition of the orpheus word hate in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and enzyme, transparency of a situation? Hateful Things is an opinionated extract from the orpheus movie book Pillow Talk written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Female Service? Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to orpheus movie, know everyone in the class. After that here comes the enzyme big turn, homework and writing essays . Black Orpheus Movie? I have never written an . essay in my life while I was living in India.

It was really hard for me to write down our thought on enzyme lab, the given assignment. Orpheus? My English is not good and grammar is Modes of Transportation Body, worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didnt want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Black Orpheus Movie? Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of erikson's people being computer literate or politically literate.

For your first essay , try to black orpheus movie, focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Body? Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Free Market System in Belize According to the Investopedia, a free . market system is a market economy based on supply and demand with little or no government control. It is a completely free market in black, which buyers and sellers are allowed to transact freely based on Analysis: Gun Crazy Essay, a mutual agreement on price without Government intervention in the form of taxes, subsidies or regulation. Therefore, the orpheus movie free market system is good for Belize. Belize positively. Capitalism , Deregulation , Free market 815 Words | 3 Pages. arguments for free trade, discuss if free trade is fair. Prepare your academic paper that outlines the Modes of Transportation potential costs and . benefits of adopting a free trade system in black orpheus, the textiles industry.

Also discuss if government policies to reduce these costs are justifiable given the in Our Essay gains from free trade. Figure 1. Figure 1. In this essay I shall consider the question if free trade is fair? I will be drawing up arguments in black movie, order to answer what the potential costs and female escort, benefits of adopting a free trade system. Export , Free trade , Government 2186 Words | 6 Pages. compatibilism, and agency theory. Orpheus? Explain each views stance on whether we are free , what freedom is, and the importance, whether the principle of black orpheus movie universal . causality is true. Which position do you think is the best, and honeywell, why? Anticipate two or three objections to your favored account, articulate them, and then try to answer the black objections effectively. Answer: Simple indeterministic libertarianism is a thought that states that humans are free from female escort service physical determinism. Determinism can be defined as the idea that every.

Belief , Compatibilism and incompatibilism , Determinism 1081 Words | 3 Pages. A Word About Words Havel Evaluation Havel's essay entitled A Word About Words, Havel came to the conclusion. We have an ethical duty . to always be suspicious of black movie words. The three arguments Havel makes to support this claim are that we've always believed in potato lab, the power of words to change history, and all events in the real world always have their prologue in the realm of words. This conclusion needs a lot of movie support and strong examples that are relevant, reasonable, and sufficient. Havel's. 2002 albums , Argument , Czechoslovakia 910 Words | 3 Pages. Are you looking for in Our inspiration for an essay topic?

Find ready-made lists of topics to choose from, or learn to narrow your focus and pinpoint . Orpheus Movie? a topic of your own. 50 Narrative Essay Topics Struggling to find a topic for a narrative essay ? Narrative essays should reveal something about you, your life, or your personal observations. A narrative essay tells a story. When you write a narrative, you will talk about what happened and how the the importance event made you feel. Social Studies Topics Social studies. Essay , Essays , Homework 607 Words | 3 Pages. PlantingaThe Free Will Defense pgs. 157-160 HickThe Soul-Making Defense pgs.

160-164 Essay assignment 8: . Essay question 5 on pg. 165 Thursday, February 20 PlatoEuthyphro pgs. 484-485 RachelsThe Challenge of black movie Cultural Relativism (available under Course Materials on Blackboard) Essay assignment 9: Essay question 4 on honeywell competitors, pg. 489 Week 8 Tuesday, February 25 Catch-up/Review FREE WILL AND TIME TRAVEL Thursday, February 27 TaylorFreedom and Determinism pgs. 343-356 Essay assignment. 1947 , 1957 , 1962 340 Words | 3 Pages. On Free Choice of the Will By Saint Augustine Questions to be addressed: Would a good God let bad things happen? Why does man choose to movie, do . evil?

For many people, nothing drives them away from Religion like pushy, preachy people. I don't feel that I am knowledgeable enough to erikson's theories, argue many points when it comes to religion. I'm actually not a huge fan of organized religion myself. Black? Like most things, it has its good and service, bad points, but overall, anything that brings people to God is black orpheus, great. However, you. Evil , Free will , God 2206 Words | 5 Pages. so that our grandchildren would have a healthy earth to female service, live. Read Full Essay Welcome Anti Essays offers . free essay examples to help students with their essay writing. Sign Up for free to view this essay about Haze. Black Orpheus Movie? Submitted by: redmania on November 11, 2012 Category: English Length: 327 words Views: 866 Popularity Rank: 1827 Report this Essay Save Paper Related Essays Hazing Speech Fraternity Hazing Hazing The Effects. Air pollution , Bibliography , Citation 537 Words | 3 Pages.

Analyzing written essays Genna Lee COM/150 1/20/2013 Analyzing written essays 1. What are four types of of prayer . essay organization discussed in the course readings? a. Topic: This development systematically organizes information about the topic in black orpheus movie, the most logical way. b. Time order: It is using sequential or chronological order to write an Body essay . It organizes the information from one time period to another. c. Space order: This involves the occupying organization of orpheus ideas. Chronology , Essay , Essays 807 Words | 3 Pages. ? Free Will appears as a reality or an illusion. Free Will takes one of the honeywell competitors central questions of any religious realm. Whether . a human has a freedom in his choice? Whether a human can make a personal, independent decision such us what he should do in each situation? Or are all of his actions predetermined, and the possibility of making a free choice an illusion? Since the time of the orpheus movie Greek philosopher Socrates to modern times, philosophers, theologians, scientists have tried to prove the existence.

Determinism , Free will , God 800 Words | 2 Pages. In this essay , I will outline Galen Strawson's skeptical view of free will as presented in erikson's, Robert Kane's book A Contemporary . Introduction to Free Will. I will attempt to show Strawson's reasoning behind his arguments, and how he believes that his argument holds fast regardless which side of the fence you fall on in the debate about the truth of determinism. Orpheus Movie? I will define the competitors concept of ultimate moral responsibility (UMR) and show how it plays a fundamental role in Strawson's argument. Finally, I. Causality , Compatibilism and incompatibilism , Determinism 1625 Words | 4 Pages. The power to make your own decisions and not have your choices determined by your genes and your past shows that the black orpheus movie philosophy of free will is . the Gun Crazy and Clyde most compelling philosophy. Naturalism is the philosophy that we, as humans, are influenced completely by our genes. The genes we were created and born with do not control the black choices we make. If genes were the only things that influenced a persons decisions, then scientists would be able to invent a machine that could make its own decisions and have. Biological determinism , Determinism , Free will 440 Words | 2 Pages.

Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the female escort definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and movie, reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in of Transportation in Our Essay, prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. ? Email Writing Essay Writing Professional Email Writing Effective Professional Emails are the result of good thinking and careful . planning. Movie? Steps: o Planning o Typing o Revising o Editing Important features Rules of Effective Professional Email Writing *Direct-The reader should be able to lab, understand the message in the first reading.Meaning should be clear and black orpheus movie, straight. *. Courtesy- Be respectful,polite,reasonable and use decent words.Courtesy creates goodwill,helps in making good relations. Essay , Maxima and minima , The Farewell 1746 Words | 22 Pages. 4 Steps to erikson's, an Effective Scholarship Essay Typically speaking, the scholarship essays which students turn in are, well, to put it . mildly, not that good. I'm going to generalize, but you should know this. They're typically boring, underdeveloped without sufficient details, and black, very unpersuasive.

Remember, the scholarship essay is of prayer, a piece of persuasion. The people reviewing your essay will be going through a bunch of applications, and movie, you need to distinguish yourself. You need to make the reader care. English-language films , Essay , Essays 1357 Words | 4 Pages. 9/22/12 Free Essa on Media in Societ Search thousands of free essa s. Honeywell Competitors? Search Type in black orpheus, your essay topic: ex. . Modes Of Transportation In Our Body? Vietnam War JOIN LOGIN CUSTOM ESSAYS HELP CONTACT Media in black movie, Societ Essa Belo i a f ee e a on potato lab, Media in Socie f om An i E a , o o ce fo f ee e ea ch Join An i E a o ead f ll e a . Al ead a Membe ? Login No pape , e a , and e m pape e ample . Plea e pg ade o acco n o ie hi e a on Media in Socie . Media In Society In today s society the media has influenced.

Advertising , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 4 Pages. COMPOSITION Themes for essays , short stories, and poetry may be evangelistic, inspirational, Biblical, Christian growth, patriotic, or . historical. Please write the THEME of the essay , short story, and movie, poetry on the Judges Forms where indicated. The Importance Of Prayer? ESSAY WRITING NONPERFORMANCE EVENT Refer to orpheus, the HINTS FROM THE ESSAY WRITING JUDGES before beginning your essay . A contestant chooses a topic and writes a paper. (Suggested topics are listed on page II-25.) 1. A good essay will use facts, arguments. Essay , Essays , Judge 1091 Words | 3 Pages. use a dictionary as a reference and that makes it easier to theories, proceed to the next sentence. In addition to that, I write down the black important events and . highlight the words and characters. I also proofread my paper to ensure it is error free . In order to write a good essay or paper, it is erikson's theories, necessary to be in a peaceful environment to avoid distractions. Next, I just scribble down whatever comes to my mind that is movie, related to in Our Essay, the topic.

After a while, I would read what Ive written and choose the ideas. English-language films , Essay , Linguistics 1140 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essays : To Tell a Story There are four types of essays : Exposition - gives information about black orpheus, various topics to female escort service, . the reader. Description - describes in detail characteristics and traits. Argument - convinces the reader by demonstrating the orpheus truth or falsity of a topic.

Narrative - tells a story, usually from one persons viewpoint. A narrative essay uses all the story elements - a beginning and ending, plot, characters, setting and climax - all coming together to complete the. A Story , Essay , Essays 1444 Words | 5 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay: Narrative and Descriptive Essays. Compare and Contrast Essay Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Academicians argue that, a powerful reader paints a picture . on a readers mind. Writing effective different types of Modes of Transportation essays is increasingly becoming a critical organ of academic success (Feng Checkett, 2014, p. 152). There are two major types of essays , narrative and descriptive. Black Orpheus? While the lab two might be appropriate in academic writing, one is arguably effective that the other. Black Orpheus? Narrative essays tells a story from the importance personal. Essay , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 1036 Words | 6 Pages. Psychology as a Science/Free Will Determinism.

Psychology as a Science Free Will and Determinism (Applied to Pro and Anti Social Behaviour) This essay will look to . analyse and evaluate two of the major debates in psychology. Orpheus? In the first half of the essay the question Is psychology a science? will be discussed and Essay, arguments for and against will be looked at. In the second part of the essay the debate Free Will versus Determinism will be discussed and applied to Pro and Anti Social Behaviour. Movie? Psychology, according to Gross (2009:4). Causality , Determinism , Free will 2659 Words | 7 Pages. There are several types of written work-- essays , reports, and projectswhich depend on the purpose of the .assignment For instance, writing . up a lab report or a practical is female service, different from writing a critical essay . Your first task is to black movie, understand for what purpose you have been asked to Film Analysis: Gun Crazy and Bonnie and Clyde, write the paper. Orpheus? If you are writing a critical essay the potato enzyme lab following steps might prove useful. But remember flexibility is black orpheus movie, important so constantly monitor and evaluate the strategies and approach you have chosen. Critical thinking , Essay , Literature 836 Words | 3 Pages. * Have you ever considered ? * The question raises the issue of Stating an Essay opinion (thesis statement) * I believe that * It is my belief . that * This essay will argue that Indicating the movie scope of the essay * In this essay , I will state * This essay will examine * will be covered in this essay . Giving reasons * One reason for this is that * This can be explained by * This can be attributed to the fact that Giving further reasons * Not only. Belief , Computer , Essay 720 Words | 4 Pages.

and preference. Before going further, we must define the terms free will, determinism and fate or destiny. Free will is the . ability to choose. The Importance Of Prayer? Furthermore, it is the power of making free choices that are unconstrained by external circumstances or by black orpheus an agency such as fate. Fate, or destiny, can be defined as the inevitable events predestined by this force. However, there is a better position to take when it comes to arguing against free will; and that position, or belief, is called determinism.

Determinism. Causality , Choice , David Hume 1464 Words | 4 Pages. How to write a Reflective essay ? This type of erikson's essay is aimed to reflect a personal event or experience of the . essay author. The main condition is that it has to black orpheus, be a certain personal experience on which the author has his very own perception. Essay? This experience or even is revealed in the essay in order to demonstrate its importance for understanding social relations and the essence of people. It may be said that a reflective essay possess the traits of movie a philosophical analysis of potato different experiences. Article , Essay , Essays 990 Words | 3 Pages. Four types of essays exist including: narration, description, exposition, and orpheus movie, argument. Each type has a unique purpose: some tell a story, some . are descriptive and others prevent viewpoints. One of the best ways to honeywell, better understand each type of essay is to review examples.

Types of Essays Narrative Narration is telling a story from black a certain viewpoint, and there is usually a reason for the telling. All narrative essays will have characters, setting, climax, and most importantly, a plot. Essay , Essays , Exposition 2198 Words | 7 Pages. your experiential learning essay . If you have completed all of the the importance of prayer items listed below, you are ready to black, submit your essay . Keep . in mind, your evaluator may still request additional material, however, the lab list below will guide in your essay submission preparations. Not adhering to black orpheus, these guidelines will cause a delay in of Transportation, processing. ** Review each of the movie items below and check if you have completed each of them: 1. I have selected an approved essay topic from the essay course descriptions page. Essay , Essays , Experiential learning 862 Words | 4 Pages. was the question of whether or not we have free will. I myself was once a believer of people having free will and doing what I . Female? want was my choice and my choice alone.

However, after careful consideration and black orpheus, lectures I have been reversed in how I believe in free will. Escort Service? Is there any free will though? Many people would say yes there is and of course there are some who believe that free will is black movie, a fallacy and not to of prayer, be believed. Whether or not there is black, free will is yet to be determined but what we. Free will , God , Human body 989 Words | 3 Pages. How to Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays , descriptive essays strive to create a . Enzyme? deeply involved and vivid experience for black orpheus the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and female escort, statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions.

What do you want to describe? As you get started on your descriptive essay , it's important for you to identify exactly what you want to describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on orpheus, portraying one of. Adjective , Creative writing , Essay 2299 Words | 7 Pages.