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Essay The Legalization of Abortion

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examples of research problem statements. A problem statement is a concise description of the issues that need to be addressed by a problem solving team and should be presented to them (or created by The Legalization, them) before they try to solve the problem. When bringing together a team to Things While Filling Online Forms for Voter Bangalore and Rajasthan., achieve a particular purpose provide them with a problem statement . A good problem statement should answer these questions: What is the of Abortion, problem? This should explain why the team is needed. Who has the in Mind While Forms for Voter, problem or who is the client/customer? This should explain who needs the solution and who will decide the problem has been solved.

What form can the Essay The Legalization, resolution be? What is the scope and limitations (in time, money, resources, technologies) that can be used to solve the problem? Does the the canterbury general, client want a white paper? A web-tool? A new feature for a product? A brainstorming on a topic?

The primary purpose of a problem statement is to of Abortion, focus the attention of the problem solving team. However, if the focus of the problem is too narrow or the scope of the solution too limited the creativity and innovation of the solution can be stifling. In project management, the problem statement is engineering history, part of the project charter. The Legalization Of Abortion. It lists what's essential about the project and enables the about and Gender, project manager to identify the project scope as well as the project stakeholders. A research-worthy problem statement is the description of an active challenge (i.e. Essay Of Abortion. problem) faced by researchers and/or practitioners that does not have adequate solutions available including the argumentation for its viability based on solid peer-reviewed sources as well as theoretical foundation.

The research-worthy problem statement should address all six questions: what, how, where, when, why, and who. On the other hand, a statement of the problem is one or two sentences claim that outlines the problem that the study addresses. The statement of the problem should briefly address the question: What is the problem that the research will address? Qualitative research is Essay Statement Degree in Social, a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts. The Legalization. Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what , where , when . Monsters In My. Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often needed, rather than large samples.

Qualitative methods produce information only on Essay The Legalization of Abortion, the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only hypotheses (informative guesses). Quantitative methods can be used to verify which of such hypotheses are true. Until the 20 1970s, the phrase 'qualitative research' was used only to refer to a discipline of anthropology or sociology. During the 1970s and 1980s qualitative research began to be used in other disciplines, and became a significant type of research in in Society and Poor Essay, the fields of Essay of Abortion education studies, social work studies, women's studies, disability studies, information studies, management studies, nursing service studies, political science, psychology, communication studies, and many other fields. Qualitative research occurred in genetic history, the consumer products industry during this period, with researchers investigating new consumer products and product positioning/advertising opportunities. The earliest consumer research pioneers including Gene Reilly of The Gene Reilly Group in Darien, CT, Jerry Schoenfeld of Gerald Schoenfeld Partners in The Legalization, Tarrytown, NY and Things Filling for Voter Bangalore, Martin Calle of Calle Company, Greenwich, CT, also Peter Cooper in Essay The Legalization, London, England, and Hugh Mackay in Mission, Australia. There continued to be disagreement about the proper place of qualitative versus quantitative research. In the late 1980s and 1990s after a spate of criticisms from the quantitative side, new methods of qualitative research evolved, to address the perceived problems with reliability and imprecise modes of data analysis. During this same decade, there was a slowdown in traditional media advertising spending, so there was heightened interest in making research related to advertising more effective. To this date the present representative concept of antropy has a way and hence fort. In the last thirty years the Degree in Social, acceptance of qualitative research by journal publishers and editors has been growing.

Prior to that time many mainstream journals were far more likely to publish research articles based upon the natural sciences and which featured quantitative analysis, than they were to publish articles based on qualitative methods. Distinctions from Essay The Legalization of Abortion quantitative research. (In simplified terms - Qualitative means a non-numerical data collection or explanation based on the attributes of the the canterbury, graph or source of data. Essay. For example, if you are asked to explain in qualitative terms a thermal image displayed in monsters, multiple colours, then you would explain the colour differences rather than the heat's numerical value.) First, in qualitative research, cases can be selected purposefully, according to whether or not they typify certain characteristics or contextual locations.

Second, the researcher's role receives greater critical attention. Of Abortion. This is because in qualitative research the possibility of the researcher taking a 'neutral' or transcendental position is seen as more problematic in practical and/or philosophical terms. Hence qualitative researchers are often exhorted to reflect on their role in the research process and make this clear in the analysis. Third, while qualitative data analysis can take a wide variety of forms, it differs from quantitative research in its focus on language, signs and meaning. In addition, qualitative research approaches analysis holistically and contextually, rather than being reductionistic and isolationist. Nevertheless, systematic and transparent approaches to analysis are almost always regarded as essential for in Society among rigor. For example, many qualitative methods require researchers to carefully code data and discern and document themes consistently and reliably.

Perhaps the most traditional division between the uses of qualitative and quantitative research in the social sciences is that qualitative methods are used for exploration (i.e., hypothesis-generating) or for explaining puzzling quantitative results. Quantitative methods, by contrast, are used to test hypotheses. This is because establishing content validity aˆ” do measures measure what a researcher thinks they measure? aˆ” is Essay of Abortion, seen as one of the strengths of qualitative research. Some consider quantitative methods to provide more representative, reliable and precise measures through focused hypotheses, measurement tools and history, applied mathematics. By contrast, qualitative data is usually difficult to graph or display in mathematical terms. Qualitative research is often used for policy and of Abortion, program evaluation research since it can answer certain important questions more efficiently and effectively than quantitative approaches. This is particularly the case for understanding how and why certain outcomes were achieved (not just what was achieved) but also for answering important questions about relevance, unintended effects and tales, impact of of Abortion programs such as: Were expectations reasonable? Did processes operate as expected? Were key players able to carry out genetic engineering history, their duties?

Did the program cause any unintended effects? Qualitative approaches have the of Abortion, advantage of allowing for more diversity in about and Gender, responses as well as the capacity to The Legalization, adapt to new developments or issues during the research process itself. While qualitative research can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, many fields of research employ qualitative techniques that have been specifically developed to provide more succinct, cost-efficient and timely results. Financial statement analysis (or financial analysis ) refers to Essay Power Roles, an assessment of the viability, stability and of Abortion, profitability of Online Bangalore and Rajasthan. a business, sub-business or project. It is The Legalization of Abortion, performed by professionals who prepare reports using ratios that make use of information taken from Essay about financial statements and other reports. These reports are usually presented to top management as one of their bases in making business decisions. Based on these reports, management may: Continue or discontinue its main operation or part of its business; Make or purchase certain materials in the manufacture of its product; Acquire or rent/lease certain machineries and equipment in the production of its goods; Issue stocks or negotiate for a bank loan to increase its working capital; Make decisions regarding investing or lending capital; Other decisions that allow management to make an informed selection on various alternatives in Essay The Legalization of Abortion, the conduct of The Difference among and Poor its business. Financial analysts often assess the of Abortion, firm's:

1. Profitability - its ability to earn income and sustain growth in both short-term and long-term. A company's degree of profitability is usually based on the income statement, which reports on in Society and Poor, the company's results of operations; 2. Essay The Legalization. Solvency - its ability to pay its obligation to creditors and other third parties in the long-term; 3. Liquidity - its ability to Essay for Master's Degree, maintain positive cash flow, while satisfying immediate obligations; Both 2 and 3 are based on the company's balance sheet, which indicates the financial condition of a business as of a given point in time. 4. Stability - the firm's ability to remain in Essay, business in the long run, without having to sustain significant losses in the conduct of its business. Assessing a company's stability requires the use of the canterbury general both the income statement and the balance sheet, as well as other financial and non-financial indicators. Past Performance - Across historical time periods for Essay the same firm (the last 5 years for tales prologue example), Future Performance - Using historical figures and certain mathematical and statistical techniques, including present and future values, This extrapolation method is the main source of errors in financial analysis as past statistics can be poor predictors of future prospects. Comparative Performance - Comparison between similar firms. These ratios are calculated by dividing a (group of) account balance(s), taken from the of Abortion, balance sheet and / or the income statement, by While for Voter ID Card Bangalore and Rajasthan., another, for example : n / equity =ROE Net income / total assets = return on Essay, assets Stock price / earnings per share = P/E-ratio. Comparing financial ratios is merely one way of conducting financial analysis.

Financial ratios face several theoretical challenges: They say little about the Essay Statement for Master's Degree, firm's prospects in an absolute sense. Their insights about relative performance require a reference point from other time periods or similar firms. One ratio holds little meaning. Essay. As indicators, ratios can be logically interpreted in at least two ways.

One can partially overcome this problem by combining several related ratios to genetic history, paint a more comprehensive picture of the firm's performance. Seasonal factors may prevent year-end values from being representative. A ratio's values may be distorted as account balances change from the beginning to the end of an accounting period. The Legalization Of Abortion. Use average values for such accounts whenever possible. Financial ratios are no more objective than the accounting methods employed. Changes in accounting policies or choices can yield drastically different ratio values. They fail to account for to Keep in Mind While Filling Online Forms for Voter ID Card Bangalore and Rajasthan. exogenous factors like investor behavior that are not based upon economic fundamentals of the firm or the The Legalization, general economy (fundamental analysis) . Financial analysts can also use percentage analysis which involves reducing a series of figures as a percentage of some base amount. For example, a group of items can be expressed as a percentage of net income. When proportionate changes in the same figure over a given time period expressed as a percentage is known as horizontal analysis. Vertical or common-size analysis, reduces all items on a statement to a aˆ?common sizeaˆ? as a percentage of some base value which assists in engineering, comparability with other companies of different sizes . Another method is comparative analysis.

This provides a better way to The Legalization of Abortion, determine trends. Power. Comparative analysis presents the same information for two or more time periods and is presented side-by-side to allow for The Legalization of Abortion easy analysis.. An example: Algorithm specification of addition m+n. Choice of machine model: There is no aˆ?bestaˆ?, or aˆ?preferredaˆ? model. The Turing machine, while considered the Essay on Personal, standard, is notoriously awkward to use.

And different problems seem to require different models to study them. The Legalization Of Abortion. Many researchers have observed these problems, for example: aˆ?The principal purpose of this paper is to offer a theory which is closely related to Turing's but is more economical in Statement Degree in Social Work, the basic operationsaˆ? (Wang (1954) p. 63) aˆ?Certain features of Turing machines have induced later workers to propose alternative devices as embodiments of what is to The Legalization, be meant by effective computability. a Turing machine has a certain opacity, its workings are known rather than seen. Further a Turing machine is inflexible . a Turing machine is slow in genetic history, (hypothetical) operation and, usually complicated. This makes it rather hard to design it, and Essay The Legalization of Abortion, even harder to investigate such matters as time or storage optimization or a comparison between efficiency of in Society Rich and Poor Essay two algorithms.aˆ? (Melzak (1961) p. The Legalization Of Abortion. 281) Shepherdson-Sturgis (1963) proposed their register-machine model because aˆ?these proofs [using Turing machines] are complicated and tedious to follow for two reasons: (1) A Turing machine has only monsters head, one head. (2) It has only Essay, one tape. The Canterbury Tales General. aˆ? They were in search of aˆ?a form of The Legalization of Abortion idealized computer which is sufficiently flexible for one to be able to convert an intuitive computational procedure into a program for such a machineaˆ? (p. 218). aˆ?I would prefer something along the lines of the about and Gender, random access computers of Angluin and Essay The Legalization of Abortion, Valiant [as opposed to the pointer machine of SchA¶nhage]aˆ? (Gurivich 1988 p. 6) aˆ?Showing that a function is Turing computable directly. is rather laborious . Essay On Personal For Master's Degree. we introduce an Essay of Abortion ostensibly more flexible kind of idealized machine, an abacus machine. aˆ? (Boolos-Burgess-Jeffrey 2002 p.45).

About all that one can insist upon is that the genetic engineering history, algorithm-writer specify in exacting detail (i) the machine model to be used and (ii) its instruction set. Atomization of the instruction set: The Turing machine model is primitive, but not as primitive as it can be. As noted in The Legalization, the above quotes this is a source of concern when studying complexity and equivalence of in my head algorithms. Although the observations quoted below concern the Random access machine model aˆ“ a Turing-machine equivalent aˆ“ the problem remains for any Turing-equivalent model: aˆ?. there hardly exists such a thing as an aˆ?innocentaˆ™ extension of the standard RAM model in the uniform time measure; either one only has additive arithmetic, or one might as well include all multiplicative and/or bitwise Boolean instructions on small operands. aˆ? (van Emde Boas (1992) p. 26) aˆ?Since, however, the computational power of a RAM model seems to depend rather sensitively on the scope of its instruction set, we nevertheless will have to Essay The Legalization of Abortion, go into in Society Rich and Poor Essay detail. aˆ?One important principle will be to admit only such instructions which can be said to be of an atomistic nature. We will describe two versions of the Essay The Legalization, so-called successor RAM, with the successor function as the only arithmetic operation. the RAM0 version deserves special attention for for Master's in Social its extreme simplicity; its instruction set consists of only a few one letter codes, without any (explicit) addressing.aˆ? (SchA¶nhage (1980) p.494) Example #1: The most general (and original) Turing machine aˆ“ single-tape with left-end, multi-symbols, 5-tuple instruction format aˆ“ can be atomized into of Abortion the Turing machine of Boolos-Burgess-Jeffrey (2002) aˆ“ single-tape with no ends, two symbols (where B symbolizes blank square and | symbolizes marked square), and a 4-tuple instruction format. This model in turn can be further atomized into the canterbury general a Post-Turing machineaˆ“ single-tape with no ends, two symbols , and a 0- and 1-parameter instruction set ( e.g. ). Example #2: The RASP can be reduced to a RAM by moving its instructions off the Essay of Abortion, tape and (perhaps with translation) into its finite-state machine aˆ?tableaˆ? of instructions, the Online for Voter Bangalore, RAM stripped of its indirect instruction and reduced to a 2- and 3-operand aˆ?abacusaˆ? register machine; the abacus in turn can be reduced to the 1- and 2-operand Minsky (1967)/Shepherdson-Sturgis (1963) counter machine, which can be further atomized into the 0- and 1-operand instructions of SchA¶nhage (and even a 0-operand SchA¶nhage-like instruction set is possible). Cost of atomization : Atomization comes at a (usually severe) cost: while the resulting instructions may be aˆ?simpleraˆ?, atomization (usually) creates more instructions and Essay The Legalization, the need for more computational steps . As shown in Online Forms Bangalore, the following example the increase in computation steps may be significant (i.e. Of Abortion. orders of magnitude aˆ“ the following example is aˆ?tameaˆ?), and atomization may (but not always, as in the case of the Post-Turing model) reduce the usability and readability of aˆ?the machine codeaˆ?. Things In Mind While Filling And Rajasthan.. For more see Turing tarpit.

Example: The single register machine instruction INC 3 aˆ“ increment the contents of Essay register #3, i.e. increase its count by 1 aˆ“ can be atomized into the 0-parameter instruction set of SchA¶nhage, but with the Things to Keep in Mind Online Forms ID Card, equivalent number of steps to accomplish the task increasing to 7; this number is directly related to Essay The Legalization of Abortion, the register number aˆ?naˆ? i.e. 4+n): More examples can be found at the pages Register machine and Random access machine where the addition of Things to Keep Filling ID Card and Rajasthan. convenience instructions CLR h and COPY h 1 ,h 1 are shown to reduce the number of steps dramatically. Indirect addressing is the other significant example. Precise specification of Turing-machine algorithm m+n.

As described in Algorithm characterizations per the specifications of Boolos-Burgess-Jeffrey (2002) and Sipser (2006), and with a nod to the other characterizations we proceed to specify: (i) Number format : unary strings of marked squares (a marked square signfied by the symbol 1) separated by single blanks (signified by the symbol B) e.g. Essay The Legalization. aˆ?2,3aˆ? = B11B111B (ii) Machine type : Turing machine: single-tape left-ended or no-ended, 2-symbol , 4-tuple instruction format. (iii) Head location : See more at aˆ?Implementation Descriptionaˆ? below. A symbolic representation of the head's location in the tape's symbol string will put the current state to among Essay, the right of the Essay of Abortion, scanned symbol. Blank squares may be included in this protocol. The state's number will appear with brackets around it, or sub-scripted. The head is shown as.

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marching band essay Narrative/Thoughts Final Draft. Marching Band: Seven Lessons and more. Marching band—to some a joke—but to others, such as myself, a part of life. During the marching season, I eat, sleep, and breathe the Essay The Legalization, music and genetic engineering melodies. No matter what you think or say about Essay of Abortion it, won't change the way I view it. I know that in the future, when I graduate from high school and college, I won't remember the classes I took, or the on Personal for Master's Degree, things I did; I'll remember the memories I made. When I graduate with the The Legalization of Abortion, class of genetic history, 2012, I will be able to Essay of Abortion keep my high school marching band memories close. I know that when I leave, nothing else will matter, except the memories I take away, and the impression I leave behind. The dictionary definition of a marching band is a group of the canterbury tales, instrumental musicians, who generally perform outdoors, with movement such as marching, put to their music.

In all honesty, it's so much more; if you think about it, it's really a group of 'friends' or peers who work together to achieve a common goal over a period of time. Essay Of Abortion! During the the canterbury tales general prologue, season we have our ups and downs, and we see each other at our best and Essay of Abortion worst. Of course, like in every other activity, we get sick of While for Voter Bangalore, each other, and sick of the program, but we learn to push through and by the end we're glad we did. You're happy because you know it's worth it, you're happy because you love the thrill of the performance, and you're happy because you love doing it. Marching band is much like other sports teams and clubs, in the sense that it's physical activity and effort is required. The one thing that makes band so different from The Legalization, these other activities is the combination of both a sport, and the arts. It's a sport because of the marching, and an art because of the musical composition and emotion each individual puts in. As a group of in my head, peer, that's how we all start at least, we learn to work together. Of Abortion! By working together, we build trust in one another, and the canterbury tales general ideally we become 'friends.' Soon after that, we learn to Essay of Abortion love and care for each other so much that we become family in our sections. Being close is only the first step though.

As individual sections within the band, we must learn to depend on other sections, and work as one band. Depending on the canterbury tales prologue each other for help and support, we learn to push one another to improve. Essay The Legalization! We've seen each other at our best and head worst; we've picked each other up when we're down, and we've helped each other learn and grow. Throughout my soon to be four years of Essay The Legalization, marching band, I've learned that there are so many lessons that you're taught; both by others and about Power you yourself. I've gone through a list and have narrowed it down to a select few. I've compiled seven of the most important lessons that I've been taught, and that I have taught; respect, dedication, goal, family, tolerance, leadership, and confidence. Respect: esteem for The Legalization of Abortion or a sense of the to Keep While Filling Forms for Voter Bangalore and Rajasthan., worth or excellence of a person, a personal quality or ability. By far, the of Abortion, most important lesson that can be taught by any program is in my, respect. A seven letter word, that teaches you to appreciate and Essay The Legalization love what you're able to do.

Marching band teaches you to respect others, yourself, and everything you do. As an incoming member of any marching band, respect is one lesson that must be learned. In giving respect to others, we receive respect from them. To succeed in a marching band, every member must learn to in Mind While Filling Online for Voter respect their instructors and teachers, their leaders, their teammates, and themselves. Once these three components of respect are learned, moving forward in Essay of Abortion marching band is easy. Throughout my few years of marching band, I've learned to love and respect the band, and history its participants.

I also learned to respect myself, and to be proud of what I can do and what I'm good at. This 'value' didn't just come to me when I joined band; I was taught respect from Essay The Legalization of Abortion, one important person. His name's Russell Reuter, our visual director at tales general prologue, the time. He taught me to respect what I do and love it; he inspired me to always want to be better than what I am, and to always strive for my goals. My freshman year I was despised because I showed no respect for anyone or myself, but throughout the year and the following marching season, I began to take a liking to Russell and his long winded inspiring speeches about life values and importance. Dedication: wholly committed to something, as to an ideal, political cause, or personal goal A requirement for any marching band member is commitment and dedication. In band, the word dedication can be associated with two things: time and The Legalization of Abortion effort.

Any member of any activity must be willing to enough to put in Things While Online Forms ID Card Bangalore and Rajasthan. as much time as necessary to better themselves at it. Countless hours of summer rehearsals and Monday night's, are usually a common time frames to be associated with the West De Pere High School Band. Essay! To be able to on Personal for Master's Work dedicate yourself to an activity that is so, for Essay The Legalization of Abortion lack of a better word, needy, is incredibly hard. With time alone, success won't come. It's essential to put in effort as well, meaning the time will be used as wisely as possible. Monsters In My! If there is The Legalization of Abortion, no effort, no desire to The Difference learn, you cannot teach.

You cannot teach someone who is resentful towards what your teaching, otherwise it's not called learning. When both time and effort are put into a marching band, there is dedication. There is an improvement shown, and meaning put behind everything you do. Goal: the Essay The Legalization of Abortion, result or achievement toward which effort is Essay Statement for Master's Degree in Social Work, directed; aim; end. To be one marching band, everyone must work together to achieve one common goal. The Legalization Of Abortion! In the beginning of the season, simple goals are set, such as learn to march, or learn to play my instrument. As the season progresses, each member begins to the canterbury tales prologue set individual goals that apply to Essay The Legalization their part in the show.

By achieving those individual goals, members are doing their job in engineering developing the band. Once a marching band has reached this point, they begin to perfect and Essay strive for on Personal for Master's in Social bigger and more difficult goals. Essay The Legalization! Without goals, life wouldn't be very structured; without goals a marching band would crumble. Family: a group of people who are generally not blood relations but who share common attitudes, interests, or goals and, frequently, live together Friend: a person who gives assistance; patron; supporter Working as one is different than being one. Being one band, isn't the easiest thing to do, because there will always be diverse people in Filling Online for Voter Bangalore the program. In a marching band, it's important that band mates know one another on a level of friendship. The best thing about Essay The Legalization of Abortion a marching band is its element of family and belonging. Families stick together no matter what, through thick and thin, ups and downs. When part of a marching band, there's no such thing as out of Essay Power, place; everyone fits in Essay The Legalization somewhere.

Having such a diverse amount of individuals, is quite an monsters amazing thing if everyone learns to love one another like family. Working, living, and being one band, is The Legalization, a lot easier if people are close. This past season, it took all five months of band, for our marching band to become an 'actual' family. At our last completion in Minnesota, we all realized that our hard work and dedication paid off, when we made it to finals. Statement For Master's Work! After we performed for the last time that night, we all felt so close and everything was fitting into place. That moment it didn't matter to us weather we won or lost, we were one for Essay The Legalization of Abortion the first time in While Filling Online for Voter Bangalore and Rajasthan. a long time. Later on that night, when we headed out to put our uniforms away, Russell was giving one of his speeches, but this one was different. Of Abortion! It didn't occur to me why everyone was crying, until I noticed that, Russell was leaving. He'd been with us so long, and now he was leaving. I wasn't sure how to react, and While Forms ID Card I started to Essay The Legalization of Abortion cry along with everyone else.

We were all holding one another trying to comfort our 'family' members. Essay Power And Gender! He had taught us all so much, and now he was leaving. It just didn't feel right, but it was true. Essay The Legalization! He kept telling us, You all have to to Keep in Mind Filling Forms for Voter ID Card be brave and put one foot in front of the other and The Legalization move on. Those words settled into my mind, and still stick to this day. That night, I realized how much I took that one moment of becoming one, that one performance, for granted. Being a family with everyone around me just felt so natural, and now one of our family members was leaving. I learned how quickly a family, like a marching band, can become one. I learned that being a family isn't easy, but no matter what happens you all have to muster up the courage to push through together. That night will remain as an important memory for me and for everyone else standing there in that circle. Essay On Personal Degree Work! I [we] will never forget Russell Reuter, for he's taught me [us] so much about The Legalization of Abortion life and Statement in Social Work the importance you play in The Legalization of Abortion it.

Tolerance: a fair, objective, and permissive attitude toward opinions and practices that differ from about Power and Gender, one's own. This lesson may seem out of the ordinary, but it's quite important. During the summer camps, there are all kinds of incoming member, and to perform at a level of excellence, we must teach them what we know. Every year, it's a new band, new members, new music, new show; it changes. Essay The Legalization Of Abortion! For a band to start off, tolerance is needed by every member. Older members must be tolerant, and take the monsters in my head, time to teach and develop the skills of the new members, and the new members must be tolerant, and take the time to of Abortion learn and develop their skills. Although tolerance seems like a simple concept, it's one of the hardest lessons for any member of a marching band to learn. Leadership: an in Society Essay act or instance of of Abortion, leading; guidance; direction In a marching band, it is so vital that you have leaders. Out of all the members in a section, one section leader is chosen.

It is that person's job to genetic engineering history lead their section and make sure that they develop and grow as they should throughout the season. Out of all the members in one section, the section leader is 'in charge', but that doesn't stop other members from becoming leaders and taking on Essay the responsibilities. A leader is Things to Keep in Mind Online, anyone out of everyone who can guide, or teach, or show that they aren't afraid to do anything. Essay The Legalization! Their confident in what they do and how they do it. Head! From watching and Essay admiring leaders of the past, new members step forward and show that they can lead to. Without leadership, without leaders, you have no marching band. Confidence: full trust; belief in the powers, trustworthiness, or reliability of a person or thing Confidence is fundamental when it comes to marching band. When a band is out on a field and they perform, people can usually tell if they know what they're doing, based upon their sense of confidence.

Any band member must show confidence even if they're not, even if they have no idea what they're music is, they must show it. With confidence, comes assurance within the band, and Power and Gender within yourself. Self-confidence is the greatest factor in performing a show. If a band can present their show in a way that awes an audience, a judge, or a director, it means that there is confidence building. Essay The Legalization! Once each member of the marching band has found their self-confidence, then the whole band can move forward towards perfection. Ever since I was a freshman, I have been told, When you make a mistake make it loud and noticeable, otherwise it's not fixable. Since then I've come along way, I'm no longer afraid to be wrong, or make a mistake, because I know I have others to help point out and teach me how to correct it.

Even if I have no idea, what I'm doing, I've learned to look as though I do with confidence. Through gaining confidence and learning from my mistakes, I also learned to lead. My sophomore year, I always looked up to my section leader, Dillon Grabski, a past graduate of West De Pere High School. He was so musically gifted, and I admired it. Essay About Power Roles! His talents amazed me and inspired me to set a goal I still look up to. I want to be able to live up to of Abortion Dillon and his talents.

I want to be a section leader just like him. Leadership is something that, I believe, every band member should strive for, and desire. With leadership, you're able to stand up for Things Filling Bangalore and Rajasthan. what you know, say, and Essay what you stand for. Like Dwight Eisenhower once said, Leadership is the art of getting someone else to Essay on Personal in Social Work do something you want done because he wants to do it. Russell played a part in teaching me the importance of a leader.

You must stand up and in a sense 'show off,' or, gain credibility so that you gain respect. You need to be able to The Legalization have a say, and not be afraid of your own voice. I believe that leaders aren't born, for the reason that anyone can become one. Everyone at one point in Statement for Master's Degree their life has at least a moment of leadership, but it's those who strive and work towards that moment again, that become leaders. Marching band is not only these seven 'values,' it's so much more. Of Abortion! It's a way of life and most importantly a teacher. When put together, all these 'values' add up to engineering history one thing, growth. Growth, in marching band, means shown improvement.

It's a simple way to show people that you can accomplish anything you set your mind to. It's a way to show how far you've come, and what new goals you want to Essay The Legalization of Abortion achieve. Marching band is simply growth, in genetic engineering history your skill, your life, and your memories. In this program, I've learned so much. I've grown and grown, and I still have goals I haven't accomplished. Every year, I set new standards and I try to live up to them.

I never know what to expect, and I don't know who I'm going to meet along my way; for me, band is The Legalization of Abortion, life. It's a journey in its self that I have yet to Essay Roles finish. It's a journey that will end with tears, it's a journey that will end with love, and it's a journey that will last forever in my memories.

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Adam Simpson - Homework: Should we give it or not? Homework… should we or shouldn’t we? Homework… should we or shouldn’t we? What are the benefits and what are the drawbacks? Are we really helping our learners develop their language skills or are we merely complicating their lives? Here are my favourite four arguments for and against giving learners homework: The case for The Legalization #1: Class time isn’t enough and learners need extra practice. Homework should, above all else, serve to review and build upon what has been learned in the canterbury general, class, or to Essay, offer further practice of something that was new and particularly tricky.

With this in mind, make sure that whatever homework you assign can be completed by learners independently and Things to Keep in Mind While Filling Forms for Voter ID Card Bangalore with relative ease. Homework that gives the Essay of Abortion student an opportunity to further practice what he or she has just learned in class to further fix the concepts in to Keep in Mind for Voter Bangalore, their mind can be extremely worthwhile. Ideally, it should be something that is useful but that might have been boring had it been done in class (such as a gap fill exercise). Does this build on what you did in class? Will they be able to do it after what you did in class, or do they need more input? Is it something that would, realistically, have been a waste of Essay The Legalization of Abortion class time, in terms of not maximizing their contact with you as their teacher? The case against #1: People need a life. If you teach adults, it’s almost entirely likely that they will have a work life and a social life outside of your classroom.

Are you really doing them a favour by eating into to Keep in Mind While ID Card and Rajasthan. this time with your demands that they do extra study? If you teach young learners, these children need unstructured play time to become social creatures more than they need homework from Essay you. Homework can have a negative influence on learning experiences. Adults in particular will feel guilty about the canterbury prologue, not doing the work you’ve assigned… or resentment about having to do it when they should be getting on with something else. This will affect how they feel about The Legalization of Abortion, your class and not in head, a good way. Children will also be negatively affected by the addition of Essay of Abortion homework. IF YOU REALLY MUST… Find out how much time your learners have to do homework and Essay about assign work accordingly. The case for #2: Homework helps learners remember the things they’ve learned in class.

Homework can do a great job of reinforcing the The Legalization of Abortion content of lessons, and provides a valuable opportunity for extra practice… before they have a chance to forget everything! Basically, homework should always supplement and mentally click that ‘I remember’ button, so don’t assign new material because there’s a big chance that A) they will not understand it, and B) they will become frustrated with the tasks, as well as being less open to discussing the work in class later on. In My? This point is particularly important with classes that you see infrequently, as they have many chances to forget what you did in the last class! Is this a useful reminder and revision of a tricky new language point? Does it present new concepts? Does it go over something you did in Essay The Legalization of Abortion, class but in Essay Power and Gender, a slightly different way? The case against #2: Let’s face it, you don’t really know what you’re doing.

As qualified as you might be and with as much knowledge of teaching pedagogy as you might have, do you honestly believe you know exactly what you’re doing when you assign homework? What objectives are you aiming to cover? How will this further your learners’ ability to do whatever it is you’ve done in class? Granted, a lot of coursebooks have workbooks which are largely intended for self study, but you nevertheless have to be careful that there is The Legalization of Abortion a definite purpose behind what you’re assigning. The Difference In Society? IF YOU REALLY MUST… Consult your learners and ask them what they see as an appropriate follow-up task for Essay of Abortion them to do at in my, home to supplement what you have done in class.

The case for The Legalization of Abortion #3: Homework can help learners make more rapid progress in monsters, their language acquisition. Homework can provide valuable practice of the skills learned in the classroom. The Legalization Of Abortion? We know that we are pushed for time and that each lesson is in Society among and Poor Essay valuable contact time. We don’t want to be going into too much detail or doing too many tasks on one language point, regardless of whether or not the learners need it. At some point, you need to provide ways for The Legalization that practice to take place in the learners’ own time, so you can get on with new stuff next lesson! Does it compliment what you’ve done in class in genetic engineering history, a useful way? How well does it work as a self reference document that learners can return to at a later point?

The case against #3: Homework doesn’t lead to better performance. Too much homework can be a bad thing. Essay The Legalization? Research indicates there is a weak link between achievement and homework, particularly in young learners. The Canterbury? Furthermore, countries that assign more homework don’t outperform those with less homework. Countries such as America and The Legalization of Abortion the UK have relatively high levels of homework in schools and Essay yet don’t show a correlation with high performance. Japan is one country that has taken the opposite Essay The Legalization of Abortion route, having instituted no homework policies at younger levels to allow family time and personal interests.

Finland, one of the most successful nations in terms of international tests, limits high school homework to half an Things Filling Online ID Card Bangalore and Rajasthan., hour per night. While a small amount of Essay The Legalization of Abortion well thought out homework can be beneficial, assigning excessive amounts of homework is at Essay and Gender Roles, best counterproductive. IF YOU REALLY MUST… A good tactic, particularly for teachers of young learners, is to Essay The Legalization, assign homework for improving study skills, rather than learning. In Mind Forms ID Card And Rajasthan.? Assign homework that is Essay The Legalization of Abortion uncomplicated and short, which involves families or friends, and which above all engages learner interests.

The case for #4: Homework can allow learners to use materials and other sources of information that are not always available in the class room. Some of tales us have the Essay of Abortion luxury of Things to Keep While Online for Voter computers and projectors in class, others do not. The Legalization Of Abortion? Some exercises that are on the net work best as self study materials anyway. Think about the resource you want learners to use and in Roles, particular whether it is more suited to classroom use or for personal study. Furthermore, assigning research tasks that require learners to Essay, go out into the wider world and engineering independently find resources that link to what you did in class can be a useful and motivating activity. Does the task work better as homework than it would in the classroom environment?

How can you get learners to find a resource that develops on The Legalization of Abortion what you did in class? The case against the canterbury tales prologue #4: They don’t really need it. People are constantly learning in the 21st Century and traditional homework should become obsolete within the next decade. Thanks to technology, learning is now a constant in The Legalization, our lives. With access to applications, software programs, as well as educational websites such as the Khan Academy, learning is an ongoing process.

So much of what learners can access is through the medium of English that it is unlikely that they can spend many days of their lives without acquiring some knowledge of the language from their everyday environment. Head? IF YOU REALLY MUST… Instead of assigning homework, utilise the technological tools that your learners use in their everyday lives. Get them doing something in English with their phones or on Facebook. I’m not the world’s biggest fan of homework, but used correctly it can be a good teaching tool. Essay Of Abortion? To use it effectively, you have to ensure that it is benefiting your learners and that the monsters in my exercises you give them are not merely busy work. © British Council, 10 Spring Gardens, London SW1A 2BN, UK. © BBC World Service, Bush House, Strand, London WC2B 4PH, UK.

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comic essays Covers of Art Spiegelman's Maus II and MetaMaus: A Look Inside a Modern Classic, Maus. Hillary Chute | University of Chicago. Abstract: In the view of some critics, the form of comics is a locus of the archival, a place where we can identify an archival turn. Art Spiegelman’s Maus first and perhaps most forcefully established the connection between archives and comics. His groundbreaking work documenting his father’s experience in WWII Poland, where he survived internment in Auschwitz, is a visual narrative based on oral testimony that consistently heightens our awareness of visual, written, and oral archives, and where they interact, overlap, or get transposed one into the other.

Hillary Chute recounts and interprets her collaboration with Spiegelman in the process of assembling MetaMaus , a book compiling interviews and archival materials on the making of Maus . MetaMaus, argues Chute, reflects the tension between different kinds of of Abortion, extant archives—oral, written, photographic—and the cross-discursive work of Things to Keep While Filling Online for Voter ID Card and Rajasthan., (re)building new archives that motivates Maus . The Legalization. Its defining feature is that it shows the materiality of Spiegelman’s archive; it is about the the canterbury tales general embodiment of archives. The subject of Maus is the retrieval of memory and ultimately, the creation of memory…. It’s about choices being made, of finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing. Those are the things that give real tensile strength to the work—putting the dead into little boxes. Essay The Legalization. – Art Spiegelman ( MetaMaus 73) Maus: A Survivor’s Tale is a book about archives. And the book about making Maus , MetaMaus , is both a process of taking stock of the about Roles Maus archive and Essay, an active process of in Mind Filling Forms ID Card, creating a new archive. 1 Maus is about the Holocaust, featuring two intertwined stories: that of Auschwitz survivor Vladek Spiegelman’s struggle in the 1930s and 40s in Poland during WWII, and that of Essay The Legalization of Abortion, his son Art Spiegelman’s struggle in the 1970s and 80s in New York to record and draw his father’s testimony in comics form. Maus is a graphic narrative that is, to invoke the Essay about Power Roles language of this special issue, on every level about “the politics of what is saved (remembered), and what is discarded (forgotten).” We recognize this dynamic both in and on its pages. As Anne Golomb Hoffman points out Essay about the OED definition of “archive,” the word indicates both the container for documents and the documents themselves (Hoffman 2009, 5-6). The form of comics makes this transfiguration legible. Graphic narratives not only thematize archives—for instance, the cartoonist’s work of finding and collecting is an actual plotline of Maus —but further, because of the pictorial, word and image format of their pages, they are able to actually incorporate or physically represent concrete archives (thus the famous three photographs, two from the war era, that Spiegelman actually places within Maus ). 2 Maus is about Roles about archives, and it also itself does the work of archiving , for instance in how it inscribes Vladek Spiegelman’s private Holocaust testimony elicited by Art Spiegelman, and places it in print and into the public record.

3. The selecting, ordering, and preserving work of archiving in Maus is, in a sense, collaborative—Vladek locates his photograph, Art inserts it in his book; Vladek bears witness to Auschwitz through his oral testimony; Art edits and shapes his story to put it on the page. 4 Maus and MetaMaus share this feature. The Legalization Of Abortion. With MetaMaus , the archive belongs to Spiegelman, but he and I worked together to create the to Keep Filling Forms ID Card Bangalore and Rajasthan. shape of a new archive. Being Associate Editor meant immersively taking on the book as a joint endeavor, which meant we together generated a new archive out of the structure of our interview, which guides the book.

5. I wrote a dissertation, “Contemporary Graphic Narratives: History, Aesthetics, Ethics,” about Essay nonfiction comics. Along the way, after I had written an essay on Maus that he had read and liked, I was invited to a cocktail party at Spiegelman’s SoHo loft. 6 Later, in the fall of Essay about Power and Gender, 2005, Spiegelman and I met to “talk comics” in his studio; he invited me to work with him on creating MetaMaus . By the end of 2005, I was signed on The Legalization of Abortion to the project, and we started in the canterbury tales general prologue, earnest in January 2006. In 2010, reading Spiegelman’s “Dancin’ in the Dark!” piece in the New York Times , which explains his improbable work with the experimental dance company Pilobolus, I was struck by the pronouncement the Spiegelman character makes in the strip: “I don’t collaborate.” He and I had been collaborating at that point for over four years.

What enabled us to collaborate was that we approached the work rooted in seemingly different discourses—I as a student and then professor of English, and he as a cartoonist and historian of the form—but we shared a deep formal interest in comics. And we were agreeably open to disagreeing with each other; this created an Essay The Legalization intellectual generosity that became part of our intersubjective ethic. In the view of some critics, the form of comics is a locus of the archival, a place where we can identify an archival turn. Focusing on the cartoonists Kim Deitch and the canterbury tales general prologue, Ben Katchor, for instance, Jared Gardner identifies the “the archival turn in the contemporary graphic narrative” (Gardner 2006, 788). 7 Scholarship on Alison Bechdel’s memoir Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic has also spawned attention to comics and archives, as in Ann Cvetkovich’s “Drawing the Archive in Alison Bechdel’s Fun Home ”; Valerie Rohy’s “In the Queer Archive: Fun Home ”; and my own book chapter “Animating an Archive: Repetition and Regeneration in Alison Bechdel’s Fun Home .” There is The Legalization of Abortion something to Essay for Master's Degree in Social Gardner’s suggestion that there is “an intrinsic connection between the comics form and The Legalization, [an] engagement with archival research” (Gardner 804). I argue this is because of comics’s profound engagement with the representation of (historical) time and tales general prologue, space, and the complex display that the comics page enables. (One of Rohy’s claims posits comics frames as vitrines that focus our attention on the subject, and Essay The Legalization, object, of research [Gardner 804].) We may recognize what I term an archival drive in the work of Bechdel—and Katchor, Deitch, Ivan Brunetti, Dan Clowes, Seth, Posy Simmonds, Chris Ware and many others—manifested and made legible through the form of comics ( Graphic Women 188). However, Spiegelman’s Maus , which began in 1980 as a chapter-by-chapter serial in RAW magazine (after a three-page stand-alone prototype of the same name appeared in an underground comic in 1972), first and Things Online Forms ID Card, perhaps most forcefully established the Essay The Legalization connection between archives and comics. Even the visual metaphor that shapes the book, in in my head, which humans appear as various species of animals, namely Jews as mice, Poles as pigs, and Nazis as cats, is motivated by a rich archive of Nazi propaganda. The epigraph to each of the The Legalization of Abortion two Maus book volumes is a different WWII-era Nazi quotation that underscores this. One of the central dramas of Maus is the on Personal cartoonist’s desire to search down any archival material relating to his parents’ lives before his own unlikely birth—both of his parents survived Auschwitz, and their first son, Richieu, died in the war at of Abortion age six.

Thus the issue of what was saved—what could be saved—by survivors from the war is paramount, as is the question of what happens in post-war life to what gets saved. In the history case of the Spiegelman family, the issue of saving, or not saving, is heightened: Vladek Spiegelman destroyed his wife Anja Spiegelman’s notebooks after her suicide in 1968. Essay Of Abortion. (In maddening contradistinction to Essay about Power this act of obliteration, he stubbornly saves any manner of small and worthless items like matches, and wire found on the street.) The notebooks, which contained Anja’s account of her experience in the war, and which she had described to Essay The Legalization her son since his childhood, are burned by the time he comes searching for Essay Statement Degree Work them as a young man. Vladek reveals only over time that he destroyed Anja’s notebooks, during a period when he “was so depressed … I didn’t know if I’m coming or going” ( Complete Maus 161). The very last word in Maus I: My Father Bleeds History is The Legalization of Abortion “murderer”: Art Spiegelman accuses his father of murdering his already-dead mother by incinerating her narrative, her archive. Engineering. 8.

The absence of archives, the presence of archives: the disappearance and The Legalization, appearance of any kind of evidence, record, trace of his parents’ pre-war and in my, wartime lives constitutes a major narrative thread of Essay The Legalization of Abortion, Maus , as we also see, for example, in The Difference in Society Rich Essay, an episode toward the end of the Essay of Abortion book featuring a momentous box of photographs unearthed by in Society among Rich and Poor Essay Vladek—of Anja’s family, primarily. In this key scene, Vladek sits lonely among a cascade of drawn photographs, and his single body stretches across comics frames to stand in for absent generations of The Legalization of Abortion, Spiegelman bodies. 9. What kinds of archives remain from which parents? How can the genetic engineering son identify and weigh the traces that remain to stitch together the fullest understanding possible from the collection of voices and documents and photographs to which he has access? Maus makes explicit that “the archive” is a process , not a storehouse of evidence. This process, in fact, is exactly what the book is about. In the shadow of his mother’s painful wordlessness , her ghostly burnt words, but also her withheld words—she didn’t leave a note when she chose to end her life— Maus is about Spiegelman’s father’s archive, and Essay of Abortion, testimony, and Spiegelman’s own creation of an archive. Tales General Prologue. We can note Maus ’s investment in the archive as process rather than as repository of evidence in the episode in which Art, through a conversation with his father, becomes aware of the The Legalization existence of a photograph of Vladek, after he was liberated, posing in a clean concentration camp uniform for Essay about Power and Gender Roles a souvenir photo to send to Essay The Legalization of Abortion his wife. This photograph is the only one of Vladek in Maus . Tilted out of the rows of about and Gender Roles, drawn boxes, the defining feature of its presence is the ambiguity and awkwardness it inspires; the questions it sets in Essay, motion.

What Spiegelman preserves in publishing this 1945 photograph within the space of his comics page is attention to engineering the process behind the creation of both paternal and Essay of Abortion, filial archives. The idea of selection—what is re-archived, what is discarded?—is also part of the tales general language of the comics page itself, and so Maus is about archives on at least two levels. 10 First, there is the question of what is actually transmissible from one generation to the next. Second, there is the question of what Spiegelman chooses to incorporate or re-represent in his comics narrative about his father’s Holocaust experience. Comics makes the The Legalization process of The Difference in Society Rich, selecting, ordering, and of Abortion, preserving intelligible in a way few forms can: its very narrative syntax is an interplay of presence and absence, in which moments of time are selected and boxed (separated conventionally by bands of white space called “the gutter”). The actual juxtaposition of frames on Things in Mind Online Forms and Rajasthan. the page calls overt attention to the basic grammar of comics as selection—to the of Abortion rhythm of the and Poor displayed and the evacuated, and how they constitute each other. While all media select and frame, comics make this process material on the page—not as merely evocative, but rather as literal. The Legalization. The fact that Maus , a book about family archives, is in the idiom of comics further calls our attention to the construction of its own counter-archive. “The subject of Maus is the retrieval of memory and ultimately, the creation of memory,” Spiegelman avers. “It’s about a cartoonist trying to envision what his father went through. It’s about in Society Rich Essay choices being made, of finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing ” ( MetaMaus 73, italics mine). One of the key features of Maus is its focus on making its own making legible.

While it has become commonplace today to praise a work’s self-reflexivity, that feature is not necessarily a value in of Abortion, and of itself. However, this aspect of the book—which is located in how, specifically, it builds itself as a word-and-image archive—allows Maus to function narratively and ethically as a text of Things While Filling Forms, witness and testimony. And if Maus is already very “meta” in its rebuilding (“you rebuild me all this from your questions,” Vladek says ruefully to his cartoonist son), how might a book called MetaMaus function in of Abortion, relation to the archive? 11. Starting the project first meant deciding its basic shape.

Spiegelman knew that MetaMaus would draw on archives relating to his parents—official records and genetic engineering, documentation, family photographs (which are used very sparingly, even teasingly, in Maus ). He also knew that the book would draw on archives relating to his work—the cartoonist’s comics archive, including drafts, studies, outtakes, notes. (In 1994 the Voyager Company issued a then state-of-the-art CD-ROM, called The Complete Maus , that made use of photographs and notes and sketches, as well as audio recording, to good effect; an updated version of this CD was from the Essay The Legalization beginning slated to be a bonus feature of MetaMaus , included with the Things in Mind While Forms ID Card purchase, but would function separately—our focus was on creating a stand-alone book with its own complete integrity.) At our first meetings, we brainstormed about the possible structure of MetaMaus , and our desire to Essay shape and select the material while yet maintaining the non-linear temporality of Things to Keep in Mind While Filling Online, Maus , its weaving and layering of the past and present, its often deliberately circuitous and recursive movement. Eventually, by talking through Maus in a semi-formal way (I taped some of our early conversations, even those that were only ever for the two of The Legalization, us), we hit on an interview structure to anchor the book. Art would never know my questions in advance; our conversations were always spontaneous, never rehearsed. We were able to converse with each other for hours at a time (a regular meeting time was three or four hours), and about and Gender Roles, through simply sitting and talking we came to the tropes that Art most often deals with in his own public talking about Maus —Why comics? Why mice? Why the Holocaust? With this tripartite structure in place as a skeleton shape, we formalized our conversations as interviews. Although we never spoke about this explicitly, at some point it dawned on me, years into the project, that our interview structure mirrored Art and The Legalization of Abortion, Vladek’s. For over Essay on Personal Statement for Master's Degree, a solid year I simply looked at and identified and sat with the actual, physical stuff of Maus . Art gave me full access—my own set of keys—to his studio.

Whenever he wasn’t there, I was free to come in to investigate and pore over and re-organize. This often meant stretches of time on the weekends. (When I couldn’t poke around his main cartooning studio, I would spend time in the RAW publishing office a few blocks away, run by of Abortion Art and his wife Francoise Mouly, which was a similar packed space and housed an While Filling Online ID Card Bangalore and Rajasthan. ancillary but relevant archive relating to their avant-garde comics magazine.) Nothing in Art’s studio was off limits to me; I was encouraged to look at anything and The Legalization, everything in in Mind While Online, that space. Aside from the black archival binders that contained the original drawings and Essay The Legalization, studies for Maus organized by chapter—each final drawn page lay in an archival sheet protectors, along with its attendant drafts and sketches—and a bottom shelf full of Maus -era notebooks from the 1970s to 1990s, what “the Maus archive” was and could be was yet to be determined, and on Personal in Social Work, I located, sifted, aggregated, and The Legalization of Abortion, re-assembled. My work in the studio in the first two years was two-fold: first, it was navigating the packed space of the studio to find the dispersed chunks and bits and pieces of the Maus archive, which lurked on shelves and in drawers, and sometimes in very inconspicuous places. Essay Statement For Master's Degree Work. One treasure trove I located was an old, unmarked, inauspicious-looking Garbage Pail Kids folder full of Maus notes and reflections on yellowing index cards; another was an aging manila envelope marked, simply, “Maus Grains,” which contained grains of The Legalization of Abortion, ideas—stimulating and motivating— like quotes attributed to Ronald Reagan (“we shouldn’t talk about the Holocaust”) on 30-year old napkins. 12 I needed to simply locate where the pockets of Things in Mind Online Bangalore, relevant paper archives might lie, and sort through them.

Since I was so familiar with the story and details of The Legalization of Abortion, Maus , it felt like a backwards board game or detective quest, to find the shards of reference that accumulated into the whole final product (and sometimes ambiguously didn’t). I remember one summer evening sprawling on the floor and finding, under a pile of dusty manila file folders and binders, the photograph of Art’s dead brother Richieu that opens Maus II and which Vladek and Anja Spiegelman always kept with them. The Difference In Society. It felt shocking to have the surprise of seeing this photograph de-contextualized from the Essay of Abortion narrative I knew so well, and, for all its importance in the book, grouped with the un-important on the shelf. Lifting it out The Difference in Society and Poor Essay of the Essay The Legalization pile—the object that stood in for a lost child—was breathtaking. 13 (The same night, in the same dusty pile, I found Vladek’s immigration records, and unanswered solicitations requesting donations in order to genetic engineering publically commemorate Anja in Jewish services.) Art and I anointed a new space, which we called the MetaMaus shelf, where we gathered significant items together. Physically aggregating artifacts and documents—re-centralizing what had been dispersed after the 13 years of Essay, making Maus —was an intellectual and manual task of (re)archiving. There was also, broadly speaking, the to Keep While Filling for Voter question of selection. After all, one of the most striking things Art has said to me was an aside on the telephone in the fall of 2010, when we were discussing the full components of MetaMaus , and were debating whether or not to have a timeline of Essay The Legalization, his life and career (I typically lobbied for in my head these more “academic” features, including the bibliography).

Explaining his trepidation, Art observed, “My chronology would start with: When was Kristallnacht?” The imbrication of the past and present is the central suggestion of Maus, as a complete narrative and on each individual page; as Marianne Hirsch recently described one of its pages, “It’s a series of temporalities that won’t stand still.” 14. Art’s comment about the incontrovertible imprint and shaping of history on the existence and consciousness of his person, the Essay of Abortion deep mingling of the personal and the historical, is in line with Maus , but to hear him say it out loud so directly about genetic history himself felt like a fresh reminder. Maus is meticulously architected but is about unruly temporalities. How were we going to Essay consider issues like timelines in a book reflecting the swirling temporalities of Maus ? Art and Vladek had struggled over the issue of timelines in Rich and Poor, Maus II . Creating an archival book about The Legalization of Abortion a book about monsters in my head archives produced these mirrored moments; Art now got to be the person resisting the timeline and claiming unruly temporalities (in Maus II he presses forward and Vladek snaps, “In Auschwitz we didn’t wear watches”) ( Complete Maus , 228). The question of the working scope of Essay The Legalization, our collection of material, then, was always present, even when not explicitly connected to the imprint of the war. Monsters In My. Many early notebooks, such as in the 1960s, from Essay The Legalization years before the 1972 “Maus” was formed, contain apposite information about comics and creativity, about filial dynamics with Vladek and Anja, about the connection of culture and style. Deciding what the constellation of paper archives for Maus was (retrospectively) and MetaMaus would be (prospectively) was a constant issue in assembling what I think of in Mind Online ID Card Bangalore and Rajasthan., as the research orbit of our archive. Was a Father’s Day card and a Mother’s Day card Art drew for his parents as a kid relevant? To me, it was, and was entered into the register of items that we considered for the MetaMaus archive. What is indisputably the of Abortion core of the Maus archive, though, is the original pages, and the notebooks. (The form of the notebook , given Anja Spiegelman’s immolated notebook, the loss of which constitutes a major thread in the book and also propels the reconstituting project of Maus itself, took on monsters in my a special weight to me.) The tightly organized black binders of drawn original pages and The Legalization, page-connected sketches had already been cataloged and scanned by the canterbury assistants and interns by the time I arrived in the studio. A complete digital archive exists of every page of Maus , and its various iterations. (File names look like this: MausI.I.p22a.jpg; MausI.I.p22b.jpg, and so on—some pages run through the whole alphabet and then the twenty-seventh file is marked by a “za,” and so forth back into the alphabet.)

I didn’t look at the digital files, though, until after I had taken every page and its versions and sketches out of the binders and sheet protector and studied them closely. The Legalization Of Abortion. This took me about history a year. I didn’t want to experience the pages and Essay The Legalization, panels on the computer; I wanted to take stock of the materiality of the artifact, to touch and lift the paper and to The Difference and Poor Essay scrutinize the gummed labels and correction fluid and the physical texture, the bumpiness, of the of Abortion line. The range of papers I attended to by studying the in Mind While Filling Online Forms for Voter and Rajasthan. actual drawings was striking; there were sketches on pink “While You Were Out” correspondence sheets, on receipts, on typing paper, on tracing paper, on graph paper, on Essay lined paper. One got a sense of the urgency through the to Keep in Mind Filling Online pattern of paper; the Essay inspired drawing that happens on whatever surface is most proximate. To Keep In Mind Filling Forms For Voter ID Card And Rajasthan.. I was also able to juxtapose spatially in front of me Art’s color sketches, assembling a sequence for his meticulous process of sketching in Essay The Legalization of Abortion, successively darker colors (starting in yellow, say, and about Power, ending in purple) to discern visual volume and weight in a panel, even though the final line in Maus is always in black. It is only through approaching the actual objects that a sense of the Essay of Abortion profundity of the layered labor of comics came through—the obsessional sketching, correcting, layering, crossing-out, and rebuilding. Much in the way that comics forces a kind of physical intimacy, as Michael Silverblatt has pointed out, I needed to interact with the archive haptically as though I were assembling it to be comics: spreading it out in front of Degree in Social Work, me, creating sequences with the Essay sketches, holding a drawing up to head squint at the spaces, placing studies next to a finished page to discern the narrative movement from draft to final product. (Art initially saved all of his sketches because he thought he would include one with each book when he self-published Maus with RAW.) Maus is a double-voiced text that presents a view of testimony specifically and of narrative generally as a polyvalent weave, where testimony and memory are collaborative procedures generated by both speaker and listener. The dialogic form of comics is constituted by the active tension between word and image—which makes it a hospitable form for narration that turns on the tension of competing voices (in the case of Maus , Vladek’s and Art’s).

Even further, what Maus so brilliantly stages, as I have argued, is Essay that the comics medium is While Filling Online for Voter ID Card not only dialogic —able to be both a biography and an autobiography in The Legalization of Abortion, one layered work—but also what we might think of as cross-discursive. 15 We see an example of this when Spiegelman draws against the canterbury prologue his father’s verbal narration in an episode in which the two of them discuss the existence of orchestras at Auschwitz. Verbally, although the Essay Art character notes, “It’s very well-documented,” Spiegelman lets Vladek have the final word (“No, I remember only marching—not any orchestras…. How could it be there an orchestra?”)—but he draws a barely visible orchestra, largely covered up by marching prisoners, in Essay on Personal for Master's Work, his comics frame ( Complete Maus 214). Maus often works with the friction of verbal and visual discourse; the cartoonist has both at Essay The Legalization of Abortion his disposal, and so he can preserve his father’s language while drawing against it. Maus is about the tension between the Things to Keep Filling Online Forms for Voter and Rajasthan. visual, the Essay The Legalization written, and general, the oral in its representation of trauma, and in how it expresses the memory of the eyewitness and the secondary witness. There had not been a visual, narrative text of the Holocaust published widely before Maus —what I think of as a visual materialization , for instance, of Auschwitz: something that is not a still photograph that captures a single moment, or a moving series of Essay of Abortion, film frames that whisks a viewer along, but is rather a visual materialization that is a sequence that creates a world that can be studied and engaged at Essay Statement Degree one’s own pace. 16 Discussing the question of representation and verisimilitude, Spiegelman chafes at filmmakers’ quests to re-build the Essay The Legalization camps, as opposed to Maus ’s approach to representing the camps by “creating it as a mental zone” ( MetaMaus 166). Creating the camps as a mental zone ; this is one of the chief abilities of Maus as a narrative that uses the abstractions of drawing.

Spiegelman, I learned while interviewing him, had first encountered the Holocaust visually. Essay. Spiegelman grew up with parents, both Polish survivors of The Legalization, Auschwitz, who, in keeping with what was for some a tacit mandate of post-war American Jewish immigrant culture, didn’t address with him in any explicit way what their experiences in tales general, Poland had been. As a child, he knew there was something called “the war,” but his encounters with its traces were a series of jarringly disconnected moments, mostly verbal, like in Essay, the emblematic episode from his memoir Portrait of the Artist as a Young %@*! when in a car ride back from a party his parents speak about and Gender Roles a former sonderkommando present at Essay The Legalization of Abortion the event for whom “it’s rumors he put his father and Things to Keep Filling and Rajasthan., his sons to the ovens, so nobody sits with him,” and The Legalization of Abortion, then suggest to their son, “Take a nap again, Cookie!” ( MetaMaus 15). However, although his oblique knowledge that his parents had been through something terrible was mostly verbal—and aural generally, as he describes hearing them scream in their sleep—during the the canterbury general widely televised Adolf Eichmann trial in 1961, when he was 13, Spiegelman went searching through his parents’ private bookshelf, and Essay, had his Susan Sontag moment of encountering images of atrocity for the first time. That the experience of recognition was visual isn’t particularly unusual: stories of people’s first viewing of Nazi atrocity photos circulate widely.

17 The most significant object that Spiegelman found, however, wasn’t primarily photographic. His first real encounter with what to him was “the war” was visual—and drawn . In the process of assembling MetaMaus I learned how formative drawn visual archives are in Spiegelman’s intellectual and to Keep in Mind While for Voter ID Card, artistic imaginary. 18 It comes out in our interview that Spiegelman discovered, on his mother’s bookshelf, mostly Polish and Yiddish small-press pamphlets published right after the war, some of them picturing everyday life in the camps. For Spiegelman, these were so outside of mass-cultural production, ”they had a kind of fanzine-like magic to of Abortion me and really struck me hard. I couldn’t understand those words in engineering, those pamphlets but pored over the two that had pictures.

Anything at all with cartoon-like drawings had an immense pull on The Legalization me, especially those from before my own childhood” ( MetaMaus 49). The archive I discovered researching MetaMaus opens up traditions of monsters in my, visual witness related to WWII that helped to inspire and innovate, even indirectly, the comics cultures and scenes that sprouted in the late 1960s and early 70s. A plausible arc for the comics field might actually begin with Paladij Osynka’s 1946 Auschwitz (owned by of Abortion Anja Spiegelman), move on history to Spiegelman’s 1972 “Maus,” and of Abortion, continue on to Maus and in Society Rich, the legions of The Legalization, work it has inspired. “Most of what happened was not photographed,” Spiegelman reminds readers about Auschwitz in Things to Keep in Mind Bangalore, MetaMaus (50). Taking this seriously, can we posit the urgency to testify to life and death in WWII as the genesis of what we now recognize as contemporary comics? Something introduced, say, in the generational transmission of the pamphlets and sparked by the taboo-shattering (itself Vietnam war-induced) ethic of the underground comics? Although Spiegelman couldn’t read the text because he didn’t know the languages, the images —and the Essay of Abortion amateur graphic design, and humble printing—constituted his first understanding of While Online ID Card, life during the war; his parents’ circumstance. His first full experience of recognition with the Essay of Abortion Holocaust was visual and drawn —hand-made images of Things Filling Forms for Voter ID Card Bangalore, witness. Some of these, as he points out, were what we would think of as quite cartoony—one was a booklet, basically, of gag cartoons by Essay The Legalization a Ukrainian inmate about Essay on Personal Degree Auschwitz, with jokes like “Ha ha! You didn’t get any soup!” (49).

19 One pamphlet that had small, poorly printed watercolor drawings of Ravensbruck struck Spiegelman deeply. ( MetaMaus features several images from two of these pamphlets, Ravensbruck and Auschwitz , both from 1946, and which both happen to be in Ukrainian, and the accompanying DVD has the entire contents of several of the pamphlets under the heading “Anja’s Bookshelf.”) 20 Spiegelman’s experience with these unpretentious, cartoon-like drawings of what he calls “the oxymoron of life in a death camp” was formative for Essay of Abortion Maus , which first appeared in similarly designed and printed serial booklets in the 1980s. That his experience was visual and necessarily not verbal at the level of comprehension also allowed him to encounter the discourse of the visual in a heightened way, even as it shared space on the page with captions. Spiegelman says, about survivor drawings and surviving art from the history war: Those drawings were a return to drawing not for its possibilities of imposing the self , of finding a new role for art and drawing after the camera, but rather a return to the earlier function that drawing served before the camera—a kind of commemorating, witnessing, and recording of information—what Goya referred to Essay The Legalization when he says, “This I saw.” (italics mine) He continues, “The artists… are giving urgent information in the pictures, information that could be transmitted no other way” (49-50). Indeed, Goya’s use of handmade images as a form of reporting has been important to contemporary cartoonists as a model of visual witnessing. Nonfiction comics emerged forcefully in about, the postwar period, and the genre of nonfiction comics developed in its contemporary specificity, I argue, out of WWII, where we can locate powerful aesthetic and political antecedents in the realm of urgent handmade works of visual witness. Spiegelman’s Maus archive—which is now part of the public MetaMaus archive—makes this legible. The Legalization. I am fascinated by how, broadly speaking, the discourse of the visual—and the monsters in my notion of visual archives —emerges out of a tension with other media discourses.

This is something we see in the formative post-war pamphlets, which combine word and image, highlighting, for Spiegelman, the status of the image, since the words were not fully accessible to him. We also see this throughout Maus , a visual narrative based on oral testimony that consistently heightens our awareness of visual, written, and oral archives, and where they interact, overlap, or get transposed one into the other. As a newly constituted (shadow) collection of sources and archives, MetaMaus preserves, and draws attention to, the Essay tension between the oral, written, and visual—and within the realm of the visual, the prologue difference between the drawn and the photographic—that characterizes Maus . Essay The Legalization. It preserves the Things Filling for Voter and Rajasthan. interstices that Maus sets in motion, even as it operates in the realm of the Essay The Legalization explanatory. Used by Permission of the Wylie Agency LLC. The visual surface of MetaMaus reflects the tension between different kinds of Things to Keep Forms for Voter ID Card, extant archives—oral, written, photographic—and the cross-discursive work of of Abortion, (re)building new archives (all in the realm of the ideographic , of the printed page) that motivates Maus . MetaMaus ’s defining feature is that it shows the materiality of genetic history, Spiegelman’s archive; it is about the embodiment of archives—archives as bodies, bodies as archives. Essay Of Abortion. The archived body is key in MetaMaus . In the image of the 1979 lithograph “Mom and Me in Essay, the Park, 1951 (Maus Revenge),” the Essay The Legalization very first and one of only history very few full-page images in the 300-page book, the “revenge” seems to be the mere existence of the son’s postwar body next to his mother’s that is being presented—archived—by the Essay illustration (41). 21 As Spiegelman says in our interview, “Taking on my parents’ Holocaust story was a way of getting to the primal moment of my birth, because there was no way they were supposed to be alive and engineering history, coupling after WWII.

It is Essay The Legalization of Abortion a specific journey that has nothing to do with history and everything to do with history: one or both of these people is supposed to be dead, which means I’m not supposed to be here” ( MetaMaus, 199). Monsters In My. This archiving of bodies that happens through their visual materialization on the page and then public dissemination takes on extra resonance given the Nazis’ famous recordkeeping, archiving and marking, of those they arrested and eliminated. 22. A small but significant detail that indicates MetaMaus ’s investment in staging the of Abortion materiality of archives—or what I think of as the embodiment of archives—is evident without even turning a page. On Personal For Master's Work. The fairly spare back cover is black: it features two full-color images, along with bold text in white, grey, and red. The top image, flush right, an illustration from the early 90s, depicts Spiegelman as a mouse from Maus reading Maus in a library alongside a realistically-rendered mouse reading George Herriman’s comic strip Krazy Kat , which stars Ignatz Mouse. The text that begins directly below the image in fact overlays it; the bold red vertical bar of the sans serif uppercase letter “I” (“In the pages of MetaMaus …”) covers the “a” that begins Spiegelman’s lowercase, bottom left corner signature. The “I,” glossy, stands out against the matte finish of the hardback cover. A smaller image, a study for the back cover of Maus II , hovers in The Legalization, the bottom left of the back cover, leaning outwards at on Personal for Master's a slight angle. The original barcode, which is continuous in the image with Vladek’s striped camp uniform, here touches MetaMaus ’s barcode, making all three contiguous.

The most striking visual detail, however, is that this back cover study from Maus II appearing on the back cover of MetaMaus is visually affixed : two small, glossy, transparent pieces of tape—not flat-edged, but textured, as if torn from a roll—paste up the Essay The Legalization image on either side. (The “I” now becomes legible, perhaps, as “red tape,” holding up the previous image; a letter becomes a visual design element, a kind of picture writing that constitutes the stuff of the canterbury tales general, comics.) The back cover, then, points to the image as object : not only Essay of Abortion transparent representation —what it presents, depicts—but a medium-specific artifact with a material weight and logic that is handled, moved, touched, placed. This approach, highlighting the artifact as an object in space, is in keeping with both my research in the Maus archive, in in my, which I studied the physical paper object over The Legalization, available bitmaps or pixmaps—and with comics as a practice in general, which is a way, as Spiegelman puts it, of “turning narrative into in my, geography” ( MetaMaus , 185). MetaMaus showcases the The Legalization of Abortion materiality of its archive throughout. A draft of a tier of panels, in which Vladek confronts Art about finding an early autobiographical comic strip, “Prisoner on the Hell Planet,” sits at Essay Roles the top of a MetaMaus page, anchored by black electrical tape on Essay The Legalization of Abortion either side (many of Spiegelman’s drafts and sketches were taped into notebooks or folded in to other studies and The Difference among and Poor, notes) (35); full draft pages show excision marks and yellowing from glue stains, as in the page about a ghetto cake baked with detergent (74); some of these draft pages, whose coloration and textures display their layers of composition, are shown full-size to highlight their physical features, as in the final art for The Legalization the significant “Time Flies…” page, which makes us take stock of the material weight of the words placed into the hanging balloons (163). A reproduction of a lithograph introducing the “Why Mice?” chapter has an evident blind stamp in the corner (110); a page of a notebook containing a sketch for one of the monsters in my very earliest iterations of Maus is a scan not just of the panels but of the entire piece of paper, a crinkled, yellowed sheet with three holes, one ripped, on its left-hand side (121). Of Abortion. A handwritten pencil note of my own, dating a research image as April 6, 1940, remains in among and Poor Essay, its top-right corner (even I was surprised it wasn’t Photoshopped out) (137).

USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. The image that is the exemplar of Essay The Legalization of Abortion, Spiegelman’s focus on the materiality of the apparatus of the comics page—an image I fell in love with in 2006, as soon as I saw it in a 1979 notebook—comes to readers under the rubric of “Maus studies in style,” as Spiegelman’s caption puts it (141). Mickey Mouse, making a quizzical expression, faces outward, looking at in Society among Rich the viewer. The pen drawing appears on The Legalization of Abortion white lined paper; every other horizontal bar created by two lines is blank. Essay. At first glance, it looks as though the of Abortion mouse is divided up, like he got erased or sliced, and Spiegelman is drawing his disconnected body parts as an exercise in style. But if one takes the visual logic of the paper’s format into consideration—taking the drawn image on as inextricably located in and not just on the material space of the page—we see that the mouse is general prologue behind the Essay The Legalization bars of the actual page and interacting with it . His little hands reach out, holding onto the blue line top edge of genetic history, a bar he stands behind. Of Abortion. Spiegelman puns on the materiality of the page, calling our attention to its determining properties. The character is behind bars of paper, and he reaches out of Things in Mind Online ID Card, these bars; he’s two-dimensional and, it suggests, three-dimensional at once, existing both inside and Essay The Legalization of Abortion, outside of the frame we put him in. This image asks us to take stock of the materiality of its composition, just as the weightier “Time Flies” drafts do—versions of the monsters head famous final page, which Spiegelman has called his “avant-garde Times Flies pages” because they show the represented object; in this case, flies—both inside and outside of the The Legalization material frames of the page (see pages 160-161).

The book’s interest in showcasing archives as full artifacts in space, revealing their three-dimensionality, is particularly evident with photographs. Not all photographs in MetaMaus are treated this way. In some cases, they provide a visual referent for Things to Keep in Mind While Online Forms for Voter ID Card Bangalore and Rajasthan. an illustration, as in the small photographic image presented overleaf from the full-page “Mom and Me in the Park, 1951 (Maus Revenge),” which functions, in spite of the pressure Spiegelman places on this notion, as a kind of “objective correlative” for The Legalization of Abortion the lithograph (220). (The book has 66 stand-alone photographs, some public, such as a famous clandestine photo smuggled out from Auschwitz, or a U.S. military aerial shot of Auschwitz, but most private family photos, in addition to monsters a collage page of maternal Zylberberg family photos [19 in all], and a collage page of paternal Spiegelman family photos [14 in all].) 23. USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. However, the photographs that do highlight their own materiality are striking, as in the photograph of Vladek Spiegelman, one of only three photographs to appear in Maus , on the pages of MetaMaus . The question of how the three photos in Maus re-appear in MetaMaus exemplifies the book’s creation of its new archive. In an unnamed but dedicated eight-page section on photography in the chapter “Why Comics?,” in which all three Maus photographs reappear, we see the breathtaking souvenir photo of Vladek—only the photograph is different. Maus embeds a clean copy of the 1945 photograph on page 294, breaking out of the frame, revealing black space behind it.

In MetaMaus , we see a draft sketch for the same tier of panels, but this time with the original battered, creased photograph of Vladek tilting out of the frame. The caption underscores this attention to Essay The Legalization of Abortion the actual material object: “The original copy of Vladek’s photo” (220). The photo here highlights its own romantic, and filial, generational, transatlantic transmission : it looks like a photograph from 1945 that was carried with an itinerant person and about, mailed from Germany to a wife in Poland and brought to of Abortion Sweden and the U.S. and passed along to a son decades later might look—it looks used, worn, traveled, gripped by many hands (the creases generate from the middle sides of the photograph, as if bent by actual touching). Further, the last conventionally narrative page of the prologue book, before the Chronology and Index, ends with a photograph of Anja Spiegelman—and gives us, literally, a three-dimensional presentation: it shows us the front of the of Abortion photograph, and then the back, delivering the complete object to readers. Spiegelman’s caption, unusually, appears at the top, so that the page’s ensuing narrative is given over to the logic of the full artifact, and the book ends with Vladek Spiegelman’s handwriting in history, pen on the picture’s back: “Last cruise together with my beloved wife March, 1968. Died May 21 st 1968.” (There is no page number for this page; just Vladek’s conclusive period.) If, as discussed previously, MetaMaus also showcases and enacts Maus ’s cross-discursive battles between Art and Vladek, it nevertheless gives Vladek the Essay of Abortion last word on an incontrovertible fact. The photograph appears not only as a powerful image, but as a powerful archival object with emotional and actual weight (the front image of the picture, angled right, even creates a small soft shadow on the handwritten back inscription). Along with the amplification of embodiment and materiality of the archive seen in Maus, MetaMaus ’s visual surface is engineering also characterized by the cross-discursive dynamics Maus enacts. Although Art and I did not deliberately plan this aspect of the book—as we did not consciously plan the Essay The Legalization unrehearsed but recorded interlocutionary structure of MetaMaus as a mirroring of on Personal Statement for Master's Degree in Social, Maus — MetaMaus presents a tension on the page between the prose interview and the graphics. 24 The pages of MetaMaus reflect, then, the tension between word and image that motivates the internal movement of all comics, and of Abortion, that our collaborative connection could be said to reflect. In some sense, our work was about establishing the book, too, not only as containing comics within it, but further and to Keep in Mind While Filling Online for Voter ID Card Bangalore and Rajasthan., more importantly establishing itself as more comics-like than it might have otherwise been.

The seemingly endless process of sifting and condensing and distilling and locating our words in meaningful relation to highly curated images in space was, in essence, the practice of comics. And MetaMaus also enacts all of the interruptions, interstices, ambivalence, counterpoints, and Essay The Legalization, (de-regulated) rhythms between word and head, image and The Legalization, presence and absence that the Essay and Gender Roles best comics do. As a graduate student at the University of Chicago pointed out to me, for instance, on the first narrative page of the book—the opening of our interview—it looks, visually, like our interview is being pushed down by the two-page comic strip “Mein Kampf,” an earlier (1995) and much briefer meditation on memory, archives, and Maus (12-13). Essay Of Abortion. 25 Although the in Mind While Filling Forms ID Card Bangalore “Hillary font,” as we called it, a grey-green bold sans serif, opens the first chapter with a question in enormous letters on the title page, when one turns the page, one does not first encounter the Essay continuation of the interview implied by the question, but rather, immediately, the comic strip, which spans over four-fifths of each of the opening pages. From the very outset, the book establishes a tension between its prose and its graphics that is monsters in my head itself characteristic of comics. The images can be interruptive or force the eye out of continuous reading.

Sometimes the interview jumps across pages, which are built on The Legalization of Abortion a vertical two column grid, and when one turns the page, one is met immediately with an image opening the subsequent column, over which one’s eye must skip in order to continue the interview, or on which one will pause before re-orienting with the interview. The Canterbury. 26 There is no “right” way to absorb the pages; no correct order, as in comics, between words and images. Double-spread pages, as in our discussion of creative block in Essay of Abortion, the chapter “Why Mice?,” sometimes create an diagonal quadrant effect, in which a page with the basic vertical sequence text-image is followed overleaf by a page with the basic vertical sequence image-text, demonstrating that there is not only one acceptable way to take in the combination of monsters in my, visual and verbal elements ( MetaMaus 146-147). 27 I often felt that I had to Essay of Abortion optically climb over the visual/archival elements to keep the thread of the text going (incidentally, in the previously unpublished comic strip that accompanies the discussion of creative block, Spiegelman draws an interviewer climbing over Things to Keep While Filling Online ID Card Bangalore and Rajasthan., elements of the past—bodies—in order to ask him questions about Maus ). MetaMaus values the interruptions of the visual archive, setting down and placing pressure on certain rhythms established between the visual archival elements and words on the page. The ethic of interruptiveness the pages set in motion is writ large in instances where the conversation is temporarily broken off by Essay The Legalization of Abortion entire separate sequences, such as the appearance of the “Family Tree” section, which arrives not as an appendix, but rather in the middle of one of Spiegelman’s responses; it bisects page 223 vertically and continues for seven pages, after which we are returned to Art’s analysis of a specific page of Maus . The breaks are thematic, but they’re not clean. On one hand, this rhythm is about a dynamic in which we have a conversation about on Personal for Master's Degree Work artifacts, and then let the artifacts “speak” for themselves, as in the “Family Tree” section’s aggregation of family photographs. The non-linearity of MetaMaus , its edges and interruptions, reveals the Essay The Legalization of Abortion book as testimony—not only a book about testimony (Spiegelman’s father’s), but rather distinct—the testimony, not testament, of a son, artist, and secondary witness, solicited through conversation. MetaMaus balances the weight of on Personal for Master's Degree in Social, its archive with the visual emptiness of The Legalization of Abortion, space. Genetic History. It shows the Essay The Legalization of Abortion counterpoint of presence (the materiality of paper, ink, photographs) and absence—the unfilled speech balloons that suggest, at least graphically, the absences that remain despite all the work of rebuilding. The appearance of empty balloons—something we don’t get much of in Maus , despite Spiegelman’s nod to Beckett’s statement on silence—in MetaMaus makes legible and material the genetic engineering history question: How do you fill in the gaps? 28 (In their graphic evocation of the empty boxes of the of Abortion post-war Spiegelman family tree, the empty balloons suggest the presence behind the the canterbury tales absence.) They are not about emphasizing the fact of the unrepresentable or untellable—in a recent public event, Spiegelman quipped that unlike when he started Maus , today “the unspeakable gets spoken within 10 minutes”—but rather about the Essay The Legalization effort made to communicate.

29 In my examination of Spiegelman’s drafts and tales general, studies, I was always surprised at how resonant the visual of the empty balloon felt, especially in dialogues, with physical gestures and the indication of articulation in place and the words themselves evaporated: it looked like the representation of Essay The Legalization, people trying to engineering history talk to Essay The Legalization each other, and it suggested, in a way, at least graphically, that the site of interlocution was enough, no matter what the about precise shapes of sound were. The last page of our interview features one drawing, and one photograph. In the drawing, a color panel study from Maus with blues and reds, the text box is empty, and the speech balloon is empty (234). Vladek and Anja, reunited, embrace tightly (the words we are missing in Essay The Legalization, both dialogue and head, narration are Vladek’s; his “voice” will later connect to and fill this blank space, when his handwritten inscription on the back of a photograph of of Abortion, Anja ends the book.) This panel sits in the center of the page; our interview flows around it, and ends right before a photograph of Vladek and Anja’s cemetery tombstone—the “Spiegelman” tombstone drawn in Maus that concludes that book. Our last page enacts a reversal. While the final page of Essay about Power and Gender, Maus (“it’s enough stories for now,” Vladek says) offers an Essay The Legalization of Abortion ink headstone, under which Spiegelman’s signature sits, as if buried (or engendering his parents’ story backwards), MetaMaus ’s conclusion to talking offers a photographic headstone, above which sits Spiegelman’s typographic “signature,” in a way retracting the primacy of self that Maus ’s last marks could be seen to indicate. Maus ’s signature reads, by and Poor hand, “art spiegelman 1978-1991,” the span of time he worked on Maus ; MetaMaus ’s reads “Art Spiegelman, with Hillary Chute, NYC, 2006-2010,” the span of The Legalization, time during which we put together MetaMaus . USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. On one level, in its archival display mode, the page seems to cede to the indexicality of the photograph, which is unattributed—no caption or date fixes this object, so it has a certain timeless resonance.

Yet on another level, we have Spiegelman’s post-plot ending, a black page overleaf with three small color panel studies, also with blank white text boxes, that float, unanchored, at genetic engineering the bottom of the page. They show a man, walking alone under a moon, train tracks ahead of him (the images depict Vladek, finally, heading home to Poland from of Abortion Germany). We end, on one hand, with the graphic emptiness of words, but also the fullness of richly colored visual images. And while both pages offer unfilled spaces of the verbal within their panels, our last interview page offers a rich flow of prose, itself counterbalanced with the strictly visual post-plot ending with no words. Presenting its historical and newly constituted archives, MetaMaus enacts the frisson between words and engineering, images throughout. The boxes of comics are archival boxes —boxes of space to put things in, to frame things with, to enclose and preserve with (even if the elements inside will not stay still, spilling out into the gutter, or literally breaking the frame). The impulses shaping comics’ most basic grammar express an Essay archival drive, or suggest what we might think of The Difference in Society among Rich, as comics’ archival unconscious. 30 In a 1977 meditation on comics, Spiegelman points out that comics frames—also called panels, or boxes—are like windows of a building (“Introduction” np).

They may be this, but they are also containers , literal boxes that are the building blocks of a psychic and material edifice, offering the look and view implied by windows, but also the power to The Legalization of Abortion hold, include, delimit. The work that comics enacts is architectonic , as Spiegelman has often pointed out. Maus , he says, for instance, could not be accomplished without the “architectonic rigor” of cartoonist Winsor McCay; his own attempts to define comics as a medium are to tales general prologue “get at what the architectonics” of comics might be. 31 The OED defines architectonic as of or pertaining to architecture, suited or serviceable for the construction of Essay of Abortion, buildings; of or pertaining to construction. Two further definitions there pertain: one, noted to be used by Aristotle, is having the function of superintendence and control, i.e. Genetic Engineering History. having the relation that an architect bears to the artificers employed on the building; directive; controlling. The next is, simply, pertaining to the systematization of knowledge. All of these apply to comics, which is a system of knowledge, in addition to a form of expression, that has everything to do with being an “artificer” in the Greek sense and one who controls the shape of The Legalization of Abortion, time, space, and material on the page. 32 The architectonics of comics is the process of archiving. It makes a location for ordering information to express history and genetic, memory. 33.

Spiegelman later likened comics boxes to packed suitcases, and he has figured comics boxes as boxes of memory smashing up against each other. 34 He has also likened comics panels, the of Abortion form’s most essential grammar, to coffins. He told me, to cite again an earlier quotation, that Maus is about “choices being made, of finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing. Those are the genetic things that give real tensile strength to the work—putting the dead into The Legalization, little boxes” ( MetaMaus , 73). The language of putting the dead into little boxes is especially resonant given that Maus literally buries Vladek Spiegelman, ending the book with his headstone. To “archive” something can mean to materialize something in order to monsters place and bury it, as when I asked Spiegelman about a notebook entry, on what seemed to me the The Legalization key issue of his identification with Vladek, and his response—printed in MetaMaus , was, “Well, tell me more.

You know, I put in a notebook so I’d never have to The Difference Essay think about Essay The Legalization of Abortion it again” (32). 35 Then someone comes along and digs it up, as I did, and in Society Rich Essay, as Art did when he searched down information in Essay, his father’s archives for Maus (only there, his father had burned Anja’s notebooks, incinerating as opposed to monsters burying to ensure finality). But comics’ procedure of archiving doesn’t have to Essay be only Things to Keep While Filling Online for Voter ID Card entombing (and the dead don’t stay dead). Comics inscribes its information in of Abortion, boxes on the page in order to preserve and commemorate, but also to disseminate, to circulate, to produce an interaction. Hillary Chute is the author of Graphic Women: Life Narrative and Contemporary Comics (Columbia 2010) and Associate Editor of Art Spiegelman’s MetaMaus (Pantheon 2011). She is working on a book titled “Disaster is Essay about and Gender Roles My Muse”: Visual Witnessing, Comics, and Essay The Legalization of Abortion, Documentary Form . Rich. Chute is the of Abortion Neubauer Family Assistant Professor in English at Things to Keep While Forms for Voter Bangalore the University of Chicago and will be a Visiting Scholar at the American Academy of Arts and Essay The Legalization, Sciences for Statement Degree Work 2012-2013. 2 For more on Maus and photography, see Hirsch, Family Frames , and Liss, Trespassing Through Shadows . 3 Vladek Spiegelman, posthumously, became a historical public figure. For a time, although not currently, there was a discrete Wikipedia entry for Vladek; Stanley Crouch named him in The Legalization, his pantheon of heroes, and Lauren Redniss’s recent book Radioactive features an entry on Vladek in a section on the canterbury tales general famous Polish citizens. 4 See Iadonisi for a take on the collaborative narrative fabric of Essay, Maus . 5 The main body of the book is an interview I conducted with Spiegelman for a period of two-plus years, which we had transcribed along the Essay Roles way and which I then edited from hundreds upon hundreds of pages down to workable drafts that we condensed into the roughly 234 pages that appear in Essay The Legalization of Abortion, the printed book. 6 See Chute 2005. Indy magazine is no longer operative.

7 It seems there might be an “archival turn” everywhere. In a highly specific way, however, it is Essay about Roles clear to me that my field of study, contemporary nonfiction comics, is deeply steeped in The Legalization, the desires and problems that the work of Essay and Gender Roles, archiving asks us to consider. 8 Spiegelman accuses both parents of being a murderer in Maus . The Legalization Of Abortion. In the comic strip “Prisoner on the Hell Planet,” a work from 1972 that is The Difference in Society among Rich Essay embedded within the book, Spiegelman ends the strip with the Art character addressing his mother right after her suicide: “You murdered me, mommy, and you left me here to take the rap!” 9 Hoffman points out Essay of Abortion how the body has been seen as an archive in at least two senses: “as a storehouse for data and as itself a source of information” (6). 10 The notion of selection also has parallels, although inversely—selection for preservation versus selection for Essay on Personal Degree destruction—to the selektions that were such a defining feature of the Nazi program of Essay The Legalization, elimination and such a large part of The Difference among Essay, Vladek’s testimony in Maus . 11 Complete Maus, 258. 12 See Marks, “Maus and Bitburg.” 13 One striking and moving photograph included within MetaMaus is of Anja and Vladek in 1946, posing with this framed photograph of Richieu, as though the entire family of three is having their picture taken.

Anja’s elbow—she looks distracted and sad, while Vladek holds her and looks adoringly at her—touches the frame, as if establishing a bodily connection ( MetaMaus 236). 14 “Second Thoughts on of Abortion the Memory Industry,” NYU/ New York Institute of the Humanities symposium. May 7, 2011. 15 See Chute, “‘The Shadow of a Past Time.’” 16 One other loosely sequential form visually representing Auschwitz could possibly be the in Society Rich and Poor space of the museum. See Landsberg. 17 See Hirsch 2004 for an analysis of visual encounters of Essay The Legalization, recognition. 18 See “Drawing the Holocaust” in on Personal for Master's, The New York Review of Books online for an excerpt of my interview with Spiegelman that deals specifically with survivor (and non-survivor) art. 19 Another striking example of cartoon drawing of the camps is the 1942 booklet “Mickey in Gurs,” by prisoner Horst Rosenthal (he died the The Legalization same year in Auschwitz). See MetaMaus 138. 20 Ravensbruck , Ukrainian, artist unknown, 1946.

Auschwitz: Album of A Political Prisoner , Ukrainian, by Paladij Osynka, 1946. Spiegelman very specifically classifies these pamphlets as part of his mother’s domain in presenting them on the DVD as “Anja’s Bookshelf.” Anja Spiegelman was formative for his artistry in many ways, including in her role as the owner and saver of the small-press pamphlets she transported from Europe, and in her role drawing collaboratively with her young son through the “Scribble game” (see Portrait ). Vladek’s second wife (and Maus character) Mala Spiegelman translated several of the pamphlets that appeared in Polish for Spiegelman during his research for Maus . 21 There are only fifteen instances, including double-page spreads, like one of rejection letters, in which an Essay on Personal for Master's Degree in Social Work image occupies an entire page of MetaMaus . This lithograph is based on a photograph of Anja and Art Spiegelman in Stockholm that appears in MetaMaus on the facing page, at about two inches high (40). The lithograph shares the composition of the Essay The Legalization photograph, except for a cat hanging (lynched?) from a tree branch behind Anja and Art. Engineering History. The lithograph image does not seem to imply the adult mother in Essay The Legalization, the foreground has directly physically murdered the Nazi cat; rather, the mere existence of her three-year-old son holding her hand in a snowsuit is tantamount to murdering—enacting revenge on—the cat standing in for Nazism. 22 For a recent essay on the nature of archives and Nazi official and private recordkeeping, see Farmer; for a take on the effect of Nazi documentation as seen in Essay about Power and Gender, Berlin’s new “Topography of Terror” Center, see Malamud. 23 By stand-alone I mean not embedded in another previously circulating work, as in the two photographs that are part of the reprinted story “Mein Kampf” that opens an early section of the book.

The first four photographs to appear in the book are these of Art (1956) and his son Dash (1995), on page 13, and Anja’s Polish passport (1946) and Vladek’s U.S. naturalization application (1951), on page 16, followed by the first non-circulating, non-previously contextualized photograph, Anja and Vladek kissing at Art’s bar mitzvah (1961), on page 21. 24 Art and The Legalization, I sometimes disagreed on the weight that should be given to the different elements; I was much more comfortable with swaths of text whereas Art pushed me to Power and Gender see the importance of The Legalization, visual anchors. This dynamic was instructive in that its tensions are actually parallel to monsters in my the basic word and image tensions of the Essay The Legalization form of comics. 25 Thank you to Carmen Merport for her insights about monsters in my this tension. Essay. Although sometimes the graphics crush down the Things to Keep While Filling Forms ID Card and Rajasthan. prose on the page, sometimes the images seem to surge up from the The Legalization bottom of the page, what I think of in Society among Rich, as a crushing upwards . This is evident in The Legalization, a sequence in which Spiegelman and Essay on Personal for Master's, I discuss Nazi propaganda—a rich archive, for sure, that has a forceful visual presence in the book—and a poster for an anti-Semitic film featuring the leering face of a swarthy, pointy-eared, kippa-wearing Jew seems to push up on a tiny top-edge illustration by The Legalization of Abortion Spiegelman of cockroach Gregor Samsa, squeezing out prose and head, allowing for Essay The Legalization of Abortion only a few lines of type in between iterations of dehumanization (114). 26 Page 22, in which a draft from Maus opens the page in monsters head, the top left while a sentence jumps from page 21 to 22 below it, is one example among many. 27 Another example, involving family photographs, is 32-33. 28 The Spiegelman character says to his therapist Paul Pavel: “Like Samuel Beckett once said, ‘Every word is like an unnecessary stain on silence and nothingness’” ( Complete Maus 205). 29 Spiegelman expands on this in Essay, conversation with me in Essay about and Gender, a YouTube clip posted by Essay The Legalization of Abortion the 92nd St. Y (October 6, 2011). 30 In “Archival Bodies,” Hoffman suggests of the notion of an Essay on Personal Statement for Master's Degree Work archival unconscious : “the archival unconscious is not so much a place, or a preexisting set of meanings, but rather the function of an interactive process, in which something comes into being” (27).

The interactive process here would be constituted in the relation between the psychic life of imagined and remembered histories and the process of visualizing, or “materializing” them. 31 Silverblatt 33; MetaMaus 166. 32 Bechdel’s Fun Home explicitly takes on the language of the Greek “artificer” and Essay The Legalization of Abortion, suggests the cartoonist as artificer. 33 See Chute, “’In the Shadow of a Past Time’” (also included on the MetaMaus DVD) for one view of Maus and its ordering of information. 34 See 2008’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young… and MetaMaus 38 for comics panels and suitcases, and genetic history, Portrait as an example of panels as boxes of memory. This notion first found expression in Spiegelman’s experimental piece “Some Boxes for the Salvation Army” (1976). 35 This exchange reminds me of Vladek’s comment to Art: “All such things from the war, I tried to put out from my mind once for all… until you rebuild me all this from your questions” ( Complete Maus 258). Bechdel, Alison.

2006. Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Chute, Hillary. Essay The Legalization. 2005. “Literal Forms: Narrative Structures in Maus ,” Indy Magazine (March). Online. -------. 2006. “The Shadow of a Past Time: History and Graphic Representation in.

Maus .” Twentieth-Century Literature 52.2 (Summer): 199-230. Cvetkovich, Ann. 2008. “Drawing the Archive in Alison Bechdel’s Fun Home .” WSQ: Women’s Studies Quarterly 36: 1 2 (Spring/Summer 2008): 111-128. Farmer, Sarah. 2010. “Going Visual: Holocaust Representation and Historical Method,” American History Review (February): 115-122. Gardner, Jared. 2006. “Archives, Collectors, and the New Media Work of Comics.” Mfs: Modern Fiction Studies . Special issue on Essay Power and Gender Graphic Narrative, ed.

Hillary Chute and Marianne DeKoven. 52.4 (Winter): 787-806. Print. Hirsch, Marianne. 2004. “Collateral Damage.” Editor’s Column. PMLA 119.5 (Oct.): 1209-15. --------. 1997. Family Frames: Photography, Narrative, and Postmemory . Cambridge: Harvard UP. Hoffman, Anne Golomb. Essay The Legalization. 2009. About And Gender. “Archival Bodies.” American Imago 66.1 (Spring): 5-40.

Iadonisi, Rick. 1994. “Bleeding History and Owning His [Father’s] Story: Maus and Collaborative Autobiography.” CEA Critic 57.1 (Fall): 41-56. Essay. Print. Landsberg, Alison. 1997. “America, the Holocaust, and the Mass Culture of Memory.” New German Critique (Spring/Summer): 63-86. Liss, Andrea. 1998. Trespassing Through Shadows: Memory, Photography, and the canterbury tales prologue, the Holocaust . Minneapolis: University of The Legalization, Minnesota Press.

Malamud, Randy. 2011. “Meticulously Evil: Nazi Efficiencies Documented in in my head, Topography of Terror.” Chronicle of of Abortion, Higher Education , April 22, Vol. In Society Among. 57, Issue 33. Essay. Accessed March 14, 2012. http://chronicle.com/article/Meticulously-Evil/127100/ Marks, Clifford J. 2002. “Maus and Bitburg.” The Midwest Quarterly : 298-313.

Redniss, Lauren. 2010. Radioactive: Marie and Pierre Curie: A Story of Love and Fallout . New York: HarperCollins. Rohy, Valerie. 2010. “In The Queer Archive: Fun Home .” GLQ 16.3: 341-361. Silverblatt, Michael. 1995. “The Cultural Relief of Art Spiegelman.” Tampa Review 5: 31-36.

Spiegelman, Art. 2011. The Complete Maus (anniversary edition). New York: Pantheon. ------. 1994. The Complete Maus . Genetic History. CD-ROM. New York: Voyager Company. ------. 1998. From Maus to Now to Maus to The Legalization of Abortion Now . Palermo: La Centrale dell’Arte.

------. 1977. “Introduction.” Breakdowns . New York: Belier Press. ------. 2011. The Complete Maus : Maus I: My Father Bleeds History, Maus II: And Here My Troubles Began . Genetic History. New York: Pantheon. ------.

2011. MetaMaus. Assoc. Ed. The Legalization. Hillary Chute. New York: Pantheon. ------. 2008. Portrait of the Artist as a Young %@*! . In Breakdowns (reissue). The Difference Rich And Poor Essay. New York: Pantheon. ------.

1976. “Some Boxes For the The Legalization of Abortion Salvation Army.” Arcade #5. San Francisco: Print Mint. Spiegelman, Art, and Hillary Chute. Monsters. 2011. “Drawing the Holocaust.” NYRblog: New York Review of Books online. October 21. Accessed January 4, 2012. http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2011/oct/21/drawing-holocaust/

Spiegelman, Art, and Hillary Chute at The Legalization of Abortion the 92nd St. Y. October 6, 2011. YouTube. Tales General. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vnb2D4FySro. Images are from MetaMaus by Art Spiegelman. © 2011 by Art Spiegelman, used by permission of Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, Inc., and The Wylie Agency LLC. Marianne Hirsch and Diana Taylor. Volume 9 | Issues 1 and Essay The Legalization, 2 | Summer 2012. Olga Rodriguez Ulloa.

Marianne Hirsch and Leo Spitzer. Andy Bichlbaum and on Personal for Master's Degree in Social Work, Marcial Godoy-Anativia. Mary Marshall Clark. A SENSORIAL ARCHIVE OF THE COLOMBIAN CONFLICT. Jimena Lara Estrada. Jennifer Flores Sternad. Milagros de la Torre. Tamara Lea Spira. Vivian Martinez Tabares. Aravind Enrique Adyanthaya.

CONCIERTO PARA 3 MACHETES BY MIGUEL RODRIGUEZ SEPULVEDA. ASCO: ELITE OF THE OBSCURE, A RETROSPECTIVE 1972-1987 AT LACMA. CLIFFORD OWENS: ANTHOLOGY AT PS1. PLEGARIA MUDA BY DORIS SALCEDO. AND SO I LEFT FROM GEORGIA WALL'S UNSEEN PERFORMANCES. FELIPE DEGREGORI'S CHUNGUI: HORROR sIN LAGRIMAS.

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Evelyn O'Connor: Personal Essay vs Short stories. March 25 2014 2:30 AM. Lots of students mess up this exam because they don't understand one fundamental fact: a personal essay is NOT a short story. Essay The Legalization Of Abortion? So what are the tales general main differences between them? 1. A personal essay is always written by The Legalization and about you – a teenager who lives in Ireland, goes to Essay Work, school and hates having to do the Leaving Cert. A short story can have anyone as the narrator – a rally driver, a model, an of Abortion inanimate object, a frog.

2. A personal essay can roam across your entire lifetime, including thoughts, opinions, hobbies, anecdotes, quotes and ideas. A short story, on the other hand, has a specific setting, a limited number of characters and usually happens over a very short space of time. 3. A personal essay reflects on life, the universe and everything. General Prologue? A short story has a tight plot, character development and The Legalization of Abortion, generally ends with a twist. If you are asked to write a personal essay and you write a short story instead, you will be excommunicated from the Church of among and Poor Essay Leaving Cert English and can never again worship at that temple. Or at the very least, you'll do really badly in The Legalization of Abortion, the exam. Tips for writing personal essays: 1. If you don't find yourself interesting then how can anyone else?

You need to think about what it is that defines you as a person, what marks you out as different, unique, special. The reader needs to want to get to Essay Degree, know you. 2. What events from your distant and more recent past stick out in your mind? Sometimes seemingly insignificant events teach you something unexpected or funny or profound about life. These are the moments that are worth recounting to reveal your true personality to your readers. 3. What are your passions, hobbies and The Legalization, interests in life?

The quirkier, the better. Things In Mind While Forms For Voter And Rajasthan.? Every examiner is fit to vomit when they see yet another essay on of Abortion, your desire to ID Card Bangalore, be a premiership footballer or the next X Factor winner (yawn!). Remember, personal essays reveal your uniqueness so anything that makes you sound like every other teenager on The Legalization, the planet is not worth including. 4. About? Are you opinionated? What issues do you feel most strongly about? Religion, politics, education, history, science, space travel, global warming, human rights, celebrity culture, technology? Do you have any areas of specialist knowledge?

Is there any way you can work these into your essay? 5. Who are the people you find most fascinating in life? They don't need to be famous but they do need to be worthy of our time if you're going to write about The Legalization of Abortion them. Plan in advance. To Keep While Forms For Voter ID Card Bangalore And Rajasthan.? Organise your ideas.

Use some of the Essay following techniques: * Quotes from the canterbury tales general prologue, bands/singers, writers, philosophers, friends, calendars. * Anecdotes from The Legalization of Abortion, your past. Of course, you can always describe an event that happened to someone else and pretend it happened to head, you. * Descriptive style – so that the reader is drawn into the experiences you evoke. * Reflection on your experiences/beliefs/attitudes – show an awareness of how you have become the person you are. * Imagination – you are free to wander off on Essay, a tangent, letting your thoughts flow naturally . . . And Poor? as long as you eventually return to the point.

* Humour – be as funny, sarcastic and brutally honest as you are in real life. Students tend to be pokerfaced and overly serious in the exam, then you meet them in real life and they're a total scream but somehow they didn't manage to get this across in The Legalization, their writing. So sad ;-( * Hyperbole – take the truth and Essay about Power and Gender Roles, exaggerate it. Make your writing dramatic. * Observations about life, love, and Essay The Legalization of Abortion, lemonade. Here is your chance to muse about genetic engineering everything. * Identify problems and offer solutions. Don't be a Moaning Myrtle!

Sample question: Imagine 20 years from now you win a prestigious award and everyone wants a piece of you. Write a personal essay describing how you became the Essay The Legalization of Abortion person you are today (2034) Elsewhere, see Donal Ryan's personal essay on how he became a writer. I think it's incredibly challenging/completely unfair to ask anyone to write a really engaging, original short story in head, one hour and Essay, 20 minutes. Genetic Engineering? As well as writing descriptively, the three elements which must be present are plot, setting and characters. Please avoid melodrama. I've read stories where characters get shot, escape in a speed boat, rescue a kitten from a burning building and The Legalization, then get diagnosed with cancer, all in the space of three pages! Stories should provide a slice of life, not the head plot of a three-hour movie.

The titles also tend to The Legalization, be very specific ('write a story about Essay about Power and Gender Roles a reunion', 'write a short story in which a young person is The Legalization of Abortion, eager to leave home'), so writing a pre-prepared short story in the exam has become less and less of an to Keep in Mind Forms for Voter ID Card and Rajasthan. option in recent years. The new kid on the block is the descriptive essay, which appeared on The Legalization, the exam papers in 2011 and 2013. I see it as a great option because it requires a descriptive style but doesn't insist on the plot and character development that a short story demands. You can write about genetic one single event or about of Abortion a series of different events that are tied together by a common thread. The Difference Essay? The 2013 essay title asked students to write a descriptive essay based on a variety of glimpsed moments. A sample descriptive essay is provided to Essay The Legalization of Abortion, the right. Just one word of warning: it is probably a little on the short side. For the exam, your composition (whether it's an article, a speech, a personal essay, a short story or a descriptive essay) should be around 1,000-1,200 words.

Obviously, quality is always more important than quantity but anything fewer than 900 words will leave the examiner feeling that you just haven't written enough for them to Online Forms ID Card, really judge the quality of your writing. Even as I leave, I know there is the funeral. Even as I climb into our cheap convertible, and the rain comes down and the roof goes up, I know. Essay? You have been a good friend, even though our lives are so busy now we are sometimes like strangers. You have been a good friend, and about and Gender, now your dad is dead. The road is Essay of Abortion, long and monsters in my head, windy and wet.

The Wicklow hills call from the Essay of Abortion far coast, and in between the car is stuffy and hot to keep the windshield fog off, and I shuffle to get comfortable and in my head, try not (for my dear driver's sake) to nod off. But I have never been good with staying awake, and, besides, although I talk for Ireland, a passenger seat is the one place I get lost in my thoughts, climb into The Legalization of Abortion my self and Things Forms ID Card Bangalore and Rajasthan., am silent, then asleep . I jolt awake with a smack to the head, and the sound of a smile in The Legalization, my ears. We cannot have my head collapsing on Rich Essay, him as he drives our cheap convertible with no airbags. We cannot have it. So I fight the battle with my eyelids who go on strike so often I think of hiring a crane to prop them up. The light is green tea and amber now, the trees form a canopy. Of Abortion? A light mist has replaced the rain and sleep rises from Essay Power and Gender Roles, me as contentment settles down.

We pass a house with horse-head pillar stones, and a lady with squeaky wipers, and a three-legged dog ambling along, and he drives me deeper into the heart of nothing. We have other friends who need us this weekend, it's all arranged. Unlike the funeral, and I've been told that up the The Legalization of Abortion North they do things strange, it can take longer for Essay about Power and Gender the carcass to Essay The Legalization, be primed and changed into 'the corpse'. So we leave you to your death and carry on with life somehow, though really it's not all that difficult, which seems both logical and wrong. Hours later, my legs are danced to tales, jelly, my throat is The Legalization, raw.

The rain ricochets off the roof of our stuffy tent, insistent staccato beat, but I still fall asleep. Sleep and dream of water. Sleep and dream of swimming in a lake of milk, then fire, as a heat between my legs wiggles forth. Whilst I was sleeping, my organs conversed, my ears heard the rain and my bladder's fit to burst, but I will not get up, I will not get up, I will not get up. I lever open one eyelid, and my claustrophobic-self bursts roaring from her cave. Canvas too close to monsters in my head, face, no air, no air, trapped, suffocating.

I rip open the tent flap, devour space and air hungrily. The Legalization? Resolve: tomorrow we will be there for you. Morning dawns bright and beautiful. We have a long drive ahead. We put down the roof, become part of the history landscape, which begins with billowing smoke. A woman with a cross arm planted on her hip.

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A buttercup yellow sun smothered in Vaseline, smeared across the sky. Life's minutiae thrill and happiness comes in starburst moments. Even as we arrive, we know there is the funeral. Even as we climb out of our cheap convertible, and the sun beams down and the roof goes back up, we know. Essay The Legalization Of Abortion? Remind ourselves: Your Dad is Dead. We wait for the service to end.

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