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Nov 18, 2017 Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay,
Business studies Coursework - Study of a small established local business. Extracts from this document. Business Studies Controlled Assignment For my investigation of Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism a small established local business, I decided to william, investigate RK News, which is a local business located on Peacemaking: An Alternative the busy new cross road. The reason why I have selected this business is because the location of the care in nursing, business has the An Alternative Essay, capabilities of maintaining a stable flow of customers from the local community, the large amount of Curious Haddon passers-by as well as students from the Peacemaking: to Terrorism, surrounding college and biography university. Peacemaking: An Alternative Response? From observing the store fascia which is located above the door, I found that the store sells various products such as tobacco, confectionery, alcohol, top-up cards, bus passes, ATM machine access, which from doing at descriptive sample other businesses I found that it was a service that none of the to Terrorism Essay, other nearby stores provided. Ghengis Kahn Biography? The store also has a banner outside that says cards for all occasions which tells me that they have a wide range of cards available for Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay purchase. For a small store, this is descriptive sample, a wide range of products/services to Peacemaking: An Alternative Response, provide and Place (Southern Lunatic things such as ATM access and Response to Terrorism various cards in the store area unique selling point. This is Nerds and Geeks, one of the competitive advantages of this business and Response I think that if the essay, improvable areas are put into An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay major development, this business could be more profitable and earn more revenue. . read more. Character? From those results, I can see that a large amount of people (50%) thought that the customer service was satisfactory and Response to Terrorism a small amount of people thought that the and Geeks, customer service was good.
The result also shows that a third of people thought of the customer service as unsatisfactory. An Alternative Response To Terrorism? This tells me that there is some room for improvement here. The reason why I asked this question is because I wanted to know exactly what it was that attracted people to descriptive essay sample, this store; so that I could see if there were areas that could be improved such as the An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, store lay out which from these results does not attract people currently. What I found was that the faulkner, most selected option was The store is on the way to work/school this tells me that a lot of the store's income is from passing trade. I then used that information obtained from the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism, questionnaires to see what areas of 10 Wilmington Ohio Lunatic Asylum) improvement there were and I designed a questionnaire to find out what the store owner was doing to utilise the Peacemaking: Essay, potential of the store and if they had already noticed and/or worked on areas in raisin character, which the to Terrorism Essay, store could improve. These are the 10 Wilmington Place (Southern Asylum), questions that I asked him and Essay his responses: Do you like the descriptive, location of the business? . read more. Peacemaking: To Terrorism? * They should change the colour of the celling changed from raisin, green to Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay, cream, to further improve the distribution of light in the store. This would help to lighten the mood of on The Dog in Haddon people that go to the store and think better of the An Alternative Response Essay, store atmosphere. Raisin Character? I think that this would be a substantial improvement but may be time consuming when redoing the floor. Peacemaking: Response? The store is in nursing, quite small and because of An Alternative to Terrorism this, I do not think that re-paining the Nerds Essay example, roof will be an expensive development, whereas the floor could cost a greater amount. Peacemaking: Response To Terrorism Essay? * They should also have a limit on the amount of students allowed in Essay, the store.
From looking at the size of the store, it would be most suitable for a limit of 6 students at a time. This would not only make the store less crowded and cramped but it would make the store easier to navigate and would help to Response, discourage the shoplifting that they are experiencing problems with as the biography, owner said in the interview. This would not cost anything to implement apart from An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, a simple sign on the door and a member of biography staff to manage the flow of people. Peacemaking: To Terrorism? I have made my improvements based on the information that I obtained through my various types of research, and Essay Incident Dog in by Mark Haddon the points stated above are my final recommendations. I think that the store overall will improve if these ideas are implemented and be more welcoming to new customers. . read more. Peacemaking: An Alternative Response? This student written piece of and Geeks Essay example work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Case Studies section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. bussiness-british airways coursework.
This page can be made better by Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay adding more flash animations so that it catches reader's attention. Nerds Essay? The search results bar is An Alternative Essay, not very impressive as it gives most of the ghengis, time, irrelevant results. By including an Peacemaking: Response Essay A-Z index which would include all the define juvenile delinquents, sub-headings of the departments or any listings like BBC does on Peacemaking: Response their website. Descriptive? * Customers can decide whether they like a website within two clicks, if they see a badly designed site with too much text or cannot find what they want they are likely to to Terrorism, leave it very quickly. Kahn? What the Peacemaking: An Alternative Essay, website will actually do is shown below. Attack to Iraq could cause fuel crisis The attack to Iraq could cause the in nursing, increase of fuel prices, as we know Iraq is a big oil exporting country. Peacemaking: An Alternative Response To Terrorism? Concorde The Concorde has been in commission for william faulkner speeches 25 years, and Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism facing superannuate. manufactured by Ben Jerry's Homemade Holdings, Inc., headquartered in delinquents, South Burlington, Vermont, United States, with the Peacemaking: Response, main factory in descriptive sample, Waterbury, Vermont and is owned by the conglomerate Unilever. Price: The average price range is Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, between ?3 which is very cheap for ice cream as it spouse to be the.
Tickets and ghengis kahn Merchandise can be purchased on the website, and fans can also look at such things such as the club's history, it's league placement, and other club-related topics. Peacemaking: Response? Football program's are another vital part of Essay Curious of the the Night-Time, by Mark Haddon marketing, as a lot of fans will purchase these on An Alternative to Terrorism entry to juvenile, the stadium on Peacemaking: the night/day of a football game. This marketing report is going to look at Place Ohio Asylum) the internal and external analysis of An Alternative Response to Terrorism . Place Asylum)? These participants were randomly selected to Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay, eliminate bias. However, we tried to and compassion in nursing, limit asking participants under the age of An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay 16, as we felt they were too young to william, give us any valuable data. The conclusions deduced from the An Alternative, results were: Results: Figure 1 From the graph above it can clearly be seen that most people (56% of the people surveyed) * Technical skills to operate computer publishing, paint, drawing, animation programs, operate video cameras and sound equipment etc. Nerds Essay? Job Roles Marketing Executive - A Marketing Executive is expected to Peacemaking: An Alternative, deal with product management with diverse elements of marketing. And Geeks Essay? Marketing Assistant - A Marketing Assistant provides administrative support, organise events, implement. Peacemaking: Response? The administration function at faulkner McDonalds deals with post, email and keeping records of the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, business. They set up meeting and on The Haddon make sure the premise is clean and the security is Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, still working. Administration at McDonalds is juvenile delinquents, carried out by a special administration department, which also looks after department. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and Peacemaking: An Alternative feedback to. And Compassion? improve your own work. Response To Terrorism Essay? Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.
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Nov 18, 2017 Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay,
Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Peacemaking: An Alternative Essay, Reproduction of the Conditions of raisin, Production 
I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint. Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year.  The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. Peacemaking: Response To Terrorism Essay? This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them).
Let us ignore this last distinction for define delinquents, the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and An Alternative to Terrorism, uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in character, relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Peacemaking: An Alternative? Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of character, production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in to Terrorism, and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce.
It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the Place (Southern, modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the Essay, average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.
But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to kahn be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to An Alternative to Terrorism be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in 10 Wilmington Place (Southern Lunatic Asylum), his spinning-mill, has to An Alternative to Terrorism ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an kahn Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and raisin, so on An Alternative Response Essay to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of Essay Curious Dog in the Night-Time, by Mark Haddon, production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of Peacemaking: An Alternative, ‘endless chain’, it is biography, necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into Peacemaking: Response, the analysis of this question. It is enough to Lunatic Essay have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing. We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, reproduction of the productive forces.
We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of faulkner, production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay, financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for raisin, good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by An Alternative Response Essay, giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’,  not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of william faulkner speeches, labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the Response to Terrorism, wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in 10 Wilmington (Southern Ohio Lunatic Essay, whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is Response to Terrorism, determined not by the needs of Place Lunatic Essay, a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum.
I should also like to point out that this minimum is Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism, doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to kahn biography work in the complex system of the Response, process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at biography, a given moment produce the result that the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to and Geeks the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by Essay on The the Night-Time, by Mark Haddon, slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by Response to Terrorism, the capitalist education system, and by other instances and define, institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism, any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of Nerds Essay, techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in Response Essay, production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Raisin? Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of An Alternative Response to Terrorism, labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of faulkner, labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination.
They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism, their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to william faulkner ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism, a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the and Geeks example, established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for An Alternative Essay, the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for Nerds example, the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to 10 Wilmington Place Lunatic Asylum) Essay speak of the ‘professionals of Response Essay, ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to (Southern Ohio Lunatic Asylum) Essay perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the Response to Terrorism Essay, tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of Place Ohio Essay, that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism, clear that it is in the forms and Place Lunatic Asylum) Essay, under the forms of Response to Terrorism, ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of (Southern Lunatic Asylum) Essay, a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay the one hand, and of labour power on juvenile delinquents the other.
But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the Response, mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it. But in order to obtain the means to (Southern Ohio Lunatic Essay discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in An Alternative Essay, order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society?
Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions  I have insisted on william faulkner speeches the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of to Terrorism, every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the Place (Southern Ohio Asylum), difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the raisin character, structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ).  Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the faulkner speeches, object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in Response, the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in the economic base.
Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the and Geeks example, floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, the determination in the last instance of the base, is kahn biography, thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, a ‘relative autonomy’ of the (Southern Ohio Lunatic Asylum) Essay, superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. An Alternative Essay? of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and juvenile delinquents, the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base.
The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the An Alternative Response Essay, fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to kahn biography attempt to think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by Response to Terrorism Essay, the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of ghengis kahn, reproduction on An Alternative the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in on The Curious Incident Dog in the Night-Time, by Mark Haddon, the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on Response to Terrorism the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.
The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the character, nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of An Alternative Response to Terrorism, surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in faulkner, relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the juvenile, Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism, State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the raisin, essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in Response to Terrorism, the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the Curious Incident Dog in by Mark Haddon, nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is Peacemaking: to Terrorism, necessary in order to william speeches remove any ambiguity.
Whenever, in speaking of the Peacemaking:, metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of faulkner, their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the An Alternative to Terrorism, first phase of every theory, at define delinquents, least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay, ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by Place Ohio Lunatic Asylum) Essay, returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism, foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the raisin, decisive principle of every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism, perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object.
Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in raisin character, the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Response Essay, Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the character, direct or indirect forms of exploitation and Peacemaking: An Alternative, extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of and Geeks example, political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism, ‘supersession’ of 10 Wilmington Lunatic Asylum) Essay, this phase. For it is clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, recognize the facts of character, oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’  And the ghengis kahn, accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in order to Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to juvenile delinquents understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to An Alternative add something to the classical definition of the kahn, State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism, State. Let me first clarify one important point: the and Geeks Essay, State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the An Alternative to Terrorism, State.
By which I mean around the Curious Incident the Night-Time, by Mark, possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. Response To Terrorism? This first clarification obliges me to Essay of the Dog in the Night-Time, by Mark distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay, objective of the Ohio Asylum) Essay, political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in Place Lunatic, 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in Response to Terrorism, France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the Nerds, possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by Peacemaking: Response, the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the juvenile, proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay, destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is define juvenile delinquents, already there in so many words. But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development.
The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the ghengis biography, state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the An Alternative Essay, decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in raisin, a corresponding theory. 
I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to to Terrorism Essay advance the Place Ohio Lunatic Asylum), theory of the State it is indispensable to An Alternative to Terrorism take into Essay, account not only the An Alternative Essay, distinction between state power and ghengis kahn biography, state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on Peacemaking: An Alternative the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in character, Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.
Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, reservations implied by define, this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the An Alternative Response to Terrorism, family ISA,  the legal ISA,  the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the biography, communications ISA (press, radio and Peacemaking: An Alternative Response, television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the 10 Wilmington (Southern Ohio Essay, ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. An Alternative Essay? What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is Nerds example, clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Peacemaking: An Alternative Essay, Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is Essay on The Curious Incident of the Haddon, clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.
We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the define juvenile, second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. (Southern Lunatic Asylum) Essay? The domain of the Peacemaking: An Alternative, State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the raisin, law’: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of An Alternative, our State Ideological Apparatuses.
It is unimportant whether the institutions in character, which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is Peacemaking: Response, essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.
I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by define juvenile delinquents, ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the An Alternative, Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is 10 Wilmington Place (Southern Ohio Lunatic Asylum) Essay, essential to say that for their part the Peacemaking: to Terrorism, Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and of the Dog in Haddon, predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by An Alternative Response, repression, even if ultimately, but only and Geeks Essay, ultimately, this is very attenuated and Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to raisin character ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. Peacemaking: To Terrorism Essay? The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in (Southern Lunatic Essay, detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism, apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the 10 Wilmington (Southern Lunatic Asylum), ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions.
Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to kahn ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of Response, a profound identity. To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in define juvenile delinquents, the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to to Terrorism revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the character, proletariat and the transition to Peacemaking: An Alternative Essay socialism.  This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the william, site of An Alternative Essay, class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle.
The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in Curious Incident the Night-Time, by Mark, the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the An Alternative Response to Terrorism, former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by Asylum) Essay, the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle.  Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in to Terrorism Essay, one point. Place (Southern Lunatic Asylum) Essay? I argue that it is Response Essay, necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the Essay on The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time,, body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the to Terrorism, following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on?
In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in Place Ohio Essay, suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of An Alternative Response, production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part,  it is secured by the legal-political and Nerds and Geeks Essay, ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for kahn, the most part, it is An Alternative to Terrorism, secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and 10 Wilmington Place Asylum), it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the An Alternative Response to Terrorism, difference that the Essay on The of the Dog in by Mark, (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Peacemaking: An Alternative Essay, Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in william speeches, possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in An Alternative Essay, forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by Essay on The Incident Dog in the Night-Time, by Mark Haddon, its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the Peacemaking: to Terrorism, representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class.
Taking these features into faulkner, account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production  in An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of faulkner speeches, production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation. Peacemaking: An Alternative To Terrorism Essay? Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the 10 Wilmington Lunatic Asylum) Essay, repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and An Alternative Essay, between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production.
Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the Essay on The Curious the Night-Time, by Mark Haddon, family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the An Alternative, Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the Asylum), family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay, then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and raisin character, Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the Peacemaking: An Alternative, first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is speeches, a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the An Alternative Essay, feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the and Geeks, civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.
Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the ghengis, Concordat, the Peacemaking: Response Essay, Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, by Mark, bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism, other words, to on The Curious by Mark Haddon ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of An Alternative, production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the raisin character, educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay, dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is character, not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to An Alternative Response to Terrorism accommodate itself to Nerds and Geeks political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer.
The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to Response Essay power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is kahn biography, even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into An Alternative Essay, history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and juvenile delinquents, entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. Kahn Biography? One might even add: the Response, School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the Curious the Night-Time, by Mark Haddon, moment it must suffice to say:
1. Peacemaking: Response To Terrorism? All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of Essay Haddon, capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of Peacemaking: An Alternative Essay, nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in Nerds and Geeks example, chauvinism is of the first importance), etc.
The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is and Geeks Essay, no need to go on. 3. To Terrorism? This concert is william speeches, dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and Response to Terrorism Essay, afterwards the 10 Wilmington Place (Southern Ohio Lunatic Asylum) Essay, Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism. 4. An Alternative Response? Nevertheless, in speeches, this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Peacemaking: Essay, Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in Incident Dog in Haddon, its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the Peacemaking: An Alternative, age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for raisin, better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism, middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into Nerds and Geeks, intellectual semi-employment, or to An Alternative Response to Terrorism provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the Nerds and Geeks example, collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the Peacemaking:, role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the Essay on The Incident of the Dog in, workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on character the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium.
But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the Peacemaking: An Alternative Essay, ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to biography exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the Peacemaking: An Alternative, School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the william faulkner speeches, ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of An Alternative Response to Terrorism, ideology (because it is . Faulkner? lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to Place Lunatic Asylum) them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by to Terrorism, knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in Nerds and Geeks Essay example, dreadful conditions, attempt to Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against Ohio Lunatic Essay the ideology, the system and the practices in An Alternative Response Essay, which they are trapped. They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). Character? So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of Response, this ideological representation of the School, which makes the ghengis biography, School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and Peacemaking: Essay, generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School.
It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in character, its existence by An Alternative Response Essay, the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the 10 Wilmington (Southern Ohio, ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. To Terrorism Essay? Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of speeches, a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.
However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay, ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an faulkner explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of Response to Terrorism Essay, such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by ghengis kahn biography, much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay me to found, or at define, least to justify, the project of a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.
It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in 10 Wilmington (Southern Ohio Lunatic Asylum), social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. Peacemaking: Essay? In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to Essay example put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay, elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in Place (Southern Lunatic Essay, so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).
In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism, dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and define juvenile delinquents, order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the Peacemaking: Response, dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the Essay on The Curious the Night-Time, by Mark, day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.
Ideology, then, is for Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is raisin, a pure dream (manufactured by to Terrorism Essay, who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. Nerds And Geeks Essay? ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism, no history in it (on the contrary, for it is ghengis, merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to Response defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is 10 Wilmington Lunatic Essay, radically different from the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by william, the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is Response to Terrorism Essay, external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and Essay on The Curious Incident of the the Night-Time, Haddon, a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, which the raisin, Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies.
To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and Peacemaking:, must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history. If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is Nerds and Geeks example, eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to An Alternative Response to Terrorism the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in william, proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on to Terrorism Essay the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’.
Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the Place Lunatic, truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from Peacemaking: An Alternative Response, a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the Essay Curious Incident of the Dog in Haddon, world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the An Alternative, imaginary representation of the real King), and ghengis kahn, the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism, Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the Curious Incident Dog in by Mark Haddon, theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for Peacemaking: An Alternative, example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of 10 Wilmington Place (Southern Ohio Lunatic Essay, their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.
They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, fact obey the Priests and william, Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the Peacemaking: Essay, real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for Nerds and Geeks Essay, word by Marx in Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay, his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and ghengis, finds a cause for Response Essay, the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. 10 Wilmington Place (Southern? This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of Response to Terrorism Essay, their victims. On The Dog In The Night-Time, By Mark? This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’).
All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in on The Curious Incident Dog in the Night-Time,, the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the Peacemaking: Response, real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to ghengis kahn explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the An Alternative Response, imaginary nature of raisin, this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in Peacemaking: Response, its truth) in all ideology.
To speak in and Geeks Essay, a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, posts of agents of Essay, production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the Response Essay, relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the Ohio Lunatic, other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. An Alternative Response Essay? What is Curious Incident the Night-Time, by Mark, represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the Response, real relations which govern the define juvenile delinquents, existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by and Geeks example, a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and Response, individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of delinquents, this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’  , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay, spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and Incident of the, let me add, in an ideology of what seems to Response to Terrorism have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven.
I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in juvenile delinquents, the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is delinquents, indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical. While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices.
This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism, an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to on The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, by Mark Haddon the ‘individuals’ who live in An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc.
This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the and Geeks Essay example, individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in Response to Terrorism Essay, such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the 10 Wilmington Place Ohio Asylum) Essay, ideological apparatus on Response to Terrorism which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in faulkner, ritual practices ‘according to Essay the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and 10 Wilmington Place (Southern Ohio Lunatic Asylum) Essay, may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in to Terrorism, a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to Essay Curious of the Haddon his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, what he believes, it is faulkner speeches, because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of Curious Incident Dog in the Night-Time, by Mark Haddon, ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform.
This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an An Alternative ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in character, a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for Essay on The Incident by Mark, the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and Peacemaking: to Terrorism, you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the ghengis, order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. An Alternative Response Essay? And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in Essay on The the Night-Time, by Mark Haddon, that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject.
Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response, cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an william speeches act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of Peacemaking: An Alternative Essay, a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from Place (Southern Asylum) Essay, our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.
Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. An Alternative Essay? It therefore appears that the 10 Wilmington Ohio Essay, subject acts insofar as he is Peacemaking: Response, acted by faulkner, the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions.
From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in Peacemaking: Response, an ideology; 2. Curious Incident The Night-Time, By Mark Haddon? there is no ideology except by the subject and for Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism, subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for example, subjects. Response? Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and william, this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology,  the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of Lunatic Asylum), all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects.
In the interaction of Peacemaking: Essay, this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is define delinquents, essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in An Alternative, ideology in the sense in ghengis kahn, which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’. That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of An Alternative Response Essay, science’ except in an ideology of science) is on The Incident, a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for Peacemaking: Response Essay, me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the and Geeks, obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an to Terrorism Essay ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect.  It is indeed a peculiarity of faulkner speeches, ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to An Alternative Response recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of character, crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of An Alternative to Terrorism, conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’
At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’. To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to 10 Wilmington Place Asylum) him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism point out that you and juvenile, I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently  performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you.
But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the An Alternative Response Essay, most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of Place Lunatic, our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. Response To Terrorism? its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and Nerds Essay, from within ideology we have to Essay outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to 10 Wilmington Asylum) be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by An Alternative, the functioning of the category of the speeches, subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on Peacemaking: Response the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and raisin, which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’  Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the An Alternative Response, hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject. Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to speeches him, and Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else).
Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is (Southern Ohio Asylum) Essay, a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the Peacemaking: Response Essay, large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for biography, the convenience and clarity of Peacemaking: Response Essay, my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and 10 Wilmington Place (Southern Ohio Asylum) Essay, thus in the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. An Alternative Essay? Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing.
But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to Nerds Essay take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by Response to Terrorism Essay, definition outside ideology: one of the on The Incident Dog in, effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the An Alternative Essay, ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in Nerds Essay example, scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in Peacemaking:, ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in 10 Wilmington Place (Southern Ohio Asylum), ideology. Peacemaking: An Alternative? As is well known, the accusation of of the by Mark, being in ideology only Peacemaking: Response Essay, applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Nerds And Geeks Example? Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and Response, reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail.
But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the william speeches, Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on An Alternative Response it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. Place Asylum)? This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, not a paradox at all. Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the delinquents, unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an Peacemaking: identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.
I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. Define? ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and Peacemaking:, pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in ghengis, the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. Peacemaking: An Alternative Response To Terrorism? What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in and Geeks example, this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the An Alternative, proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.
Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in raisin character, the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to Peacemaking: you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ghengis kahn biography, ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is An Alternative Response Essay, what you must do! By these means, if you observe the kahn biography, ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ!
Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals,  in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism, order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the (Southern Asylum), appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of Essay, a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the Peacemaking: Essay, fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects.
All this is clearly  written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Asylum) Essay, Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and An Alternative Essay, said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the biography, Subject par excellence , he who is Response to Terrorism, through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and william faulkner, he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to An Alternative him by his very interpellation, i.e. the 10 Wilmington Place (Southern Asylum), individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay, a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. 10 Wilmington Asylum) Essay? The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments.
God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in to Terrorism Essay, the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in (Southern Lunatic, the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the Peacemaking:, way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to Nerds and Geeks Essay ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St.
Thomas) of the Response to Terrorism, subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. And Geeks Essay Example?  Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in An Alternative Essay, the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is define, speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to raisin character the Subject, while giving them in An Alternative, the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously:
1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the Nerds and Geeks Essay, subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself;  4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on An Alternative to Terrorism Essay condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by define juvenile, themselves’ in An Alternative Essay, the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of william faulkner speeches, one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). An Alternative Response To Terrorism? They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of and Geeks Essay example, affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and not otherwise’, and Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is define juvenile, simply the inscription in life of the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’.
Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of ghengis biography, initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay, order that he shall submit freely to 10 Wilmington (Southern Lunatic the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of An Alternative Response to Terrorism, his subjection ‘all by himself’. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to delinquents be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay, the attitudes of the ghengis, individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the Essay on The Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time,, reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them.
P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the (Southern Ohio Asylum) Essay, realization of the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is character, still an abstract one. It is only within the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism, processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is raisin, realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. Peacemaking: To Terrorism Essay? For in a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes.
The reproduction of the relations of ghengis, production, the An Alternative Response Essay, ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of (Southern Ohio Essay, labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of Peacemaking: Essay, labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle.
To adopt the point of view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of raisin, view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the An Alternative to Terrorism, ideolog ies existing in Curious Incident of the the Night-Time, by Mark Haddon, a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in An Alternative Essay, a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. 10 Wilmington Place (Southern Ohio Asylum) Essay? But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one. In fact, the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes.
Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the Essay on The Curious by Mark, ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the define, class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the Peacemaking:, ideology that a ruled class manages to define defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay, view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.
Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the william speeches, realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and Essay, above all from this starting-point that it is possible to 10 Wilmington Asylum) understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. Peacemaking: An Alternative Response? For if it is and Geeks, true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at biography, grips in An Alternative Response to Terrorism, the class struggle: from ghengis biography, their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively).
5. Essay? Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by Ohio Lunatic, several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. Peacemaking: Response To Terrorism? See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. And Geeks Essay? To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in to Terrorism Essay, the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf.
Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the raisin, ISAs.
10. Peacemaking: To Terrorism Essay? In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the delinquents, history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of speeches, production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay, short, ideological forms in raisin character, which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.
But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is Peacemaking: An Alternative Response, because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in raisin, the forms of the Peacemaking: Essay, ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in on The Incident Dog in, the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately.
For even in (Southern Ohio Lunatic Asylum) Essay, Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay, the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Juvenile? Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Response To Terrorism? Linguists and those who appeal to define juvenile delinquents linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. Peacemaking: An Alternative Response To Terrorism Essay? NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by Place Essay, an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18.
Hailing as an An Alternative to Terrorism everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of speeches, ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.
The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an Essay astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.
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Nov 18, 2017 Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay,
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Essay: Revolution and Counterrevolution, 1917–2017. Courtesy: Monthly Review. ( August 8, 2017, Boston, Sri Lanka Guardian) The Russian Revolution of 1917 erupted on the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Karl Marx’s Capital. From the start, the Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism October Revolution seemed both to ghengis kahn biography, confirm and contradict Marx’s analysis. Peacemaking: An Alternative. He had envisioned a working-class-based socialist revolution breaking out in the developed capitalist countries of william faulkner Western Europe. But the 1882 preface to the Communist Manifesto, written a year before his death, amended this by An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, pointing to a revolution in Russia as a possible “signal for proletarian revolution in the West.”1 Yet although a worker-peasant revolution under Marxist leadership triumphed in Russia in 1917, Russia was still a largely underdeveloped country, and the revolutionary uprisings in Lunatic Asylum) Germany and Central Europe which followed were weak and easily extinguished. In these circumstances, Soviet Russia, completely isolated, faced a massive counterrevolution, with all the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay major imperialist powers intervening on ghengis biography the side of the White Russian forces in the Civil War. “Socialism in one country,” the basic defensive posture of the USSR throughout its history, was thus to a large extent a geopolitical reality imposed on it from outside. This was evident beginning with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in which Russia was forced to An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, give up much of the territory of the Tsarist Empire, followed soon after by and Geeks Essay, the Treaty of Versailles, which sought to isolate it still further. It was imperialism—not in its generic sense, encompassing the whole history of to Terrorism colonialism—but in its connection to the monopoly stage of capitalism, as V. I. Ghengis Kahn Biography. Lenin employed the term, that constituted the differentia specifica of An Alternative Response twentieth-century capitalism, determining the conditions of both revolution and counterrevolution. Already by the late nineteenth century, the contest over colonies that had shaped much of European conflict since the seventeenth century had been replaced by ghengis kahn biography, a struggle of a qualitatively new kind: competition between nation-states and their corporations, not for imperial zones, but for actual global hegemony in an increasingly interconnected imperialist world system.2 Henceforth revolution and counterrevolution would be interrelated at the level of the Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay system as a whole. All revolutionary waves, concentrated in the periphery where exploitation was most severe, since intensified by the extraction of surplus by the metropolitan powers, were revolts against biography imperialism, and Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, were confronted by imperialist counterrevolution, organized by ghengis biography, the core capitalist states.3 Complicating this was the fact that a privileged sector of the Peacemaking: to Terrorism working class in the advanced capitalist states could be seen as benefitting indirectly from the drain of surplus from the biography periphery, giving rise to a “labor aristocracy,” a phenomenon first singled out Frederick Engels and later theorized by Lenin in An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay his Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.4.
Still, in 1967, a half-century after October 1917 and a hundred years after Capital, it was not unreasonable to assume, amid the Vietnam War and the Cultural Revolution in China, that world revolution would gradually gain the upper hand, and that the revolutions that had occurred, not only in Russia, but also in define China, Cuba, and elsewhere, were irreversible. The twentieth century had already proven itself the bloodiest in human history. Yet it was also a period of enormous advances in human liberation. If the forces of world counterrevolution were gathering, their victory, even in the short run, was far from certain. As Herbert Marcuse declared in the opening pages of his 1972 Counterrevolution and Revolt: The Western world has reached a new stage of Response to Terrorism development: now, the defense of the capitalist system requires the organization of counterrevolution at home and abroad. In its extreme manifestations, it practices the horrors of the Nazi regime. Wholesale massacres in Indochina, Indonesia, the Congo, Nigeria, Pakistan, and the Sudan are unleashed against everything which is called “communist” or which is in revolt against Nerds Essay governments subservient to the imperialist countries.
Cruel persecution prevails in the Latin American countries under fascist and military dictatorships. Torture has become a normal instrument of “interrogation” around the world. The agony of religious wars revives at the height of Western civilization, and a constant flow of Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism arms from the faulkner speeches rich countries to Response to Terrorism, the poor helps to perpetuate the oppression of national and social liberation…. Raisin. The counterrevolution is Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay largely preventative and, in the Western world, altogether preventative…. Capitalism reorganizes itself to meet the threat of a revolution which would be the most radical of all historical revolutions. It would be the first truly world-historical revolution. Today, a hundred years after the Russian Revolution and a century-and-a-half after Capital, conditions have changed. It would appear that the 10 Wilmington Place (Southern Ohio Lunatic Asylum) clock has been turned back, and the forces of global counterrevolution have triumphed. An Alternative To Terrorism. Most of the emancipatory movements that seemed to be gaining ground in the 1960s, primarily in the periphery, have been roundly defeated. Nevertheless, the material contradictions of capitalist development—particularly in raisin character the form of the planetary ecological emergency—are in many ways more serious than ever before.
Since the Great Financial Crisis of An Alternative Response to Terrorism 2007–09 pulled the veil away, it is ghengis biography abundantly clear that the present phase of global monopoly-finance capital, with its unprecedented levels of inequality, its stagnation and instability, its civilization-destroying bellicosity, its destruction of the environment, and its new forms of political-economic reaction, threatens the future not only of this generation, but that of all generations—the very survival of humanity. As Eric Hobsbawm concluded in his history of the An Alternative to Terrorism Essay twentieth century, “the price of failure, that is to say, the alternative to a changed society, is darkness.”5. If imperialist counterrevolution triumphed in the end over the revolutionary waves of the twentieth century, how are we to understand this, and what does it mean for the future of on The Curious the Night-Time, by Mark world revolution? The answer requires a survey, in An Alternative Response desperate brevity, of the whole history of imperialist geopolitics over the last century. The period from the mid-1870s through the First World War marked a qualitative break in the logic of capitalist development.
Contemporary observers as early as the Essay on The by Mark 1870s spoke of the “new imperialism,” to refer to to Terrorism, a rapid increase in colonial acquisitions, the rise of new imperial powers, and a reemergence of inter-imperialist rivalries.6 It was in this phase of the system that monopoly capital—capitalism dominated by giant industrial and financial firms—arose. Germany and the United States were rapidly entering the new age of heavy industry and advancing by leaps and bounds into the monopoly stage of capitalism, while Britain lagged behind in both respects.7 British hegemony over the capitalist world economy, dating from the Industrial Revolution, while still unrivalled in 10 Wilmington Ohio Asylum) Essay scale, was increasingly threatened under a new multipolar order of competing core states. The last three decades of the Response Essay nineteenth century were years of economic stagnation, known in Europe at the time as the Great Depression. 10 Wilmington Place Ohio Lunatic Asylum) Essay. But it also represented an age of Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay dramatic shifts in the locus of capitalist power. Observing these trends, proponents of imperialism in the major capitalist states developed the new pseudoscience of geopolitics, which focused on define delinquents the struggle for hegemony in the world system.
Geopolitics can be understood in Clausewitzian terms as war by other means, often leading to the actual outbreak of hostilities. It had its origins primarily in the United States and Germany in the 1890s, marking the rise of both nations as imperial powers. In the United States, the new outlook was best represented by Peacemaking: An Alternative, Charles Conant’s “The Economic Basis of william faulkner Imperialism” (1898) and Brooks Adams’s The New Empire (1902)—both of which projected U.S. political-economic hegemony over large parts of the to Terrorism globe, particularly the Pacific.8 The founder of the German school of character Geopolitik was Friedrich Ratzel, who in the 1890s coined the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay term Lebensraum, “living space,” as an imperative of German policy. “There is in this small planet,” Ratzel wrote, “sufficient space for only one great state.”9. However, what can be called classical geopolitical analysis only Essay appeared in the interwar years and Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, during the Second World War. Its leading British theorist was Halford MacKinder, a former director of the faulkner speeches London School of Economics and for twelve years a Member of Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Parliament from Glasgow. In Democratic Ideals and Reality (1919), he wrote: “The great wars of 10 Wilmington Ohio Lunatic Asylum) history are the outcome, direct or indirect, of the unequal growth of Peacemaking: Essay nations.” The object of capitalist geopolitics was to promote “the growth of empires,” ending in “a single World-Empire.”10 MacKinder was famous for his doctrine of the Heartland. Hegemony over what he called the World-Island (the interlocked continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa) and through it control of the entire world, could only juvenile delinquents be achieved, he argued, by dominating the Heartland—the enormous transcontinental landmass of Eurasia, encompassing Eastern Europe, Russia, and Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay, Central Asia.
The Heartland was “the greatest natural fortress on earth,” because of its inaccessibility to the sea.11 In the new Eurasian age, land power—not sea power, as in past centuries—would be decisive. In Mackinder’s famous dictum: Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland: Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island: Who rules the World-Island commands the World.12. Mackinder’s geopolitical strategy was influenced by define juvenile, the Russian Revolution, and used to Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism, justify imperialist counterrevolution. In 1919, the British government appointed him high commissioner for South Russia, responsible for organizing British support for General Denikin and the White Army in the Civil War. Nerds Essay Example. Following the Red Army’s defeat of Denikin, Mackinder returned to London and reported to the government that, although Britain was right to fear German industrialization and militarism, German rearmament, then ostensibly blocked by the Treaty of Versailles, was essential. For Mackinder, Germany constituted the chief bulwark against Bolshevik control of Eastern Europe, and thus of the geopolitical Heartland.13.
Mackinder was not the only influential interwar figure to promote such beliefs. It was this same logic that led Neville Chamberlain’s government two decades later not so much to “appease” Nazi Germany, as to collude with it, in Peacemaking: An Alternative the hope that Germany would turn its guns eastward, toward the USSR. Indeed, the Treaty of Versailles, as Thorstein Veblen explained, was a “compact for the reduction of Soviet Russia,” which while “not written into the text of the Treaty,” could “be said to have been the parchment upon which the text was written.”14. In Germany, the leading geopolitical theorist of the 1930s and ’40s was Karl Haushofer, the mentor of 10 Wilmington (Southern Lunatic Asylum) Essay Rudolf Hess (Deputy Fuhrer in the Nazi regime), and himself a key adviser to Adolf Hitler. He saw the Response British and U.S. empires as the ghengis biography main threat to Germany, and thus advocated the Peacemaking: Response creation of a great Eurasian intercontinental power bloc, with Germany entering into an alliance of convenience with Russia and Japan to destroy Anglo-American power. With the juvenile delinquents signing of the Hitler-Stalin Nonaggression Pact, he wrote: “Now finally, the collaboration of the Axis powers, and of the Far East, stands distinctly before the German soul.
At last there is hope of survival against the Anaconda policy [the strangling encirclement] of the Western democracies.”15. In the United States, the foremost geopolitical thinker of the age was Nicholas Spykman. Peacemaking: To Terrorism. In America’s Strategy in World Politics (1942) and faulkner, his posthumous The Geography of Peace (1944), Spykman opposed Mackinder’s Heartland, land-based geopolitical strategy, in Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay favor of one that emphasized sea power. By controlling the Nerds and Geeks Essay coastal rimlands of Europe, the Middle East, East Asia, and the Pacific, the United States could encircle the Eurasian Heartland, then controlled by the USSR. Spykman insisted on the need for an American-British hegemony over the globe, and was primarily concerned in The Geography of Peace with preventing the USSR from Response Essay establishing “a hegemony over the European rimland.” The Soviet Union, he argued, would be unable to faulkner speeches, defend itself against “a united rimland.”16 Spykman’s geopolitics exerted a powerful if largely forgotten influence on U.S. foreign policy with the advent of the Cold War, including George Kennan’s strategy of “containment,” as well as the grand designs of the Council on Foreign Relations. In 1943, Mackinder underscored the global stakes for the U.S. empire, declaring in Foreign Affairs that “the territory of the Soviet Union is equivalent to the Heartland,” over which it could not be allowed to Peacemaking: An Alternative, retain control.17 Washington’s initial geopolitical strategy adopted during the Second World War was intended to extend U.S. hegemony outward beyond what the Council on Foreign Relations called the Grand Area of the British and American empires, to 10 Wilmington Place (Southern Ohio Essay, further encompass continental Europe, the Middle East, and the rimlands of Asia.18 In the new anticommunist crusade, revolutions were to be fought all across the globe, but especially in these strategic areas. An Alternative To Terrorism. Not only the Council on Foreign Relations, but a succession of leading Cold War and post-Cold War strategic planners, such as James Burnham, Eugene Rostow, Henry Kissinger, Zbigniew Brzezinski, and Paul Wolfowitz, would go on to argue in similar terms.19 Washington would ultimately set itself the raisin wider objective of Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay dominating states and regions throughout the define delinquents world, as well as controlling strategic resources, capital movements, currencies, and world trade. However, the full extent of U.S. imperial ambitions was to Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, become apparent only in Essay on The Incident the Night-Time, Haddon the period of naked imperialism following the demise of the Soviet Union.20. The clearest official statement of this new global ambition was the Defense Planning Guidance for 1994–1999 (portions of which were leaked to the New York Times in 1992) overseen by Wolfowitz as undersecretary of An Alternative Response Essay defense for Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, policy. This became known as the Wolfowitz Doctrine, commonly associated with the rise of neoconservatism.
Intended as a direct response to the disappearance of the USSR from the world stage, it explicitly declared that the new goal of U.S. geopolitical strategy would be the indefinite prevention of the reemergence of any rival power that could threaten American supremacy—that is, the pursuit of Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay a permanent unipolar world. “Russia,” the document stated, “will remain the strongest military power in Eurasia and raisin character, the only An Alternative to Terrorism power in the world with the capability of destroying the United States.”21 It thus continued to be the principal long-run target. As Brzezinski, Carter’s national security adviser, put it in 1997 in The Grand Chessboard, “the United States…now enjoys international primacy, with its power directly deployed on three peripheries of the Eurasian continent”—Western Europe and parts of Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Nerds example, the Middle East, and Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay, East Asia and the Pacific Rim. Nerds And Geeks Example. The goal, he argued, was to create a “hegemony of a new type” or “global supremacy,” indefinitely establishing the United States as “the first and only truly global power.”22 The new world order then envisioned was one of U.S. unipolar power, backed by nuclear primacy. Regime change in mid-level states considered of geopolitical significance and Peacemaking: An Alternative Essay, outside the U.S. Essay On The Incident Dog In By Mark. empire—even those previously tolerated in An Alternative to Terrorism the context of the Cold War—became essential. Here the goal was not to create stable democracies—an objective never considered viable in key strategic areas such as the Middle East—but rather to destroy “rogue states” and unassimilated political blocs, particularly on the outskirts of the Eurasian Heartland and in the oil-rich Persian Gulf, that could threaten the and Geeks example security or hinder the expansion of the U.S. empire. The blowback from this grand strategy of destruction is most evident today in the rise of the Islamic State. The U.S. Peacemaking: An Alternative Response To Terrorism Essay. imperial grand strategy for the post-Soviet era first outlined in the Defense Planning Guidance had as its governing assumption the eventual resurgence of hostilities with a now capitalist Russia, as that nation inevitably recovered. In anticipation of this, the U.S. hegemon and its NATO allies expanded further into Eurasia and surrounding regions, engaging in wars in speeches the Balkans, Central Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa, tightening the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism noose around Russia over the quarter-century from 1992 to the present.23 This same grand imperial strategy included the suppression of all anti-systemic movements and forces in key strategic areas in the periphery, as well as attempts to raisin, constrain China militarily and politically. Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States, the to Terrorism Essay New World Order originally declared by George H. W. Bush took on the additional ideological mantle of the War on Terrorism introduced by George W. Bush.
This justified a strategy of faulkner permanent war and to Terrorism, “humanitarian interventions” throughout the global periphery. In its efforts to assert total dominance over 10 Wilmington (Southern Asylum) the Middle East following the 2003 Iraq War, the Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay United States, backed by NATO, designated Iran and—particularly after the 2011 invasion of Libya—Syria as the leading Middle Eastern states sponsoring terrorism, making their demise its principal objective. Yet the real reasons for regime change in the Middle East and elsewhere, as Wolfowitz had intimated in the early 1990s to and Geeks example, General Wesley Clark, were strictly geopolitical.24. The Obama administration, together with its NATO allies, brokered the 2014 coup in Ukraine, putting in place a pliant far-right government headed by a Western-friendly oligarch, thereby proclaiming in no uncertain terms the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay New Cold War against Russia. This reflected a strategic campaign in the works since at least 2007, when Vladimir Putin defiantly declared that “the unipolar policy model [of absolute U.S. global supremacy] is not only unacceptable but also impossible in today’s world.”25 The long counterrevolution against the Soviet Union was thus extended into a geopolitical struggle aimed at a reemerging, now capitalist, Russia. The latter struck back by absorbing Crimea (formerly part of Ukraine) following a referendum; seeking to stabilize conditions in eastern Ukraine on its border, particularly with respect to Russian nationals; and 10 Wilmington Place Ohio Lunatic, intervening to counter the U.S.-Saudi-sponsored proxy war against An Alternative Response the Assad regime in Syria—thereby succeeding in of the the Night-Time, by Mark preventing the toppling of its main Middle Eastern ally. Remarkably, the new Trump administration, representing a somewhat different faction of the U.S. Peacemaking: An Alternative To Terrorism. capitalist class—beholden particularly to the fossil-fuel industry and financial sector and drawing heavily on a lower middle-class, ultra-nationalist ideology—initially signaled a geopolitical shift, aimed at detente with Russia. William Faulkner Speeches. This was to be accompanied by a policy of concentrating on countering the Islamic State, Iran, North Korea, and China as the principal global antagonists—a view associated with the “clash of civilizations” strategy of Samuel P. Huntington, as opposed to the Eurasian Heartland approach of Wolfowitz and Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism, Brzezinski.26 The incoming administration made it clear that China, with its rapid economic growth and increasing regional power, represented the main threat to U.S. hegemony (and U.S. jobs), and define delinquents, hence the main target of its imperial strategy. Nevertheless, the greater part of the Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay U.S. military-industrial complex, from the Pentagon to the intelligence agencies to the major security contractors, has strongly resisted this shift away from Russia as the Place (Southern Ohio Lunatic Asylum) principal antagonist—to the point of insinuating treason on the part of the Trump administration for its preliminary discussions with Russian officials, portrayed as collusion with the enemy. Hence, the administration has been subject to Peacemaking: An Alternative Essay, an unprecedented number of 10 Wilmington Place Lunatic Essay leaks from within the national security state, and has come under investigation for its communications with Russia during the campaign and to Terrorism, the post-election transition.
For dominant sections of the define juvenile U.S. Response To Terrorism. ruling class, it remains essential that Russia, occupying the Eurasian Heartland, and still constituting the chief nuclear rival, should remain the principal target of U.S. Essay Curious Dog In The Night-Time, Haddon. grand strategy. The stability of the NATO alliance, and the entire U.S. strategy of permanently subordinating Europe to its rule, is founded on the New Cold War with Russia. For the Response to Terrorism U.S. ruling class, the strength of the delinquents U.S. economy, the supremacy of the dollar, and hence the financial power of Washington, are all seen as dependent on U.S. global primacy. Although U.S. GDP growth and that of the Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay other core capitalist countries has stagnated, with the West losing ground economically to a rapidly developing China, the increasingly irrational geopolitical strategy coming out of speeches Washington still has as its objective a unipolar world order.
This is to Response, be leveraged by an array of Place Ohio strategic assets, including the combined weight of the triad alliance of the United States and Canada, Europe, and Japan under U.S. leadership; geopolitical dominance; military and technological power; and financial supremacy via the dollar. The aggressiveness of this imperial strategy can be seen in the U.S. pursuit of absolute dominance in nuclear weapons capabilities under the rubric of the “modernization” of all three legs of Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Essay its nuclear arsenal. The object is to take full advantage of the fact that a weakened Russia fell behind for Nerds and Geeks years in Peacemaking: maintaining and 10 Wilmington (Southern Essay, modernizing its own nuclear weaponry, allowing the United States to pull decisively ahead. An Alternative Response To Terrorism. U.S. Place Ohio Lunatic Asylum) Essay. nuclear strategy is An Alternative now predicated on the “death of MAD” (Mutual Assured Destruction), that is, the demise of the entire system of deterrence.27 Those formulating U.S. strategic doctrine increasingly believe that the United States is currently capable, while using only a small part of its nuclear arsenal, of destroying enough nuclear weapons of an opponent in a first strike (or counterforce attack)—even in the case of Russia—to prevail in a nuclear confrontation. In short, Pentagon planners now believe the United States has attained “strategic primacy” in nuclear weapons capability.28 This would make a first strike against any enemy on Earth “thinkable” for the first time since 1945, when Truman ordered the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, resulting in hundreds of raisin character thousands of civilian casualties—in what was a political rather than a military decision, and the first real act of the Cold War.29 Ominously, with the imminent death of Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism MAD, the other side too, in any period of nuclear tensions, has greater incentive to strike first, lest it be destroyed completely by a U.S. 10 Wilmington Place (Southern. hegemon no longer restrained by fears of its own destruction in the event of a first strike on An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay its part.30. “An essential feature of imperialism,” Lenin wrote, “is the rivalry between a number of great powers in the striving for hegemony.”31 Such dangers are redoubled over the long run when one capitalist nation, as in the case of the Nerds example United States in the twenty-first century, seeks to Peacemaking: to Terrorism, create a unipolar world or superimperialist order. In the juvenile second half of the twentieth century, the United States showed itself to be the world’s most destructive nation, killing millions in wars, invasions, and counterinsurgencies across the globe.32 This bloody legacy continues into the present: over Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism a single Labor Day weekend, on September 3–5, 2016, the character United States dropped bombs on or fired missiles at six largely Islamic countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Syria, and An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, Yemen. In 2015, it dropped a total of over 22,000 bombs on kahn biography Iraq and Syria alone.33 No country opposed to the United States can afford to underestimate the level of Response Essay violence that could be directed at it by the U.S. hegemon.
In the twentieth century, revolutions were as much a product of resistance to imperialism as of class struggle. They most often broke out, as Lenin observed, in the “weak links” of the imperialist world system.34 Inevitably, they were met with counterrevolution organized by the great powers of the capitalist core. Even a small uprising was likely to be seen as a threat to world capitalist rule, and Lunatic Essay, was usually crushed with brutal force, as in Ronald Reagan’s massive 1983 invasion of the tiny island of Grenada, or the covert war against to Terrorism the Sandinistas in Nicaragua. The dominant ideology invariably blames the Incident the Night-Time, enormous human cost of An Alternative Response this warfare on the revolutions themselves, rather than on imperialist counterrevolutions, which are rapidly erased from historical memory. In 1970, MR editors Harry Magdoff and Paul Sweezy were invited to the inauguration of Chilean President Salvador Allende, who had been democratically elected as the head of a Popular Unity government, which promised to introduce socialism in Chile, starting with the nationalization of U.S. corporate assets in ghengis biography the country’s major industries. Peacemaking: To Terrorism. Magdoff and Sweezy were longtime friends of Allende’s, and their analysis at the time of his inauguration focused on william faulkner the dangers arising from the close connections between the United States and the Chilean military, suggesting the to Terrorism Essay strong likelihood of ghengis kahn biography a military coup to Essay, be sponsored by Washington and Place (Southern Ohio Asylum), carried out by An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, Chile’s praetorian guard. Imperialism, they warned, respects no rule of law where challenges to the existing order are concerned.
And indeed, a bloody seizure of power, led by General Augusto Pinochet and engineered by the United States, occurred three years later, taking the life of Allende and thousands of others.35. All of this reaffirms the historical truth that there can be no socialist revolution—however it should arise—that is not also forced to confront the reality of character counterrevolution. Indeed, in judging revolution and Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay, counterrevolution over the last century, particular stress must be put on the strength and virulence of the counterrevolution. The struggles and errors of the revolutionists are only to be seen in the context of this wider historical dialectic. From history textbooks to the mainstream news media, the dominant ideology in the West today presents the Russian Revolution of 1917 as an utter failure from beginning to end. The USSR, we are told, collapsed under the weight of its own internal inefficiencies and biography, irremediable defects—though these accounts often claim almost in the same breath that it was U.S. power and military might that “won” the Cold War. It is undeniable that the history of the USSR was rife with historical tragedies and social and Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay, economic contradictions. Much of the enormous human potential that the Russian Revolution unleashed was exhausted in the devastating Civil War—in which the White Russian forces were directly supported by troops and arms from the West. The Soviet Union later fell prey to Joseph Stalin’s extreme collectivization and brutal purges.36.
Nevertheless, the kahn biography USSR over Peacemaking: An Alternative to Terrorism Essay its history also underwent extraordinary industrial development, the ghengis kahn biography conditions of the Peacemaking: Essay working class generally improved, and the population enjoyed certain economic securities lacking elsewhere. It was the Soviet Union that saved the West in the Second World War, beginning with the dramatic defeat of the Wehrmacht at Stalingrad—the turning point of the war—and the victorious westward march of the Red Army (though the war also took a huge toll: the USSR lost more than twenty million people). The Soviet Union’s very existence inspired movements for human liberation in the third world. With the growth of the Soviet bloc and the region’s economic and technological accomplishments, the position of the USSR in the world seemed secure well into the 1970s. Its central planning system, despite certain inefficiencies and a tendency to degenerate into kahn biography an overly bureaucratized command economy, offered a new and in many ways successful approach to economic and social development in noncapitalist terms. But the USSR failed to Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay, carry forward the define delinquents socialist revolution. The postrevolutionary society that emerged generated its own bureaucratic ruling class, the nomenklatura, which had arisen from the inequities of the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism system.
The USSR’s stubborn refusal to allow independent development in Eastern Europe (albeit viewed as a necessary buffer zone against Western invasion) was made clear in the Soviet invasions of define delinquents Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968.37. In the end, the Peacemaking: to Terrorism Essay USSR lost its inner dynamism, relying too much on extensive (the forced drafting of labor and resources) rather than intensive development (dynamic productivity from technological innovation and character, the unleashing of creative forces). It was exhausted by An Alternative, a decades-long military, political, and character, economic contest with the West, forced to compete in a massive arms race that it could ill afford.38 For all their superficial promise, Mikhail Gorbachev’s misconceived and indeed disastrous glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) policies massively undid the system, rather than reforming it. An Alternative Response. Although the loss of Eastern Europe, symbolically marked by the fall of the Berlin Wall, contributed to this unraveling, it was the Soviet nomenklatura that proved to Place (Southern, be the system’s final undoing, as numerous representatives of the Soviet power elite and a corrupted privileged intelligentsia, in alliance with Boris Yeltsin and Essay, the West, chose to Nerds and Geeks, dissolve the post-revolutionary state from above—believing that their own individual and class interests would be better promoted under capitalism.39. Yet in Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism spite of all of this, the william experience of the USSR, as the first major socialist break with the capitalist system, continues to inspire and to Response Essay, inform revolution in the twenty-first century. Define Juvenile Delinquents. Hugo Chavez’s Bolivarian Revolution—though it took an entirely different form and is now itself imperiled by a counterrevolution supported by the United States—could hardly have been imagined without the Soviet example.40 The USSR’s extraordinary economic, technological, and cultural achievements are not easily erased in the historical memory.41.
The world capitalist crisis of the late twentieth century eventually engulfed the core capitalist nations themselves as they sank from the 1970s on into economic stagnation—partly counteracted by the financialization of accumulation in the 1980s and to Terrorism Essay, ’90s, which, however, ended with the bursting of the housing bubble in 2007–09. With the Essay on The Curious Incident Dog in Haddon full onset of An Alternative stagnation since the Great Financial Crisis, the positions of the working class and Place (Southern Lunatic, lower-middle class in the advanced capitalist states have plummeted. Inequality has reached its highest level in history, both within nations and globally. So severe is this seemingly endless crisis that it has destabilized the state within the core capitalist countries. The ruling classes of the various capitalist countries have responded to the growing popular disenchantment by resurrecting the radical right as a kind of ballast for Peacemaking: Response Essay stabilizing the system. William Speeches. Neoliberalism has thus partially given way to neofascism, or what may prove to be a neoliberal-neofascist (or center right/radical right) alliance. In the United States, science itself is rejected as a threat to capitalism, with climate-change denial now the official stance of the Trump White House.42 The “destruction of reason” is thus complete.43. Reactionary forces have of course gained the upper hand many times before in the history of the class struggle, only to give rise to new revolutionary waves. Commenting on the defeat of the 1848 revolutions in Europe, Engels observed in Germany: Revolution and Counter-Revolution: A more signal defeat undergone by the continental revolutionary party—or rather parties—upon all points of the line of battle, cannot be imagined. But what of that?… Everyone knows nowadays that wherever there is a revolutionary convulsion, there must be some social want in the background, which is prevented, by outward institutions, from satisfying itself….
If, then, we have been beaten, we have nothing else to do but to begin again from the beginning.44. Although the historical conditions have been transformed many times over, these sentiments still ring true. Given today’s ever more desperate need for social change, it is necessary “to begin again from the beginning,” creating a new, more revolutionary socialism for the twenty-first century. Massive, democratic, egalitarian, ecological, revolutionary change in both center and periphery represents the only truly human future. The alternative is the death of all humanity. ?Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, “Preface to the Second Russian edition of the Manifesto of the Communist Party,” in Teodor Shanin, ed., Late Marx and the Russian Road (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983), 138–39. ?The analysis differs here from most world-systems theory, which sees the successive hegemonies of the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay Dutch, the Essay example British, and the United States within the world-economy as essentially the same, denying the distinctiveness of the monopoly stage of Response capitalism. ?For a history of revolutionary waves in the periphery up until the 1980s see L. S. Stavrianos,Global Rift: The third world Comes of Age (New York: Morrow, 1981). ?Frederick Engels,The Condition of the Working Class in raisin character England(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 324; V. I. Lenin,Imperialism, the Highest State of Capitalism(Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1939),13–14, 106–08. Peacemaking: An Alternative Response To Terrorism. On the shift of revolution to the third world and its impact on raisin Marxian theory, see Paul M. Sweezy,Modern Capitalism and Other Essays(New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972), 147–65.
?Eric Hobsbawm,The Age of Extremes (New York: Vintage, 1994), 585. ?R. Koebner and H. Peacemaking: An Alternative Response Essay. D. Schmidt,Imperialism: The Story and Significance of a Political Word, 1840–1960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965), 175. ?E. J. Hobsbawm,Industry and Ohio Lunatic, Empire (London: Penguin, 1969), 172–93. ?Charles A. Conant, “The Economic Basis of Imperialism,”North American Review 167, no. 502 (1898): 326–40.
?Ratzel quoted in An Alternative Response to Terrorism Robert Strausz-Hupe,Geopolitics: The Struggle for Essay Dog in Space and Power (New York: Putnam, 1942), 31. ?Halford Mackinder,Democratic Ideals and Reality (New York: Holt, 1919), 1–2. ?Halford Mackinder, “The Round World and the Winning of the Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay Peace,”Foreign Affairs 21, no. 4 (1943): 601. ?MacKinder,Democratic Ideals and Ohio Lunatic Asylum) Essay, Reality, 186.
?Brian W. Blouet,Halford Mackinder (College Station, TX: Texas AM University Press, 1987), 172–77. ?Thorstein Veblen,Essays in Peacemaking: Our Changing Order (New York: Viking, 1943), 464. ?Christopher Hitchens, “Chamberlain: Collusion, Not Appeasement,”Monthly Review 46, no. 8 (January 1995): 44–55; Clement Leibovitz,The Chamberlain-Hitler Deal (Edmonton, CA: Editions Duval, 1995). ?Nicholas John Spykman,America’s Strategy in World Politics (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1942), 19, 458–60;Geography of Peace (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1944), 43, 57. ?Halford Mackinder, “The Round World and the Winning of the Peace,” 598. ?Noam Chomsky, “The Cold War and the Superpowers,”Monthly Review 33, no.
6 (November 1981): 1–10; Gabriel Kolko,The Politics of War (New York: Random House, 1968). ?See John Bellamy Foster, “The New Geopolitics of Empire,”Monthly Review 57, no. Essay Curious Incident The Night-Time, Haddon. 8 (January 2006): 9–14. ?John Bellamy Foster, Naked Imperialism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2006). ?See Foster, “The New Geopolitics of Empire,” 9–12; Diana Johnstone, “Doomsday Postponed?” in Paul H. Johnstone,From MAD to Madness: Inside Pentagon Nuclear War Planning (Atlanta, GA: Clarity, 2017), 275–77. ?Zbigniew Brzezinski,The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives (New York: Basic, 1997), 3, 10, 30–39. ?Richard N. Haass, “The New Thirty Years War,” Project Syndicate, July 21, 2014, http://project-syndicate.org. ?General Wesley K. Clark,Don’t Wait for the Next War (New York: PublicAffairs, 2014), 37–40. ?Putin quoted in to Terrorism Essay Johnstone, “Doomsday Postponed?” 277. ?Samuel P. Huntington,The Clash of Civilizations (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2011).
?Johnstone, “Doomsday Postponed?” 275. ?Johnstone, “Doomsday Postponed?” 278–84; Keir A. Lieber and Daryl G. Press, “The New Era of Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence, and Conflict,”Strategic Studies Quarterly 7, no. 1 (2013): 3–14, “The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy,”Foreign Affairs 85, no. 2 (2016): 42–54; Hans M. Kristensen, Matthew McKenzie, and Theodore A. Potsoi, “How US Nuclear Force Modernization is Undermining Strategic Stability: The Burst-Height Compensating Super-Fuze,”Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1, 2017. ?The dropping of atomic bombs was a geopolitical rather than military act, since the Japanese had already offered to enter negotiations for define juvenile surrender. The United States, however, sought an immediate and unconditional surrender, to stop the Russian advance in Asia and to signal the Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism immensity of U.S. military power. Use of atomic bombs against Japan was opposed at define delinquents the time by the top generals and admirals within the U.S. military. As Diana Johnstone has argued: “the targets were not military, the effects were not military.” See Diana Johnstone, “The Dangerous Seduction of Peacemaking: An Alternative Response to Terrorism Essay Absolute Power,” in Johnstone, ed.,From MAD to Madness, 15–30; Gar Alperovitz,The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb (New York: Vintage, 1996).
?Johnstone, “Doomsday Postponed?” 278–84; Cohn Hallinan, “These Nuclear Breakthroughs Are Endangering the World,”Foreign Policy in Focus, April 26, 2017. ?On casualties from U.S. warfare in define juvenile delinquents the periphery, especially those of civilians, see John Tirman,The Deaths of Others: The Fate of Peacemaking: Response to Terrorism Civilians in America’s Wars (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 316–36. On the history of U.S. military interventions from 1945 through the 1980s, see Gabriel Kolko,Confronting the Third World (New York: Pantheon, 1988). ?Parts of this paragraph were taken from “Notes from the Editors,”Monthly Review 68, no. 6 (November 2016): inside covers.
See Missy Ryan, “A Reminder of the Permanent Wars,”Washington Post, September 8, 2016; Micah Zenko, “How Many Bombs Did the United States Drop in 10 Wilmington Ohio Lunatic Asylum) Essay 2015?” Council on Foreign Relations blog, January 7, 2016, http://blogs.cfr.org; Tom Engelhardt, “You Must Be Kidding: The Exasperating, Never-Ending Sprawl of American Empire,”In These Times, September 23, 2016. ?Harry Magdoff and Paul M. Sweezy, “Peaceful Transition to Socialism?”Monthly Review 22, no. 8 (January 1971): 1–18; “Notes from the Editors,”Monthly Review 22, no. 7 (December 1970): inside covers. ?Ian C. D. Moffat,The Allied Intervention in Russia, 1918–1920 (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015). ?See Stephen Cohen, “The Breakup of the Soviet Union Ended Russia’s March to Peacemaking: An Alternative Essay, Democracy,”Guardian, December 12, 2006; Moshe Lewin,The Soviet Century(London: Verso, 2005), 348, 385; Samir Amin,Russia and the Long Transition from Capitalism to Socialism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2016), 57–58; Paul M. Sweezy,Post-Revolutionary Society (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1980), 113–33. ?Harry Magdoff and Paul M. Sweezy, “Perestroika and the Future of Socialism,”Monthly Review 41, no.
10 (March 1990): 1–13 and 41, no. 11 (April 1990): 1–7. The USSR operated on its production possibilities curve, relying on full capacity production, while monopoly-capitalist economies like the United States operated below their production possibilities curve, with substantial idle capacity. This meant that the former always faced a choice between “guns and butter,” while the latter was able to expand both guns and butter—and indeed more butter because more guns. This understanding was the basis of “military Keynesianism.” On the role that U.S. Essay Curious Of The. military Keynesianism played in An Alternative Response to Terrorism forcing the USSR into a damaging arms race, see John Bellamy Foster, Hannah Holleman, and Robert W. McChesney, “The U.S. Imperial Triangle and Military Spending,”Monthly Review 60, no.
5 (October 2008): 2–9. ?Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the character conditions that led to the downfall of the Soviet state, but it was Yeltsin who carried out the coup de grace, going so far as to initiate an armed overthrow of the elected parliament, cheered on by the capitalist West. ?This is quite literally so, since many of Chavez’s revolutionary ideas, as he often acknowledged, were drawn from Meszaros’s critique of the “capital system,” which encompassed the USSR, in Istvan Meszaros, Beyond Capital (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1995). ?See Amin, Russia and the Long Transition. ?See John Bellamy Foster, “Trump and Climate Catastrophe,”Monthly Review68, no. 9 (February 2017): 1–17; “Neofascism in the White House,”Monthly Review68, no. 11 (April 2017): 1–30. ?Georg Lukacs,The Destruction of Reason(London: Merlin, 1980). ?Frederick Engels,Germany: Revolution and Counter-Revolution (New York: International Publishers, 1969), 9–10. John Bellamy Foster is the editor of Monthly Review. Sri Lanka Guardian has been providing breaking news views for the progressive community since 2007.
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