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Nov 18, 2017 The importance of prayer,
A Sample Micro Winery Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a micro winery business? If YES, here is of prayer a complete sample winery business plan template feasibility study you can use for FREE . Social Problems Essay! Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for the importance, starting a winery business. Who Was Ww1! We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample winery produce marketing plan template backed up by the importance actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for winery businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to friday lights chapter, the business planning section. Starting a winery can be a very exciting and rewarding business if you are focused, dedicated and plan very well. The Importance! There are various aspects to sparknotes great gatsby, the business and you can decide to the importance, start on a small scale or large but an Essay Health Insurance Portability important fact of starting this business is that you will need to be very patient and have substantial funds as this is a business done with a long term approach and with a lot of money invested in it. If you intend to of prayer, start and polypropylene temperature, run a winery as a profitable business, do not look forward to the importance of prayer, having immediate returns on your investment. This is why people who go into the business are generally seen as doing it not for Urban about, their own gain or benefit but as a future investment they can leave behind for the importance, their children and grandchildren. Although this is not always true in Urban Legend about, all situations as there are people who start turning in the importance of prayer, profits some years after starting the business.
An important decision you will have to make before starting is to friday lights chapter, know what aspect of the business you will like to the importance, do or if you will prefer to handle all aspects. For instance you can decide to own a vineyard which is a farm that grows grapes a major ingredient for wines. After growing the grapes you can sell or export them to polypropylene glass transition, wineries who are involved in producing the wine. In a situation where you do not have enough money to the importance, invest, you can choose to partner with more established wineries that have their own vineyards and Essay Health, wineries to of prayer, grow their grapes and produce their own wines. These wineries give people the opportunity to make a barrel for their own private consumption or make hundreds of of the Career barrels for commercial purposes.
Another decision to consider is where your business will be located. When choosing where to site your business you will have to think of the climatic condition as grapes thrive in the importance, dry climates, cool days and chapter, hot nights. Of Prayer! This is why places like Arizona and transition temperature, California are regarded as top wine growing and of prayer, producing regions in United States of Essay on The Insurance Portability and Accountability Act America because they have climatic conditions that suit the of prayer, growth, cultivation and who was to start, harvesting of grapes. The Importance Of Prayer! Other factors you will also need to social problems of pakistan essay, consider is the cost involved in setting up the of prayer, business as this could be substantial, licensing requirements and marketing and distribution plans. All these factors and components are essential as they go a long way in making the business a thriving and successful venture. Assassinated! A Sample Micro Winery Business Plan Template.
As stated earlier, the winery business is an the importance exciting one and Insurance Portability, can be a rewarding experience if properly done and well planned. The industry is fast growing as despite the the importance of prayer, huge capital outlay needed to start the Essay of the of Dr. Stanley, business a lot of people are still coming in leading to it being a vibrant industry. The Wineries industry comprises of companies that are involved in at least one component of the of prayer, winemaking process. Great Gatsby! The wine making process includes growing and harvesting grapes, crushing and pressing grapes into the importance of prayer, unfermented wine and on Overview Stanley Sue, fermenting the wine. The industry also makes wine blends, brandies and wines made from of prayer other fruit sources. The wine institute which represents about of the of Dr. Sue, 500 wineries in California states that total wine sales in the importance of prayer, the United States both from foreign and domestic avenues was around 600 million gallons some years ago which recorded a retail value of 19 billion dollars. Also wine exports have been a good source of Essay revenue with 79 million gallons exported providing about 500 million dollars in revenue.
California accounts for most of the wine markets in the United States but steadily over of prayer, the years, the problems, business has become very popular and there has been an increase in the importance, wine markets in of the Stanley Sue, various regions around the country. This has seen vineyards available in the importance of prayer, about 40 states with 49 states having wineries, leading to about 2000 wineries around the country. In 2014, a major landmark was achieved when the on The Health Insurance, United States of the importance of prayer America for the first time became the Essay Portability, largest wine consumer by the importance of prayer volume with an transition temperature annual consumption of of prayer 29.1 million hectoliters over taking France in the process. Sparknotes Great Gatsby! This has gone on to explain why wine brands from the of prayer, United States are dominant in the world market and are continually on the rise. Statistics also show that wine consumption in the United States is set to who was to start, rise by 11% over the importance of prayer, the next few years and this growth will make the friday lights summary, total market share of the country double what is expected from the market of China. There are several factors to consider like where to the importance of prayer, buy the land, cost of the land, planting of the social, grapes harvesting of the grapes, bottling the product, marketing and the importance of prayer, lots more making it a daunting and challenging task. On Overview Career! For instance, if you decide to the importance of prayer, start the on Overview of Dr. Stanley Sue, business from the scratch you will have to be extremely patient and the importance of prayer, be ready to Essay on The Act, spend huge money. It can take up to four years before you produce grapes that are commercially viable and the process of making the of prayer, wine can take a further two years which means whatever you budget for the business should be for polypropylene temperature, a long term basis and you should be in it for the importance of prayer, the long haul. The industry is friday night lights summary characterized by the importance fierce competition which is why it is on Overview of the Stanley important that when entering the business you develop a particular niche as this will enable you penetrate the of prayer, market and assassinated to start ww1, get your own customers.
Over and the importance of prayer, above, the winery industry is a profitable industry and it is social problems essay open for any aspiring entrepreneur to come in and establish his or her business; you can chose to start on a small scale (micro – winery) or you can chose to of prayer, start on a large scale (mega – winery). Night Summary! Micro Winery Business Plan Executive Summary. The Vineyard Group®, Inc. is a standard and licensed winery business that will be located in the importance, an industrial area in Indianapolis – Indiana. Essay Sue! We have been able to secure a long term lease for a standard facility and 2 acres of the importance of prayer farm land in Urban Legend about College Students, a strategic location with an the importance option of a long term renewal on an agreed terms and conditions that is favorable to us. Essay Career! The facility has government approval for of prayer, the kind of business we want to in the Age of Digital, run and it is easily accessible and we are deliberate about the importance of prayer, that to facilitate easy movement of raw materials and finished products. Transition Temperature! We are in the winery business to the importance of prayer, produce top taste and fine products such as Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot, Grigio, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc, Zinfandel, Riesling and other blends that can compete with any other winery in the United States of America and in any part of the night lights, world.
We are also in the importance, business to Health Insurance Act, make profits at the same to give our customers value for of prayer, their money; we want to give people and Essay Health Insurance Portability Act, businesses who patronize our products the opportunity to the importance of prayer, be part of the in the, success story of the importance The Vineyard Group®, Inc. We are aware that there are several standard wineries scattered all around the United States and Canada whose products can be found in every nooks and crannies of The United States and Essay on Overview of the of Dr. Stanley Sue, Canada, which is the importance of prayer why we spent time and on Privacy Age of Media, resources to of prayer, conduct our feasibility studies and market survey so as to enable us locate the social essay, business in of prayer, an area that will support the growth of the Insurance Act, business and the importance, also for us to be able offer much more than our competitors will be offering. We ensured that our facility is polypropylene transition easy to locate and we have mapped out of prayer, plans to develop a wide distribution network for wholesalers all around the social, United States of America and the importance of prayer, Canada. Much more than producing top taste and Essay in the Age of Digital, neatly bottled wines, our customer care is going to be second to none. We know that our customers are the the importance of prayer, reason why we are in business which is why we will go the Legend about College, extra mile to of prayer, get them satisfied when they purchase any of Legend Students our wine brands. The Vineyard Group®, Inc. The Importance Of Prayer! will ensure that all our customers are given first class treatment whenever they visit our winery. We have a CRM software that will enable us manage a one on one relationship with our customers no matter how large the numbers of our customer base may grow to. Gatsby! We will ensure that we get our customers involved when making some business decisions that will directly or indirectly affect them.
The Vineyard Group®, Inc. is the importance of prayer family business that will be owned by Urban Essay Frank Potter and Family. Frank Potter who is the Chief Executive Officer of the the importance of prayer, Company is problems Graduate of Micro Biology (B.Sc.) and the importance of prayer, he holds a Master’s Degree in of the Stanley, Business Management (MBA). He has well over the importance of prayer, 15 years of lights chapter experience working in of prayer, related industry as a senior manager prior to starting The Vineyard Group®, Inc. He will be working with a team of professionals to sparknotes, build the business and grow it to enviably height. The Importance Of Prayer! The Vineyard Group®, Inc. is going to glass, operate a standard and licensed winery whose products will not only of prayer be sold in sparknotes gatsby, the United States and Canada but also in other parts of the world. We are in the winery business to make profits and also to give our customers value for the importance of prayer, their money. These are some of our services and product offerings; Growing wine grapes Blending wines Bottling wines Marketing and retailing wines Manufacturing brandy, vermouth and cider Chardonnay Cabernet Sauvignon Merlot Pinot Grigio Pinot Noir Sauvignon Blanc Zinfandel, Riesling and other blends. Our vision is to establish standard winery whose products will be not only Legend Students Essay be sold in the United States of America and of prayer, Canada, but also in other parts of the world. Essay Of Dr. Stanley! Our mission is to establish a standard winery business that will produce a wide range of wines for both low income earners and for the importance of prayer, luxury consumption.
We want to Urban Legend about Essay, build a winery business that will be listed amongst the top 10 wineries in the United States of America and of prayer, Canada. The Vineyard Group®, Inc. is friday night lights chapter summary a business that is established with the aim of of prayer competing favorably with other leading winery brands in the industry. This is Essay Portability why we will ensure that we put the right structure in place that will support the kind of growth that we have in the importance, mind while setting up the night lights chapter summary, business. We will ensure that we only the importance hire people that are qualified, honest, hardworking, customer centric and are ready to work to problems, help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and the importance, customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to about College, all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more depending how fast we meet our set target.
In view of of prayer that, we have decided to friday summary, hire qualified and the importance, competent hands to occupy the glass transition temperature, following positions; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Winery (Plant) Manager Human Resources and Admin Manager Warehouse Manager Merchandize Manager Sales and the importance, Marketing Manager Information Technologist Accountants / Cashiers Customer Service Executive Cleaners. Of Pakistan Essay! Roles and Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer – CEO (Owner): Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and of prayer, objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and assassinated to start ww1, opinions; providing educational opportunities. Of Prayer! Creates, communicates, and implements the on Privacy in the Digital Social, organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. The Importance Of Prayer! leading the sparknotes great, development and of prayer, implementation of the great, overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for the importance of prayer, fixing prices and Essay Age of Digital Social, signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the importance, the business Creates, communicates, and Career Stanley, implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and the importance, overall direction i.e. leading the development and on Privacy in the Age of, implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and the importance of prayer, documents on behalf of the to start ww1, company Evaluates the success of the of prayer, organization. Responsible for Legend Students Essay, overseeing the smooth running of the winery(plant) Part of the team that determines the of prayer, quantity of social of pakistan drinks (wine) that are to be produced Map out strategy that will lead to the importance, efficiency amongst workers in the plant Responsible for assassinated, training, evaluation and assessment of plant workers Ensures that the steady flow of both raw materials to the plant and easy flow of finished products through wholesale distributors to the market Ensures operation of the importance of prayer equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Ensures that the plant meets the Essay on The Health Insurance, expected safety and health standard at all times. Human Resources and Admin Manager. The Importance! Responsible for social, overseeing the of prayer, smooth running of HR and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, administrative tasks for the organization Updates job knowledge by participating in the importance of prayer, educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in social problems, professional organizations. Enhances department and of prayer, organization reputation by accepting ownership for accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to friday summary, add value to job accomplishments.
Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out of prayer, staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Oversees the polypropylene glass transition, smooth running of the daily office and the importance, factory activities. Responsible for assassinated ww1, managing the daily activities in the warehouse Ensure that the warehouse facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Maintains office supplies by of prayer checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Interfaces with third – party providers (vendors) Controls the supply floor inventory Ensures that goods and products are properly arranged Supervises the entire warehouse Handles any other duty as assigned by the CEO. Manages vendor relations, market visits, and the ongoing education and development of the organizations’ buying teams Helps to ensure consistent quality of wines are produced Responsible for Essay on Overview Career, the purchase of raw materials and packaging materials (bottles and cans et al) Responsible for the importance, planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the merchandise, and writing and friday lights summary, pricing orders to of prayer, vendors Ensures that the organization operates within stipulated budget. Sales and Marketing Manager. Media! Manages external research and the importance, coordinate all the internal sources of polypropylene glass transition information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Models demographic information and analyze the the importance of prayer, volumes of transactional data generated by Essay of the Career Stanley Sue customer purchases Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the the importance, company in social problems of pakistan essay, strategic meetings Helps to increase sales and growth for the importance of prayer, the company. Manage the organization website Handles ecommerce aspect of the Urban Legend about College Essay, business Responsible for installing and the importance, maintenance of computer software and on Overview of the Career Sue, hardware for the importance, the organization Manage logistics and who was ww1, supply chain software, Web servers, e-commerce software and the importance, POS (point of sale) systems Manage the organization’s CCTV Handles any other technological and IT related duties. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for Essay Media, the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to the importance, forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for friday lights summary, financial forecasting and the importance, risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and sparknotes great gatsby, financial reporting Responsible for developing and of prayer, managing financial systems and Essay Health Insurance and Accountability Act, policies Responsible for of prayer, administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the organization Serves as internal auditor for the organization. To Start Ww1! Client Service Executive.
Ensures that all contacts with customer (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the the importance of prayer, client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with customers on the phone, uses every opportunity to sparknotes, build client’s interest in the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the store manager in an effective and of prayer, timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on on Privacy Social, The Vineyard Group®, Inc. products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to students when they make enquiries. Responsible for the importance of prayer, cleaning the facility at polypropylene transition temperature all times Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of the importance stock Cleans both the interior and exterior of the glass transition temperature, facility Any other duty as assigned by the winery (plant) manager. Winery Business Plan SWOT Analysis. The Importance! We are quite aware that there are several wineries in the United States of America and Essay on Overview of Dr. Stanley Sue, Canada which is the importance why we are following the due process of establishing a business so as to compete favorable with them. Urban Legend Students Essay! We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is of prayer conducted for our business, we will be able to position our business to assassinated ww1, maximize our strength, leverage on the importance of prayer, the opportunities that will be available to us, mitigate our risks and who was assassinated, be welled equipped to of prayer, confront our threats. The Vineyard Group®, Inc. employed the great gatsby, services of an expert HR and Business Analyst with bias in of prayer, start – up business to Urban College Students, help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to the importance, help us create a business model that will help us achieve our business goals and objectives. Who Was Assassinated To Start Ww1! This is the the importance of prayer, summary of the SWOT analysis that was conducted for gatsby, The Vineyard Group®, Inc.; Part of what is of prayer going to count as positives for The Vineyard Group®, Inc. On Privacy In The Age Of Digital! is the vast experience of of prayer our management team, we have people on friday night lights chapter summary, board who are highly experienced and understands how to of prayer, grow business from the scratch to becoming a national phenomenon. Of The Of Dr. Sue! So also, we grow our own grapes and the wide varieties of wine et al that we produce our large national distribution network and of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for of prayer, the business.
A major weakness that may count against us is the fact that we are a new winery and friday night chapter summary, we don’t have the financial capacity to engage in the kind of the importance publicity that we intend giving the business especially when big names like The Wine Group, Gallo and Essay of the of Dr., Constellation Brand Inc. are already determining the direction of the the importance, market. Of The Career! The opportunities for of prayer, mega wineries with a wide range of friday night lights summary products are enormous. The Importance! This due to the fact that the average Americans and Canadians consume distilled products. Assassinated To Start Ww1! As a result of that, we were able to the importance of prayer, conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies so as to position our business to take advantage of the existing market for wine products and also to Essay on The Health Portability Act, create our own new market. We know that it is going to requires hard work, and the importance of prayer, we are determined to achieve it. We are quite aware that just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to Urban about College Students Essay, face is of prayer economic downturn and unfavorable government policies. It is on Overview of the Career of Dr. a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new winery or distillery plant in the importance of prayer, same location where ours is who was assassinated located. The Importance Of Prayer! Winery Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS.
One common trend in the wineries industry is that, over the last five years, it has become obvious that consumer drinking preferences have moved away from Essay on Privacy in the Age of Digital Social Media standard light beers, and loads of the importance consumers have discovered wine for its perceived health benefits and glass transition, increasingly diverse flavor profiles. Going forward, the the importance, wineries industry will continue to benefit from a growing number of friday night consumers, mostly among the millennial generation, who have expanded their palettes toward domestic wine. Also, the US wine region is increasingly becoming popular on a global stage. The Importance! Another trend in the wineries industry is that most wineries now produce expensive wines for lights, the high end clients and also normal wine for everyday people. The Importance! Statistics has it that consumers have experienced appreciable increasing disposable income since 2009, and as a result, many have sought out expensive wine brands that are perceived to about College, be classy and of higher quality. When it comes to selling wines, there is of prayer indeed a wide range of transition temperature available customers. In essence, our target market can’t be restricted to just a group of people, but all those who drink alcoholic drinks and non – alcoholic drinks. One thing is certain; the the importance of prayer, target market for wines, especially red wines will continue to on Overview Career, increase. In view of the importance of prayer that, we have conducted our market research and Essay on Overview of the Career Stanley Sue, we have ideas of the importance what our target market would be expecting from us. We are in business to engage in the production and Urban Legend about College, wholesale distribution of assorted wines to the following groups of of prayer people: Corporate Executives Government Officials Business People Celebrities Military Men and who was assassinated ww1, Women Sports Men and Women (with the the importance, exemption of social problems under – age) Students (with the the importance, exemption of about Essay under – age) Tourists Event / Wedding Planners Every adult in the neighborhood where our wines will be sold.
Our Competitive Advantage. Although we are set out to of prayer, establish a standard winery in Indianapolis – Indiana whose products will be sold throughout the United States of America and Canada, but that those not stop us from setting up our own unique retail outlets across major cities so as to bring our brands closer to locals. This is part of the competitive advantage that we are bringing into the market. Another competitive advantage that we have is the social problems, vast experience of our management team, we have people on board who are highly experienced and the importance of prayer, understands how to grow business from the scratch to becoming a national phenomenon. So also, the wide varieties of sparknotes great wine flavors that we produce our large national distribution network and the importance, of course, our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for the business. Great Gatsby! One thing is certain; we will ensure that we produce a wide range of the importance of prayer distilled drinks with different flavors so as to give our customers various options. Of The Career Stanley Sue! Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the the importance of prayer, best within our category (start – ups commercial greenhouse farms in the United States) in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to build the Essay on Overview of the Career of Dr. Sue, business with us and the importance, help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and objectives. Winery Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Friday Night! The Vineyard Group®, Inc. is established with the the importance, aim of assassinated to start ww1 maximizing profits in the importance of prayer, the wineries industry in gatsby, both the United States of America and Canada and we are going to go all the way to of prayer, ensure that we do all it takes to Essay on The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, sell a wide range of of prayer both alcoholic and on Overview Career of Dr. Sue, non – alcoholic wine products to a wide range of customers. The Vineyard Group®, Inc. The Importance Of Prayer! will generate income by offering the following services and products; Marketing and on Privacy in the Age of Media, retailing of of prayer various flavors of alcoholic and non – alcoholic wines Manufacturing brandy, vermouth and cider Sale of Essay of the Career Stanley Sue Chardonnay Sale of Cabernet Sauvignon Sale of Merlot Sale of the importance of prayer Pinot Grigio Sale of Pinot Noir Sale of polypropylene glass transition auvignon Blanc Sale of Zinfandel, Riesling and the importance of prayer, other blends.
It is assassinated ww1 important to state that our sales forecast is the importance of prayer based on great, the data gathered during our feasibility studies, market survey and also some of the the importance of prayer, assumptions readily available on the field. Below are the sales projections that we were able to come up with for the first three years of friday night lights operations; N.B : This projection is done based on what is of prayer obtainable in Legend College Students, the industry and the importance of prayer, with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and the arrival of a competitor in same location as ours within the glass, period stated above. The Importance Of Prayer! Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Assassinated To Start Ww1! Before choosing a location for The Vineyard Group®, Inc. and also the of prayer, flavors of social wines to produce, we conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies in order for us to be able to be able to the importance, penetrate the Essay on Overview Career Stanley, available market of the importance of prayer those who consume wines. We have detailed information and data that we were able to utilize to structure our business to sparknotes gatsby, attract the of prayer, numbers of customers we want to of pakistan, attract per time and also for our products to favorable compete with other leading brands in the United States of of prayer America and who was assassinated to start, Canada. We hired experts who have good understanding of the of prayer, wineries industry to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market in to start, the United States of the importance America and Canada. In other to continue to be in business and grow, we must continue to transition, sell our products to the available market which is why we will go all out to empower or sales and the importance, marketing team to sparknotes, deliver our corporate sales goals. In summary, The Vineyard Group®, Inc. will adopt the following sales and the importance of prayer, marketing approach to sell our distilled alcoholic drinks; Introduce our wine brand by sending introductory letters to residence, alcohol merchants, hotels, event planners and other stakeholders both in the United States of lights America and Canada Open our winery with a party so as to capture the attention of of prayer residence who are our first targets Engage in road show in social, targeted communities from time to time to sell our products Advertise our products in the importance, community based newspapers, local TV and radio stations List our business and products on on The Insurance Portability and Accountability, yellow pages ads (local directories) Leverage on the importance, the internet to promote our wine brands Engage in direct marketing and Digital Social Media, sales Encourage the the importance of prayer, use of Word of mouth marketing (referrals) Winery Business Plan Publicity and Essay in the Social, Advertising Strategy.
Despite the fact that our winery is a standard one with a wide range of products that can favorably compete with other leading brands, we will still go ahead to of prayer, intensify publicity for all our products and brand. We are going to explore all available means to promote The Vineyard Group®, Inc. The Vineyard Group®, Inc. has a long term plan of opening wine retailing outlets in College Students Essay, various locations all around the United States of America and Canada which is why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in the importance, Indianapolis – Indiana before venturing out. As a matter of fact, our publicity and advertising strategy is Essay on Privacy in the Digital Media not solely for selling our products but to also effectively communicate our brand. The Importance Of Prayer! Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise The Vineyard Group®, Inc.; Place adverts on Urban about Students, both print (community based newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and of prayer, social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to of pakistan essay, promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around major cities in of prayer, the United States of America and Canada Engage in road show from Legend time to of prayer, time in targeted communities Distribute our fliers and assassinated to start, handbills in target areas Position our Flexi Banners at strategic positions in the location where we intend getting customers to start patronizing our products. Ensure that all our staff members wear our customized clothes, and all our official cars and distribution vans are customized and well branded. The Importance! Our Pricing Strategy.
When it comes to pricing for products such as alcoholic and non – alcoholic wines, there are two sides to the coin. We are aware of the friday night lights summary, pricing trend in the importance, the winery industry which is why we have decided to produce products for problems of pakistan, both high – end customers and regular consumers of wines. The Importance! In view of that, our prices will conform to friday chapter, what is obtainable in the industry but will ensure that within the first 6 to the importance, 12 months our products are sold a little bit below the average prices of various alcoholic and non – alcoholic wine brands in the United States of glass temperature America. We have put in place business strategies that will help us run on low profits for a period of 6 months; it is a way of the importance encouraging people to buy into who was assassinated ww1, our brands. At The Vineyard Group®, Inc. The Importance! our payment policy is social essay all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them.
Here are the of prayer, payment options that will be available in sparknotes, every of our outlets; Payment via bank transfer Payment via POS machines Payment with cash Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft. The Importance Of Prayer! In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for farm produces purchase without any stress on their part. The winery business is a capital intensive venture to start and we are well prepared financially. Polypropylene Glass Transition Temperature! We are aware that where you decide to locate the business, the equipment as well as structures you will build will take up a major chunk of the money you have put aside to the importance of prayer, set up the friday night, business. We have conducted our research, analysis, feasibility studies and market survey very well before drawing up a budget and of prayer, going ahead to Legend Students, source for funds for of prayer, the business. Of Pakistan Essay! This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in the United States $750. The Importance! Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the Insurance Portability and Accountability, accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and other software) $1,300. Marketing promotion expenses for the importance, the grand opening of The Vineyard Group®, Inc. in Essay Health Insurance Act, the amount of $3,500 and the importance, as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at Essay in the Digital Media $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Cost for hiring Business Consultant – $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at the importance a total premium $2,400. The budget for permits, Insurance and great, license $5,000 The money needed to the importance of prayer, acquire land that will be suitable for of pakistan, the variety of the importance grapes we will like to on Overview of the of Dr. Sue, plant can cost you between $100,000-300,000 per acre Construction of the vineyard facility and tasting rooms and other administrative blocks could cost about of prayer, $200, 000 Equipment for Portability Act, the offices such as filing cabinets, safety gadgets, computers, printers, telephones, fax machines, furniture and the importance of prayer, electronics could cost about $15,000 Creating and launching an official website could cost about $700 Other expenses such as signage, business cards, advertisements, publicity and social of pakistan, promotions) could cost around $2,500.
We would need an estimate of $1.2M to successfully set up our Winery Business in Indianapolis Indiana. Please note that this amount includes the the importance, salaries of all the who was assassinated to start ww1, staff for the first 3 month of the importance operation. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for of the of Dr., the Vineyard Group®, Inc. The Vineyard Group®, Inc. is a family business that will be owned and the importance, financed by Frank Potter and of the Career, Family. The Importance! They do not intend to welcome any external business partners, which is Urban Students Essay why he has decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital to the importance, 3 major sources. Social Essay! These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the the importance, start – up capital from personal savings and on The Health Insurance, sell of the importance of prayer stocks Source for soft loans from family members and friday chapter, friends Apply for loan from of prayer my Bank.
N.B: We have been able to generate about $500,000 (Personal savings $400,000 and soft loan from sparknotes great family members $100,000) and we are at the final stages of the importance obtaining a loan facility of $700,000 from on Privacy Age of Social Media our bank. All the papers and document have been signed and submitted, the of prayer, loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the amount. Winery Business Plan Sustainability and in the Social, Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the the importance of prayer, capacity and who was assassinated ww1, competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If any of these factors is missing from the importance of prayer a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. On The Insurance! The Vineyard Group®, Inc. The Importance! will ensure that all the Essay on The Health Portability and Accountability, factors listed above are reinforced on the importance of prayer, a regular basis, we will continue to improvise with our products and friday lights, also we will engage in continuous capacity building of the importance our workforce.
As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to great, all our management staff and the importance, it will be based on Essay of Dr. Sue, their performance for a period of five years or more. Of Prayer! We will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to assassinated, ensure that staff welfare is well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is of prayer designed to problems, drive our business to the importance, greater heights and training and Essay on Overview of the Career of Dr. Stanley, re – training of our workforce is at the top burner. The Importance Of Prayer! We have the on The Portability and Accountability, plans of. The Importance! Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of polypropylene glass transition Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and of prayer, Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of facility (farmland inclusive) and Age of Social, construction of winery: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and the importance of prayer, Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of sparknotes great employees: In Progress Purchase of the the importance, Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances and CCTV: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for who was assassinated to start, the business both online and around the the importance of prayer, community: In Progress Health and Safety and sparknotes gatsby, Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – wholesale suppliers / merchants: In Progress.
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Resume Genius' Original Templates - Expert's Choice. By Resume Genius. This page features eight famous resume templates that you could normally only access via Resume Genius’ Resume Builder. Of Prayer. We’ve decided to provide them to you for free. Do you want a resume that’s simple, sleek, and to the point?
Then you’ve come to the right place. Night Lights Summary. Below, we feature our Classic resume template. Feel free to the importance, download it into a Microsoft Word document for personalized editing. We have two reasons for calling it Classic. First, it’s our oldest resume template. Urban Legend Essay. Second — and the importance more importantly it’s the most versatile one out of our entire library. This is not a fancy resume template in the slightest. It’s simple, bare bones, to-the-point, easy to read, and social problems of pakistan unpretentious. Let’s get one thing straight — hiring managers aren’t going to of prayer, trash a resume because it’s not fancy looking. Eventually, they would lose their job because they’d be overlooking some very good candidates who happen to like simpler designs.
The content of your resume is far more important than its look. So long as the hiring manager can read your resume easily, you’ve done a good job. The beauty of the social problems essay Classic is the importance of prayer, that anyone can use it. Its simple nature gives it flexibility, and can be modified to on Privacy Age of Digital Social, suit all jobs and industries. Simply formatted resume designed for maximum clarity and the importance readability. Header font spaced by 2.2pt creates an friday night chapter, interesting aesthetic effect. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 2.54? Right – 2.54? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Classic template pack. Chicago is well known among architecture nerds for of prayer its interesting Prairie School style of architecture, which uses a lot of horizontal lines to who was ww1, better integrate its and mesh its buildings with the flat mid-western landscape.
Long story short, our resident resume expert and architecture nerd associated the Chicago template’s use of page long horizontal underlines beneath each major heading with the Prairie School architecture style, and the rest is history. Like the Classic, the of prayer Chicago resume format is another crowd-pleaser among all industries and on Privacy in the Age of Digital types of employment. Of Prayer. Once again, it emphasizes clarity over fanciness. The major question you need to decide is if you like your resume sections to Urban, be sectioned off by page-wide underlines (choose Chicago), or if you feel like that’s excessive (choose Classic). Page-length underlines used to separate resume sections. City, state, and the importance employment dates placed in a separate column on the right. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Time New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Chicago template pack. This one’s pretty simple – initially we only had one version of assassinated to start ww1 this resume template, one with green headings.
Naturally, we associated green with the the importance Irish. Since we’d named the Chicago template after a city, we felt it was best to Essay Age of, continue on of prayer, with the city name formula. Thus, Dublin! Now, as you can see, we’ve added more colors than just green, because people liked the styling so much and demanded more choices. But, we still call it Dublin due to its roots. Obviously if you’re Irish, it comes highly recommended! However, this is yet another resume template that is glass, so simple, clear, and the importance of prayer easy to read that we can easily recommend it to anyone looking for a job.
The Dublin font styling looks much more airy and less blocky, so if that suits your taste, go ahead and of pakistan download it. No horizontal lines anywhere Text in headers expanded by 1.05pt for an interesting effect. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Dublin template pack.
Once you look at this resume template, you immediately know why it’s called Elegant. It just is. The Importance. This resume is social of pakistan, so light on the eyes it seems like it could float away. Every small detail is the importance of prayer, infused with a soft and gentle touch, and stands out as being particularly well crafted. Social Essay. That’s why it’s one of our most popularly downloaded resumes. Those of you with a flair for the abstract, and the importance who would prefer a resume that is less blocky, solid, and rigidly organized should download this template. Any hiring manager would be able to appreciate the Elegant template’s style and formatting. It’s easy to read, clear, and makes great use of white space. It’s tough to problems, generalize, but those of you applying for of prayer positions that require more rigidity and strictness, such as accounting or logistics, may want to consider a more tightly organized resume, such as Harvard. Headings are centered throughout entire template, with job descriptions left aligned.
Text in headers expanded by 2.8pt, and name by Essay on Overview of Dr. Stanley 4.8, giving the “elegant” feel. Top – 2.54? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 1.9? Right – 1.9? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Elegant template pack. Making the the importance Harvard resume template required some serious MS Word skills by our resident expert.
We tasked her with creating a template that would help save space on the resume without losing clarity and Students Essay readability. She came up with this columned approach — headings are left aligned to help save space, and have large enough text to of prayer, be very clear. Due to this complicated and ingenious approach, we dubbed the template Harvard, as everyone knows the transition temperature reputation of that university. Those of you who have a resume that extends JUST over one or two pages will find this template especially useful. The Importance Of Prayer. The left-aligned headings allow you to cut down wasted space to polypropylene transition temperature, reach one or two pages exactly, which will make hiring managers happy. If you lack experience and the importance of prayer have a short resume, we recommend avoiding this template, as it will make your experience look minimal and paltry. Headings are left aligned, saving a lot of vertical space and allowing for more job descriptions to be written.
Resume looks highly organized and rigidly designed, appealing to those who prefer straight lines and boxes. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 1.27? Right – 1.27? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Harvard template pack. Many jobs are considered more “modern” than others.
These are usually not age old industries but instead professions that have only of pakistan, come into existence within the of prayer last 20-30 years. Problems. Professions like Software Engineers, Computer Technicians and the importance of prayer Social Media Managers are all relatively new when compared to assassinated, those like Nursing, Teaching, and Law etc. For this new breed of professional comes a new breed of resume template: the the importance Modern. Sporting a very “flat” design, the Modern template uses styling that classical resume experts will recognize, but altered subtly in terms of formatting and style to produce a template that is anything but “classic”. The modern is all about efficiency and assassinated to start ww1 simplicity. The Importance Of Prayer. The contact details, job headings and skills headings are all centered, producing a logical and aesthetically appealing form. This resume template looks equally good in polypropylene glass temperature printed form or on the importance of prayer, an iPad or desktop. Modern is perfect for those who don’t feel like our other more classically styled resume templates work well for their personality type or the position they are applying to. For example, a developer using a “Classic” resume template not only is a bit misdirected style-wise, but may also be holding himself back as compared to other tech-industry resume styles, he or she will appear a little dated. As mentioned, industries that are relatively new are a perfect match for the Modern template.
Modern color variations One horizontal line Centered Contact Information Centered Headings Two-tone color styling. Click here to download. The Modern template pack. Milano is how Italians refer to problems essay, their beloved 2 nd largest city, Milan. Milano is famed for it’s rich cultural heritage, cuisine and of course, it’s fashion industry. The Milano resume template encapsulates all of these characteristics to one degree or another. This template was not built from of prayer scratch, but instead has been built upon an older, more long-standing classic resume format. Things were then “spiced up” so to speak with subtle use of formatting and colors to produce a very fashionable resume template if there ever was such a thing. Balancing professional tradition with new, contemporary colors is a balancing act that the Milano pulls off well. Similar to how a cup of coffee with just the right amount of cream is not too rich but not to friday chapter summary, bitter is perfectly balances, so is this resume template. The Milano template’s style and formatting is eye catching without being excessive, and for this reason it is the importance of prayer, suitable for many different professionals across many different industries.
According to Resume Genius stats, the Urban about Students Essay Milano seems to be most popular with Marketers, Sales professionals and Educators. Regardless of the importance industry, if you are looking for a way to stand out amongst the other applicants without calling too much attention to assassinated ww1, yourself, consider downloading the Milano and customizing it with your own information for your next job application. Subtle color usage A single horizontal line Left Aligned Contact Details. Job Description Font Size: 9. Click here to download. The Milano template pack. Do you want a resume that is refined, sophisticated but not pretentious?
If that’s the case, then the the importance of prayer Park template below is the perfect option for you. Download this subtle and who was ww1 classy resume template and edit it to suit your own circumstance. Image you are walking down Park Avenue on the Upper East Side. The Importance. It’s fall, the smell of leaves lingers on the breeze as you walk back from you favorite coffee shop. You pass a well-dressed businessman in slacks, brown oxfords and a grey cardigan. Sitting next to him on the bench is a leather folio with a resume on top, held in place by the weight of a black Mont Blanc pen. The atmosphere, the season, the resume; they all seem to be in perfect harmony.
Now open your eyes, and realize it is in fact you who are sitting on the bench, and polypropylene temperature the resume that caught your attention is of prayer, none other than The Park. Whether in who was to start ww1 its original “accountant lamp green” or one of the other four other carefully selected understated colors, the Park conducts business with class, a perfect match for your personality. Different from our other templates in that it harmonious blends just the right amount of styling with simple and refreshingly neat formatting to produce a resume that would look perfectly at the importance of prayer home on any prestigious New York Office mahogany desk. The Park is for the job applicant who knows the on Overview Career of Dr. Stanley Sue difference between a Windsor and a Half Windsor, who knows the difference between Thelonious Monk and John Coltrane, and for the person who knows that even the smallest of details can make all the difference. The Park is not just a resume template; it is an accompaniment to your refined, metropolitan lifestyle.
The park makes a statement with clever use of space right away in the header of the resume, with a large margin between the top of the page and the importance of prayer the applicant’s name. There are no unnecessary frills or decorations on The Park; it makes a statement with only practical applications of sensible color palettes, logical spacing and formatting and measured use of breaks and lines. No unnecessary frills or decorations One horizontal line Center aligned contact information. Left aligned text. Download The Park today to friday summary, secure your job tomorrow. Click here to download. The Park template pack. resume tools and coach support and great templates. Glad you like them! Anything Specific for the trades ?? I am a machinist..Thanks. Any of the of prayer above are suitable for your industry, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago’ or the ‘Modern.’ Good luck on night summary, the job hunt!
Great thanks for your help … We would recommend the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! I am trying to decide what to the importance of prayer, use as a professional massage therapist. Thanks. Check out our ‘Elegant’ templates. Essay Of Dr.. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi, which template is good for the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The ‘Harvard’ should be suitable. Good luck! Thanks!
I appreciate it. What if I already started using one of the the importance of prayer advanced templates – dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to Harvard? I recently graduated, about who was to start ww1 a year and a half ago and the importance I am looking to Urban College Essay, break into the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and pharmacy background. The Importance. Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine.
Which one would be good for a television producer? Or someone in night chapter the media industry? Thanks! The ‘Milano’ sounds like the right way to go. The Importance. Best of luck! which template would be good for a high school student? which template would be great for friday night lights summary executive. Which template is good for fresher seeking job in IT industry. I’m BCA graduate. Try the the importance of prayer ‘Chicago’ on Essay Age of Digital Social, for size.
Good luck on the importance of prayer, the job hunt! which template suitable for internship? which template is suitable for a project manager. Which template is suitable for a job at in the Digital Media a bank? which Template is better for a job of medical field?
You might want to check out our internship and engineering resume samples: Good luck on the job hunt! What resume is the importance, most suitable for a Professional Sales Manager that is hoping to change careers to an Executive Asst. HI, what resume is glass transition, suitable for a management consultant? or an auditor? The ‘Milano’ would suit either of the importance of prayer those professions. Good luck! The decision is really a matter of preference. Who Was Assassinated To Start Ww1. We suggest you try a few and see which one you like best.
Good luck! Thank you very much for the importance of prayer sharing!! Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for a recent master graduate wanting to get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the ‘Elegant’ Template. Good luck on Essay on Overview Career Sue, the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant? Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)?
Recommendation for something in the legal profession? Specifically pretrial services assessor? Didn’t see anything for paralegals, either… The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for samples. Of Prayer. Check out our paralegal resume sample, here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/paralegal-resume-example. Good luck on the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the ‘Park’ template.
It offers plenty of space for you to include all of your skills. what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and you don’t know which template to use for a beginner. For a beginner, our ‘Classic’ is always a solid choice. Friday Night Lights. Good luck on the job hunt! Any of the resumes above could be used for someone with a criminal history, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago.’ Also, you should check out our tips on how to address criminal history in a cover letter: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions#Red-flag-8:-Criminal-history. Try using the the importance ‘Park’ template. Good luck with finding an internship! We suggest the ‘Milano.’ Don’t forget to check out our Pharmacist resume: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/pharmacist-resume-example Good luck on the internship.
What resume would you recommend for polypropylene glass transition a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of the importance of prayer experience. What kind of resume would you recommend for Urban someone changing careers from a lower tier job to a more career building one? The ‘Park’ template would be an appropriate choice. Good luck with the career change. which template wouldb good for construction,HVAC? We’d suggest going with the ‘Modern’ template.
Best of luck finding an HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and need a job asap, i worked in the importance customer service for a department store and then moved into a supervisor position but for only 7months. My previuos jobs were a ups helper and a busser at who was ww1 a resturaunt. Go with the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! What template would you suggest to use? I am changing careers from a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to of prayer, CDL Truck Driver either over the road or Local? Try going with the ‘Milano’ template. Good Luck! What template do you recommend for a middle aged person with plenty of Essay of the of Dr. Stanley Sue related experience including being a small business owner, applying for a flight attendant position?
You should visit our nurse resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/nursing-resume-example. You can download the example and the importance fill in your own information. Hi, what kind of resume template you recommend for Legend about College Essay a engineer with 4 years of experience?. which resume would you recommend for of prayer college student applying for jobs with no experience. Hi, what kind of social resume will you recommend for a college student, applying for a job. which resume would you recommend for a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at home mom returning to work? Good luck on the importance, the job hunt! which resume do you recommend for an budding flight attendant career?
Thanks for polypropylene glass transition temperature this! I’ll use the Harvard Resume Template. #128578; Hey there Rayhan, The key to writing a resume fresh out of college without work experience is to: 2. Make your education section strong, and include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from college that pertain to the importance of prayer, the position to of pakistan essay, which you’re applying.
Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya, I’d recommend the Classic B W template for your resume. The Importance Of Prayer. It’s a nice standard look — nothing too fancy, but it gets the job done. Good luck! With all of polypropylene glass that experience, you have some flexibility! When in doubt, the reverse-chronological is a good choice. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/chronological-samples-writing-guide. Enjoy the the importance of prayer fresh start, and friday lights best of luck with the the importance job application!
Which resume would your recommend for social applying for a position in a company that you currently work in that is merging? All staff must re-apply. All of these resume templates are perfect for of prayer someone in Students your situation – it just depends on your preference. Since your goal is to prove the value you bring to the table to your new employers, you want your resume to the importance of prayer, stand out for its content even more than its format. Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight – check out the following link for some ideas to about College, make the the importance of prayer content of your resume stand out: https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/accomplishments-on-resume-quantify-achievements. Good luck, and please feel free to comment again if you have further questions! I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template. Check out this link and of the Career of Dr. Sue see if one jumps out at you: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/ Good luck with your career! I’d first recommend checking out the importance of prayer, this page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example.
3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. Essay On Privacy In The Media. See why. How to Modify and the importance of prayer Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to problems, unlock your. Would You Rather Work for the importance of prayer a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.
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Target Grade: 7th-12th (Middle School and High School) Length of Lesson Plan: Approximately 128 pages. Page count is estimated at 300 words per page. Assassinated To Start! Length will vary depending on format viewed. Browse The A Gentleman in Moscow Lesson Plan: The A Gentleman in of prayer Moscow lesson plan is of the of Dr. Stanley Sue, downloadable in PDF and Word. The Importance Of Prayer! The Word file is social essay, viewable with any PC or Mac and can be further adjusted if you want to mix questions around and/or add your own headers for things like Name, Period, and Date.
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The 180 Multiple Choice Questions in temperature this lesson plan will test a student's recall and understanding of A Gentleman in Moscow . Use these questions for quizzes, homework assignments or tests. The questions are broken out into sections, so they focus on specific chapters within A Gentleman in Moscow . The Importance Of Prayer! This allows you to night chapter summary, test and review the book as you proceed through the unit. Typically, there are 5-15 questions per chapter, act or section. The Importance Of Prayer! Use the Oral Reading Evaluation Form when students are reading aloud in class. Pass the forms out friday before you assign reading, so students will know what to expect. You can use the the importance forms to provide general feedback on audibility, pronunciation, articulation, expression and Essay on Overview Career Stanley Sue rate of speech.
You can use this form to grade students, or simply comment on their progress. Use the Writing Evaluation Form when you're grading student essays. The Importance Of Prayer! This will help you establish uniform criteria for polypropylene transition grading essays even though students may be writing about different aspects of the material. The Importance Of Prayer! By following this form you will be able to friday night summary, evaluate the thesis, organization, supporting arguments, paragraph transitions, grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc. of each student's essay. The Quizzes/Homework Assignments are worksheets that can be used in a variety of ways.
They pull questions from the the importance of prayer multiple choice and short essay sections, the polypropylene character and object descriptions, and the chapter abstracts to create worksheets that can be used for pop quizzes, in-class assignments and homework. Periodic homework assignments and quizzes are a great way to the importance of prayer, encourage students to stay on top of their assigned reading. They can also help you determine which concepts and ideas your class grasps and which they need more guidance on. Who Was Assassinated To Start Ww1! By pulling from the different sections of the lesson plan, quizzes and homework assignments offer a comprehensive review of A Gentleman in Moscow in manageable increments that are less substantial than a full blown test. The Importance Of Prayer! Use the Test Summary page to determine which pre-made test is most relevant to your students' learning styles. This lesson plan provides both full unit tests and mid-unit tests. You can choose from several tests that include differing combinations of multiple choice questions, short answer questions, short essay questions, full essay questions, character and object matching, etc. Some of the tests are designed to polypropylene glass transition temperature, be more difficult than others.
Some have essay questions, while others are limited to of prayer, short-response questions, like multiple choice, matching and short answer questions. If you don't find the combination of questions that best suits your class, you can also create your own test on A Gentleman in Moscow . You have the option to Create Your Own Quiz or Test. If you want to integrate questions you've developed for your curriculum with the questions in social this lesson plan, or you simply want to create a unique test or quiz from the questions this lesson plan offers, it's easy to do. Cut and paste the information from the Create Your Own Quiz or Test page into a Word document to get started. Scroll through the sections of the lesson plan that most interest you and cut and of prayer paste the exact questions you want to use into your new, personalized A Gentleman in Moscow lesson plan.
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Nov 18, 2017 The importance of prayer,
film essay questions Common Sense + Film Theory = Common-Sense Film Theory? Start with this question, which I think is the importance, one of the most fascinating we can ask: What enables us to understand films? All films? Well, set aside some hard cases, like Brakhage abstractions and transmissions of the Crab Nebula from the Age of Digital Media Hubble telescope (above). Let’s start with a prototype: a film whose moving images present more or less recognizable persons, places, and the importance things caught up in Urban Legend about College, what we intuitively call stories. In other words, an ordinary movie shown in theatres and on of prayer, video.
At one time, film theorists were considerably interested in the issue of comprehension. The heyday of film semiology, roughly from the mid-1960s to the end of the 1970s, brought forth vigorous conjectures about lights chapter summary, how we grasp images and comprehend stories. The Importance? One of the friday night chapter summary boldest proposals was the the importance idea that understanding rests upon codesrule-governed relations between the signifier (a material thing, like an night lights, image) and a signified (a concept). The Importance? In other words, a shot of social of pakistan a cat not only picked out of prayer a particular cat but signified the concept cat. Likewise, we understand a chase scene because we know the cinematic code for this concept. In Naked City , we see alternating shots of two men running, and we decode the whole scene as showing a man pursued and his pursuer. Semiology was a promising attempt to study comprehension in a systematic way. This school of thought called our attention to the ways in which mainstream films are highly structured for audience pickup.
Everything we understand in a movie could be taken as the result of to start our deciphering codes, governed by rules and presenting a coherent menu of the importance of prayer alternatives. 1. For some thinkers, the concept of codes promised to give substance to assassinated to start, the age-old “film grammar” metaphor. Despite some crucial differences, maybe film was really a sort of audiovisual language, with its own syntax. And since verbal languages vary dramatically across societies, so might the codes of picturing or of storytelling. Just as language must be learned, so too perhaps the codes of cinema require learning. Semiological research reminded us that what seems natural is often very artificial, and relative to one society rather than another. In another culture, the code of traffic signals might employ not red, yellow, and green lights, but any other colors. The notion of codes also suited an emerging view of what one influential book of the of prayer time called the Essay on Overview Career of Dr. “social construction of reality.” 2 Would people from cultures without cinema or television be able to the importance, recognize the blobs on the screen as people and settings? Do codes go all the way down to the very core of our perception? At some point someone was sure to bring up the idea that Eskimos had six or ten or thirty different words for what Americans just called “snow.” 3.
Today, classic semiologists are rare in film studies. You will seldom find a researcher talking of codes, or raising questions of comprehension. On Overview Stanley? Nevertheless the idea that filmic expression is the importance, quite arbitrary, socially constructed, and learned remains in the ether. Film academics assume, along with most humanists, that once you set aside some uninteresting aspects of the human creature, usually summed up as “physiology,” culture goes all the way down. Beyond cell division and digestion, let’s say, everything is cultural, and to invoke any other explanations risks rejection. In Narration in the Fiction Film (1985), I asked how we could best explain our grasp of who was to start ww1 one aspect of cinema, the flow of story information I called narration. The Importance? I argued that since most narrative films were made in order to be experienced by viewers, we ought to study the strategies filmmakers used to Essay of the Stanley Sue, elicit understanding. Most of the importance those strategies, it seemed to me, exploited rather general human perceptual and cognitive capacities. Perceptual research of the 1970s was dominated by a school of thought derived ultimately from the night lights summary great psychophysicist Helmholtz. “New Look” perceptual psychologists like Jerome Bruner and Richard Gregory held that the the importance stimuli hitting our sense organs were noisy, incomplete, and ambiguous; we needed higher-level faculties to sort them out. Illusions like the famous duck/ rabbit showed that when we could not decide between one visual configuration and another, endless ambiguity was the result. The eye, as was commonly said, was part of the mind.
Seeing in the full sense was a kind of inference to the best explanation: What could be out there that would produce this pattern on the retina? At first, this research tradition meshed neatly with the emerging discipline of cognitive science. In the polypropylene glass transition early 1980s, cognitive scientists were largely focused on the importance of prayer, matters of language, reasoning, applying categories, and to start ww1 making decisions about action. 4 As with New Look thinking, cognitive science saw mental activity as a quasi-Kantian interplay of input stimuli and conceptual structures, sometimes called schemas, that made sense of the data. The Importance Of Prayer? Those structures might be all-purpose or specialized, diffuse (like, say, the ability to solve problems) or single-purpose (the ability to recognize faces). Students Essay? Again, inference was the model, although some mental inferences, like those involved in vision, were held to be fast, automatic, and “informationally encapsulated” (i.e., ignorant of anything outside their dedicated domain).
5 Eventually, the inferential approach would become the basis of a computational approach to both perception and cognition, and the importance of prayer it probably remains the dominant view in psychological research. How adequate were New Look perceptual theory and problems essay Cog Sci mental mechanics to explaining everyday thinking? NiFF tried to the importance of prayer, be somewhat agnostic on certain points, but it did argue that these psychological frames of reference were helpful in studying films. Perceptually, films are illusions, not reality; cognitively, they are not the blooming, buzzing confusion of life but rather simplified ensembles of elements, designed to polypropylene glass temperature, be understood. They are made to the importance, engage thought, particularly thought that goes “beyond the information given.” 6 Film narratives, like narratives in all media, abstract and streamline their real-world components for smooth pickup and invite us to fill in social, what is left unshown and unsaid. Of Prayer? What outline drawings are to the eye, narratives are to the mind. So NiFF claimed that we could study films as ensembles of Urban Legend cues that prompt inferential extrapolation at many levelsof perception, of the importance comprehension, and of interpretation. In other words, films prompt us to polypropylene temperature, apply schemas, or knowledge structures, to what we see moment by moment on the screen.
Those schemas can be based in real-world knowledge or filmic conventions. Each type posed problems for the importance the concept of codes. Real-world knowledge may not be as strictly structured as the concept of code suggests. On Privacy Age Of? A schema is less rigid than the traditional concept of code; it may not exist as binary alternatives or rule-governed choices. Some schemas are fuzzy, with their members conceived as prototypes or core/periphery structures. So for us a robin is a prototypical bird, a penguin or ostrich is not. The latter might be prototypes for the importance of prayer people in other cultures, but that doesn’t invalidate the point that some categories are organized by “best-instance” criteria rather than hard and fast boundaries. Some cinematic conventions more crisply structured: You can end a scene with a cut or a fade or a dissolve or a wipe or a swish-pan.and that’s about it. So sometimes we encounter, particularly within certain cinematic traditions, a sort of menu of options we might call a code.
But a lot of conventions, like those indicating the overall space of a scene’s action, are looser. College Essay? There is no rule that requires a long-shot to the importance, be followed by who was assassinated to start ww1, a close-up, the the importance of prayer way a preposition in language requires an object. There is no code that dictates that a sexy scene must be red-tinted or accompanied by hazy saxophone music, but when such cues emerge, we make a probabilistic inference that seduction isn’t far off. Not all conventions, it seems, are coded. NiFF studied several of Essay of the of Dr. these conventions under the rubrics of causality, time, and the importance of prayer space. Polypropylene Temperature? Those three categories, NiFF claimed, are basic to narrative and to human cognition, and so they ought to play roles in the process by which we understand stories. Further, NiFF argued that the conventions that guide our inferential extrapolation don’t simply float free in space.
There were recurring clusters of favored choices for of prayer presenting causality, time, and space. Glass? These modes included “classical” narration, “art-cinema” narration, and others. The historical layout still seems valid to me, and they seem to have proven useful to other researchers. Theoretically, however, NiFF ran into problems in the role it assigned to inference. At the time of writing NiFF , I was aware of the writings of J. J. Gibson and of prayer his insistence that perception evolved in environments very different from the impoverished information that New Look theorists assumed triggered perception.
In the three-dimensional world in which creatures like us live, the stimuli are not typically partial or degraded; they are in fact quite rich, even redundant. Moving through space, we register an optic flow that specifies the layout of surfaces quite precisely. 7. NiFF finessed this problem by saying that even if Gibson’s account of ordinary perception were right, films don’t present the informational array afforded by the real world. Film imagesflat, often in polypropylene transition temperature, black-and-whiteare in principle as ambiguous as the duck/rabbit. I invoked the of prayer splendid Ames Room as evidence that, being monocular, cinema images were inherently ambiguous. 8. This now seems to me misguided.
Films, as Gibson himself pointed out, disambiguate their images to a huge extent by the sheer fact of movement. It would take a mental effort no one could summon up to see alternative ways to construe a normal shot of three men in a room. Career Stanley Sue? My mistake was the same as the New Look theorists: I picked the wrong prototype. Just as illusions aren’t fair samples of perception in the wild, so the Ames Room is an extraordinary piece of filmmaking artifice, not a typical one. My old friends Barb and Joe Anderson were right: Gibson has the best of this argument. 9 (That still won’t settle whether the inferential/computational approach or the ecological approach is the better explanation of natural vision. On that I retreat to the importance, the amateur’s agnosticism.) I was on surer ground, I think, in ww1, treating narrative comprehension as a version of inference-making. But NiFF pushed it in a problematic direction. Considering narrative comprehension as inferential led me to of prayer, bring in the Russian Formalist distinction between fabula and syuzhet . Essay On Overview Of The Of Dr. Stanley Sue? These two terms have been used in several ways, but the the importance of prayer most plausible way, it seemed to me then and polypropylene transition temperature seems still, is to see fabula as the chronological-causal string of events that may be presented by the importance of prayer, the syuzhet , the on Overview of the of Dr. configuration of the importance events in the narrative text as we have it. Clearly the distinction is useful as an analytical tool, to study how a narrative can “deform” its underlying story for aesthetic purposes.
But NiFF went beyond treating the distinction as purely a tool for analysis. It argued that it was psychologically real; that as we encountered events in the syuzhet , we were tacitly building up the fabula too. The process is a bit like double-entry bookkeeping, with the viewer keeping track not only of what is happening each moment on the screen but also slotting that into the chronological pattern of night chapter summary fabula events. The Importance? This seemed to Students Essay, be a clear case that melded bottom-up input with top-down cognition. Unfortunately, some people argued, it’s psychologically implausible. Eventually I had to agree.
For one thing, we aren’t aware of building up a fabula in our heads, the way we can be at least partially aware of, say, solving a crossword puzzle. For another, we can’t access it easily; try stopping a film on video and reciting the entire chain of events leading up to the importance, the moment of pause. Worse, try at the end of the assassinated to start movie to the importance of prayer, grasp mentally the entire fabula you’ve purportedly worked out. Essay Of The? Chances are you can’t do it. Given that our memories are reconstructive rather than photographic, creating an accurate fabula is extremely difficult. More theoretically, Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks proposed some reasons that the of prayer viewer’s mental representation for the most part cannot reflect the underlying structure of the film. Essay? 10. I think that NiFF made the valid point that our understanding of narrative is often inferential, and of prayer we do flesh out glass what we’re given. Of Prayer? But I now think that the inference-making takes place in a very narrow window of time, and Urban about Students Essay it leaves few tangible traces. What is built up in our memory as we move through a film is something more approximate, more idiosyncratic, more distorted by strong moments, and more subject to error than the fabula that the analyst can draw up. Indeed, the real constraints on the importance, what we can recall make deceptive narration like that in Mildred Pierce and other films possible.
11. Still, I think the error was a productive one. In assigning to social of pakistan essay, the spectator the task of ongoing fabula construction, NiFF harmonized with one premise I consider central: a holistic sense of form. Even if we scan the the importance of prayer entire narrative through a narrow slit, it’s important for the analyst and theorist to consider the overall design of the assassinated ww1 work, the more or less coherent principles that govern the of prayer unfolding tale. I’m thinking of such matters as smoothly cascading character goals, psychological motives and personality change, gradual development of about College Essay knowledge, shifts in the importance, viewpoint, repeated and varied motifs, and finer-grained patterns of visual and Essay Sue sonic presentation. In an analysis of Jerry Maguire , for instance, I tried to show how such features were operating at many scales, creating a considerable formal richness. 12. Such design features need to the importance of prayer, be accounted for, especially when they crop up in an otherwise innocuous popular movie. Why are many movies more tightly organized than they need to be, given the drastic limits on viewer attention and memory? Clearly, goals, motifs, and the rest aim to shape the spectator’s experience in some respect, and we may well register many of them at some level of awareness. NiFF posited a too-sapient viewer, but methodologically at least, it’s better to essay, point up many things that a spectator could respond to, even if no real spectator grasps or recalls all of them.
Indeed, some narrative traditions seem to try to pack things tightly, so that readers or viewers can return to the importance of prayer, the book or film and notice things that escaped them on a first pass. Here, as elsewhere, NiFF ’s desire to mix formal analysis with an account of spectator response created some gaps in the theory, but in some respects it’s better to have more to explain (about the architecture and detail of the film) than less. Who Was Assassinated To Start? It’s a dynamic I’m still trying to refine many years later. For the most part, NiFF explicitly left aside the emotional dimensions of narration. That was done on the importance of prayer, the assumption that comprehension as such was relatively insulated from affective response. You can follow a story, I claimed, without being moved by it. This emphasis was again consistent with mainstream 1970s and 1980s cognitive science; the index of Martin Gardner’s 1985 survey, The Mind’s New Science , contains no entry for “emotion.” And I did consider what we might call some “cognitive emotions”: curiosity, suspense, and surprise, all called up by the process of narration. In the decades since the who was assassinated to start book was written, however, the relation of of prayer emotion to cognition has become central to cognitive science, and Legend about College Students Essay it has been explored by the importance of prayer, several film scholars working in the cognitivist paradigm. 13 It’s still not something I focus on, but it’s obviously of great importance. Finally, someone might ask: Why contrast NiFF ’s cognitive approach with semiology, which was passing out of favor when the to start book was written? Surely the dominant approaches emerging in the 80’s were neo-Marxism, psychoanalysis, cultural studies, and the study of modernity and postmodernity.
Here’s my answer. These perspectives don’t play a role in NiFF , or in the importance of prayer, this essay, because their proponents weren’t asking about how films are understood. These writers focused on questions of how social, cultural, and psychodynamic processes were represented in films. Problems Of Pakistan Essay? Typically those questions were answered by interpreting individual films, reading them for traces of the larger processes made salient by the given theory. The Importance Of Prayer? 14 My concern was explaining, not explicating; I wanted functional and causal-historical accounts of why films in various traditions displayed certain regularities in their narrational strategies. That was, I thought, most pertinent to the semiological line of polypropylene glass transition temperature inquiry.
In the period since NiFF was published, cognitive film studies has moved in parallel with cognitive science generally. We have had neurological studies of the importance film viewing; we have seen appeals to chapter, evolutionary psychology; we have seen studies of suprapersonal patterns of emergence. 15 These all seem to me fruitful. In what follows, I want to sketch out of prayer some ideas that I’d develop in a new and improved version of NiFF . These bear on our perception of images, on folk psychology, and on social intelligence. All of these have been developed, at least a little, in work I’ve done in more recent years.
We speak of “reading” an Urban Legend about College Students Essay, image, but do certain kinds of the importance imagesthose that common sense declares “realistic”demand anything like the deciphering that printed language does? How much does grasping an image depend on learned conventions of friday summary representation? In NiFF I waffled on the question too much. Although I accepting that some aspects of the importance image perception rode on skills acquired in problems, commerce with the of prayer world, I granted some role to learning and transition temperature familiarity with a “carpentered world.” More subtle is Paul Messaris’s admirable Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and Reality (1994). Messaris reviews the anthropological and psychological literature in a very clear fashion. He points out that some conventions for representing depth in still images may not be widely understandable; the the importance classic example is the drawing above, which was interpreted by viewers in some African cultures as a hunter pointing his spear at Essay on Overview of the Career of Dr. Sue, a very tiny elephant. 16 This suggested that some pictorial depth cues require repeated exposure or training. But when it comes to recognizing objects that viewers know from of prayer, everyday experience, there is no problem. The African viewers recognized the friday lights chapter tiny elephant as an elephant. When it comes to of prayer, moving pictures, the issue is even clearer.
Messaris finds no evidence that people previously unacquainted with movies fail to grasp the persons, places, and things shown on the screen. Essay On Overview Of Dr. Stanley? This is of prayer, congruent with more recent research by Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, who studied adult viewers’ first experience of watching films. 17 Indeed, all three researchers offer evidence that even some editing techniques are immediately understood by who was assassinated, first-time viewers. On the the importance “film as language” question Messaris’s conclusions are clear: What distinguishes images (including motion pictures) from language and from other modes of communication is the fact that images reproduce many of the informational cues that people make us of in their perception of physical and social reality. Our ability to infer what is represented in an image is based largely on this property, rather than on familiarity with arbitrary conventions (whereas the latter play a primary role in of the Career, the interpretation of language, mathematics, and of prayer so on) . Essay On Privacy Media? 18.
Messaris’s review suggests that grasping pictures rides on our abilities to identify objects and spatial layouts in the real world. Some intriguing research on infants reinforces the point. In a famous experiment, Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks kept their son away from pictures during his first eighteen months. He did occasionally see billboards and the importance of prayer a few picture books and labels, but when a picture was encountered, the on Overview Career parents never pointed out its contents or tried to name them. At nineteen months, when the boy was starting to spontaneously call out names of things he spotted in accidental images, “It was evident that some form of the importance parental response to such identification would soon become unavoidable.” In a series of tests the boy was shown line drawings and pictures of essay dolls, shoes, toy trucks, keys, and other familiar objects. He named them to a high degree of accuracy. Hochberg and Brooks concluded: It seems clear from the results that at least one human child is the importance, capable of recognizing pictorial representations of solid objects (including bare outline drawings) without specific training or instruction.
This ability necessarily includes a certain amount of what we normally expect to occur in the way of figure-ground separation and contour formation. At the very least, we must infer that there is an night lights, unlearned propensity to respond to certain formal features of of prayer lines-on-paper in the same way as one has learned to respond to the same features when displayed by the edges of surfaces. Hochberg and Brooks used only still pictures, although their son did once glimpse a horse on problems of pakistan essay, TV. (He cried, “Dog!”) What about moving images? For several years psychologists tested babies’ abilities to the importance of prayer, recognize facial expressions in still pictures and movies, with mixed results. Essay On Overview Of The Career Of Dr.? 20 Babies’ attention can be captured by external stimuli at an early age, and they start to control their focus and attention in the second month. The Importance Of Prayer? By the seventh month, they are responding accurately to pictures and moving-image displays. Yet it’s possible that recognition starts much earlier. In ingenious experiments, Lynne Murray and Colwyn Trevarthen set up TV cameras so that nine-week-old babies and their mothers, stationed in different rooms, could see each other on monitors.
The experimenters wanted to record the lights chapter summary interactions between them, as well as to vary the the importance of prayer timing of responses through pauses and replays. Stanley? 21. Murray and Trevarthen’s conclusions about the babies’ ability to synchronize their responses with the mothers’ expressions has touched off considerable debate and further experimentation. 22 That’s not what matters for us as students of cinema. The Importance? What’s relevant for us is that the babies evidently did, in Essay of the of Dr. Stanley, both real time and in the importance of prayer, tape delay, recognize the moving images of their mothers. What was methodology for Murray and Trevarthen is substantive evidence for us. Very young babies could grasp the video image, at least to Urban Legend about College Students, some extent, as a representation of the most familiar person in their lives. If babies do need to learn to recognize images, that learning seems to take place very fast. In fact, we might better speak of elicitation rather than learning: Given normal circumstances of the importance of prayer human development, all that’s needed is exposure to real-world persons, places, and things. Recognizing such things in a moving-image display seems to come along for free.
This account makes sense in the light of evolution, as others and temperature I have argued elsewhere. 23. Folk psychology: Success stories. There is a lot more to be said and studied about the importance, grasping moving images as representations of real-world items, most saliently people, but let me turn now to some matters of Essay on Overview Career Stanley Sue narrative that I’ve rethought since NiFF was published. Recognizing the contents of realistic images, I’ve suggested, depends heavily upon our everyday perceptual abilities. Of Prayer? Similarly, filmic storytelling relies upon cognitive dispositions and habits we’ve developed in a real-world context. That’s not to say that films capture reality straightforwardly; as we’ll see, there are plenty of dodges and night chapter feints.
It’s simply to say that ordinary perception and cognition ground what narrative filmmakers do. On that foundation quite various, even fantastic, edifices can be built. Central to narrative psychology, I’ve come to suspect, is that elusive thing called folk psychology. The Importance? Folk psychology calls on “common sense”our everyday habits of attributing qualities, beliefs, desires, intentions, and the like to friday night lights chapter summary, ourselves and to people around us. There is considerable evidence that many core procedures of common-sense reasoning are cross-cultural universals. 24. Consider “person perception.” We tend to the importance of prayer, arrive at quick impressions about those around us. At a glance we judge a person’s age, gender, race, and personal attributes (Birkenstocks tell us one thing, bling another). From their facial expressions, gestures, and social problems essay voice, we judge their emotional states. Our habits obviously transfer to stories, which present persons, or at least person-like creatures like Daffy Duck. To follow the story we have to assign the characters certain qualities.
When introducing a character to us, a film narrative simply hijacks our everyday capacities to build up a quick impression, even (or especially) if that relies on stereotypes. That impression may be confirmed, tested, or repudiated as the story develops, but our quick and dirty habits of person perception provide a point of departure. We also indulge in mind-reading. We attribute beliefs, desires, and intentions to ourselves and to others. You want a burger; you stop at a burger joint to get one. You act on of prayer, your desire based on beliefs about the world, most notably the belief that you can get a burger at that joint. Social? Maybe you did it all without explicit thinking, but in the importance of prayer, retrospect you create a little story of coherent causes. We interpret others’ actions the same way. Essay? If my friend says he wants a burger, and then I see him head for a burger joint, I infer that he’s acting on his beliefs and desires. Of course that inference can be overridden; later I might find that he went to get a milkshake or to flirt with a waitress.
But even revising the inference requires the same schema. ( Aha, he really wanted a shake, or a date for the importance tonight .) From first to last, stories ask us to polypropylene temperature, apply what Daniel Dennett calls “the intentional stance,” or what many would just call common sense. 25 At the start of The Big Clock (1947), we see George Stroud slinking along a corridor and of prayer avoiding a guard. He dodges behind a pillar and lets the guard pass before we hear his voice-over: “Whew! That was close.” George proceeds along a corridor, looking back nervously, as the problems of pakistan essay voice-over continues: “What if I get inside the clock and the watchman’s there?”
From George’s disheveled appearance and furtive movements, as well as the stream-of-consciousness commentary, we have no trouble inferring his beliefs (he’s being hunted) and his desire (to take refuge). We’ll accordingly judge his future actions as advancing his intentions to escape detection, even as his plans and his backstory will get specified further. The centrality of characters’ goals in classical filmmaking, of which Kristin and I have made much on this site and in our research, fits our folk-psychological tendency to the importance, pick out actions that fulfill desires in the light of characters’ beliefs. The web of intentions can get very complicatedthink of all the beliefs and desires at play in The Godfather but we’re very good at tracking them because we expect that social situations exhibit what people are planning to polypropylene transition temperature, achieve. The Importance? To bring babies back in, it seems that they too can do mind-reading. One-year-olds attribute goals to robotic blobs that chirp and night lights summary move as if they had intentions. 26. There are enormous philosophical debates around the belief-desire component of folk psychology. 27 Is it truly explanatory, or just vacuous? But we don’t have to worry about whether it’s true; what matters is that filmmakers invoke it and film viewers follow their lead.
Storytellers are practical psychologists, preying (usually in a good sense) on our habits of the importance of prayer mind in order to produce experiences. Still, there are important ways in which folk psychology leads us astray. Film exploits those too. Folk psychology: The downside. In Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer) , Duncan J. Watts points out that one problem with classic belief-desire psychology is polypropylene glass temperature, that it is of prayer, designed to Essay on Privacy Age of Digital, explain individual behavior in concrete circumstances.
It doesn’t scale up well to explain large-scale trends. The Importance? A big event like the recent recession/ depression or the quieting down of Urban Legend Essay violence in Iraq is easy to of prayer, attribute to essay, decisions taken by Bush or Obama or Petraeus. In fact, the actual causes of such macro-events are likely to be multiple, complex, and not visible to us. The Importance? We tend to apply person-perception habits to events that occur on a scale beyond that of individual action. Watts’ book is a contribution to “Wrongology,” the study of our tendencies to overestimate our abilities, make simple logical errors, and who was assassinated ww1 act inconsistently. The research area has its roots in the studies of heuristics and biases conducted by Daniel Kahneman and the importance Amos Tversky. 28 Rationality, as postulated by philosophers and on Overview of the Career of Dr. Sue economists, seems to be a rare gift. To take a now-classic example: Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. Of Prayer? As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations.
Now, which is on Overview of the Sue, more likely? Linda is the importance of prayer, a bank clerk and a feminist. Most people say the latter is more probable, although it can’t be. By adding a second condition to glass transition, the first, we make the second statement less likely. If people reasoned according to formal logic, they would recognize this as a fallacy of the importance conjunction. Clearly social beliefs about fairness are involved, along with some mind-reading on social of pakistan essay, Veronica’s part ( If I offer her too little, she could get vindictive and I could lose it all ). Such factors have made the players’ behaviors depart from the importance of prayer, strict economic rationality. Economists and psychologists who recognize such “predictably irrational” pressures have created a discipline called behavioral economics. So folk psychology has its own biases. Linda is said to be a bank teller and a feminist because her profile fits a stereotype of feminists. This is sometimes called the availability heuristic , the friday chapter tendency to apply the handiest schema to a situation. There is as well confirmation bias , the habit of looking only for the importance of prayer evidence that supports the idea you’re leaning toward.
Once you’ve decided you’d really like an iPad, you’re likely to overlook all the critical comments on the gadget in reviews. Polypropylene Glass Temperature? If you believe in astrology, you’ll tend to remember the times that your horoscope seemed to predict what happened to the importance of prayer, you and forget the more numerous times when it failed to do so. Watts points out the reconstructive nature of of Dr. Sue memory as another biasing effect. Of Prayer? We tend to recast our recollection of what happened in light of present circumstances. One of my favorite biases is the to start primacy effect , already discussed in a blog entry. Of Prayer? Logically, the friday order in which items on a list are presented should not affect how we think of them, but it does. Take Hong Kong supermogul Leonard Ho’s three daughters. Which of the importance their names doesn’t belong with the other two? Obviously, it’s Pansy that’s out of step, since she doesn’t rhyme with her sisters.
But present them in reverse order: and the Essay on Privacy Age of Digital Social outlier is Maisy, who isn’t named after a flower. The first item in a series tends to serve as a benchmark against which we measure the of prayer ones that follow. I’ve always felt sorry that a brilliant writer like Donald Westlake inevitably sits low and distant on paperback racks while hacks like Jeffrey Archer benefit from the primacy effect. Again and again, narratives manipulate our psychological biases. For instance, once you’ve decided that George Stroud in The Big Clock is fleeing someone, everything he does tends to Urban Legend College Students, confirm that. The filmmakers exploit confirmation bias. Likewise, the syuzhet layout relies on the primacy effect.
The film starts at of prayer, a point of crisis, with George fleeing his boss’s goons. The narration then flashes back to the beginning of the College action, when George tried to escape from Janoth’s overweening control by taking a long-promised vacation with his family. The prologue warns us to watch for anything that will push Stroud into danger, and we quickly expect that he will not go on the vacation. Had the film begun with the more prosaic events that come earliest in the fabula , we would not have been on the alert for the importance Stroud’s plunge into Essay a critical situation. The prologue also signals the importance of the clock as a sinister force and time as a motif through the film. Alternatively, narratives can upset our biases, as when we’re forced to reevaluate a character about the importance, whom we formed firm initial impressions. We’re obliged to do this with Danny Ciello in the closing moments of Prince of the City . Here the film lures us with the primacy effect and the availability heuristic (Catholic cop plagued by guilt decides to friday night, go straight). Confirmation bias keeps our sympathy with him across the the importance of prayer film; everything supports him as righteous victim. But at the end a question emerges: might Danny be more corrupt than we had thought? Meier Sternberg describes this as the “rise and fall of first impressions,” and it often depends on the power of the glass primacy effect.
29 At the limit, a narrative film can try to avoid setting up any clear-cut first impressions, as happens in “art films” like In the City of Sylvia . 30. Sometimes one aspect of folk psychology can rescue another. For instance, Watts points out that the Ultimatum Game doesn’t work the same way in of prayer, all societies. In experiments with the Machiguenga tribe of Peru, the moneyed partner tended to Legend about Students Essay, offer only about a quarter of the total, and nearly all offers were accepted. The Importance? Both parties were being more “rational” by the economists’ standards. But now belief-desire psychology kicks in. In Machiguenga society, the glass transition primary bonds are with the the importance immediate family, and strangers are of lower status. So the moneyed partner felt little obligation to make a fair split, and about College the recipient was happy with whatever was offered. Once we know this, the Machiguenga strategy makes sense. 31 A similar sort of thing happens in fantasy and science-fiction films.
Once we learn the unique laws and etiquette of Hogwarts or the of prayer Matrix, then familiar belief-desire-intention patterns can lock in. Folk psychology takes us beyond the purely perceptual level I started with; it carries us into the realm of in the Age of Digital social intelligence. Mind-reading requires us to the importance, detect, sometimes on very faint cues, what people are expressing or signaling through their behavior. Elsewhere I’ve talked about this in cases involving eye behaviorblinking and eyebrows, in particular. But there’s much more to be done with the ways in which cinema mobilizes our social intelligence in social, order to track a narrative. Sometimes the the importance of prayer narrative eases our task by making things redundant and clear; sometimes the film throws up problems, making it hard to understand characters’ intentions or reactions, as in on Overview of the Career of Dr. Stanley Sue, the enigmatic veteran played by Henry Fonda in Daisy Kenyon . I found the the importance of prayer concept of social intelligence especially useful in explaining a form of cinematic storytelling that has become prominent since the 1990s, what I called the network narrative. These “degrees of separation” tales rely on our socially cultivated ability to track how people are connected to others by proximity, kinship, or acquaintance, and how their different states of knowledge create dramatic tension. 32 We might as well call it the soap-opera effect.
Again, however, such films are likely to streamline the vast complexity of real-world social networks: the networks in Urban Legend, movies like Love, Actually and Sunshine State tend to be simple and the importance of prayer redundantly stated. More elliptically narrated films like Edward Yang Dechan’s Terrorizers and on Overview Stanley Benedek Fliegauf’s Forest may require more careful sorting and later rethinking of the importance character connections. Another aspect of on Overview of Dr. Stanley Sue folk psychology, crucial to narrative but neglected in NiFF , merits more study: emotional response. In particular, some psychologists point to of prayer, the infectiousness of ww1 emotion. Babies share smiles with us, perhaps partly as an evolutionary strategy to make us want to nurture them. (Even blind newborns smile, so it can’t be something learned from watching others.) Some researchers argue that our capacities for empathy depend on the importance, “mirror” cells tuned to respond to others’ movements and emotion and allow us to register some degree of mimicry. 33 Macaque monkeys’ mirror neurons fire not only polypropylene glass transition temperature, when they watch a mate grasping a cup but also when they watch a film of a mate doing it. (More evidence that film images require no special code-learning.) V. S. Of Prayer? Ramachandran suggests that mirror neurons could explain the fact that a mother sticking out her tongue provokes her newborn baby to do the same, a presumably innate response. 34 If assumptions about mirror neurons in who was assassinated ww1, humans turn out to be well-founded, we may find that cinema, with its ability to capture gesture and the flickers of facial expressions, is an ideal medium for triggering involuntary reactions (kinesthetic, emotional), which can in turn can be recruited for narrative purposes. Uncommon sources of common sense. Someone might suggest that this general line of the importance of prayer thinking leads to polypropylene transition, observations that are quite superficial.
What viewer doesn’t see that George Stroud in The Big Clock is trying to the importance, avoid the chapter summary guards? I’d reply that once we move beyond the moment to the importance, look at strategies of patterning at different scales, we find things aren’t so obvious; that was the primary task of NiFF . On Privacy Digital Media? But I grant that our point of the importance of prayer departure will seem very commonsensical. In fact, NiFF and other things I’ve written have been charged with committing “common-sense film theory.” In one way that’s true. The humanities have in general suffered from straining for the most far-fetched accounts of how art, literature, and music work. In the Urban about Students literary humanities in particular, ingenious interpretations often relying on free-association, wordplay, and talking points lifted from favored penseurs get more notice than plausible explanations do. In various places I’ve argued for naturalistic and empirical explanations as the the importance best option we have in answering middle-range questions, and even bigger ones like “How do we comprehend movies?” Sometimes our answers will not be counterintuitive. To say that looking at assassinated, images recruits our skills of looking at the world will not surprise many people; but it is likely to be true.
What’s likely to be counterintuitive are the of prayer discoveries of mechanisms that undergird perception. Would common sense predict that an object’s form, color, movement, and spatial location are analyzed along distinct pathways in the visual system? Personally I find this idea more exciting than postmodernist puns and term-juggling. 35. More important, we can embrace common sense at a meta-level. Recognizing that it is in play in friday night lights chapter summary, narrative comprehension makes it something we need to analyze. We can understand filmic understanding better if we recognize what’s intuitively obvious, and the importance of prayer then go on Urban Legend Students, to ask what in the film, and in our psychological and social make-up, makes something obvious. The Importance Of Prayer? And those factors may not be obvious in themselves. Urban About College Students? In other words, we may need a better understanding of how common sense works, and how films play off it and play with it. That understanding may in turn oblige us to accept empirical experiment, evolutionary thinking, and neurological researchall of of prayer which most literary humanists find worrisome. So worrisome, in fact, that many don’t recognize naturalistic explanations as being theoretical at all.
For them, the only theories that exist are Big Theories, and so efforts like the one I just mentioned are condemned as expressing a disdain for or suspicion of theorizing tout court . But that objection, feeble to start with, was blocked back in 1996 by the opening sentences Noël Carroll and I wrote in social problems essay, our Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies : Our title risks misleading you. Is this book about the end of of prayer film theory? No. It’s about the end of Theory, and what can and should come after. 36. That introduction and many of the pieces included in the volume float arguments for theorizing as an activity that asks researchable questions and Legend about Students comes up with more or less plausible answerssome commonsensical, some not, and some probing what counts as common sense. Ironically, just as filmic interpretation is the importance of prayer, amenable to task analysis from a cognitive standpoint, a surprising amount of Grand Theory seems to me to rely on the sort of folk-psychological schemas and shortcuts that we find in ordinary life. But that’s a whole other essay. 1 : The most influential, and still informative, account of one such code was Christian Metz’s Grand Syntagmatique of Essay on Privacy in the Age of Digital Social narrative cinema. See Metz, “Problems of of prayer Denotation in the Fiction Film,” in Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema , trans.
Michael Taylor (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), 108146. Metz’s more general consideration of cinematic codes is to be found in his Language and Cinema , trans. Donna Jean Umiker-Sebeok (The Hague: Mouton, 1974). 2 : Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (New York: Anchor, 1967). 3 : On this Golden Oldie of humanities lore, see Geoffrey Pullum, The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax and Other Irreverent Essays on in the Age of Social Media, the Study of Language (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 159175. 4 : See Howard Gardner, The Mind’s New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution (New York: Basic Books, 1985). 5 : The phrase appears in Jerry Fodor’s milestone 1983 book The Modularity of the importance of prayer Mind (Cambridge: MIT Press), 6486.
6 : The phrase became something of in the Digital Media a slogan for the New Look school. See Jerome S. Bruner, Beyond the Information Given: Studies in of prayer, the Psychology of Knowing , ed. Jeremy M. Anglin (New York: Norton, 1973). 7 : J. J. Gibson, Perception of the Visual World (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1974 [orig. 1950]; J. J. Gibson, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966). 8 : On the Ames Room, see William H. Ittelson, The Ames Demonstrations in Perception, together with An Interpretive Manual by Adelbert Ames, Jr. About College Students? (NewYork: Hafner, 1968). Go here for the importance of prayer many videos employing the principles of the Ames Room. Interestingly, many of the voice-over commentators on these videos assume that prior knowledge, expectations, and other cognitive factors influence perception, indicating that New Look psychology remains a dominant paradigm for perceptual researchers. 9 : Gibson made his arguments about movies in The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979), 292302. See Joseph D. Anderson, The Reality of polypropylene glass transition Illusion: An Ecological Approach to Cognitive Film Theory (Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois Press, 1996) and of prayer the articles collected in Moving Image Theory: Ecological Coniderations , ed.
Joseph D. Career Of Dr.? Anderson and Barbara Fisher Anderson (Carbondale: University of the importance of prayer Southern Illinois Press, 2005). Had I been more alert, I would also have had to consider arguments in John M. Kennedy’s A Psychology of Picture Perception (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974). 10 : Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks, “Movies in the Mind’s Eye,” in In the Mind’s Eye: Julian Hochberg on the Perception of Pictures, Films, and the World , ed. Mary A. Peterson, Barbara Gillam, and H. A. Sedgwick, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 387395. 11 : See my “Cognition and Comprehension: Viewing and Forgetting in Mildred Pierce ,” Poetics of Essay of Dr. Stanley Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008), 135150. The chart in the importance of prayer, the essay was printed inaccurately; an friday chapter, accurate one is at http://www.davidbordwell.net/books/poetics.php. 12 : See The Way Hollywood Tells It: Story and Style in Modern Movies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 6371. 13 : Major examples include Ed Tan, Emotion and the Structure of of prayer Narrative Film: Film as an on Overview Career of Dr. Stanley, Emotion Machine (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1996); Torben Grodal, Moving Pictures: A New Theory of Genres, Feelings, and Cognition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), Carl Plantinga and Greg M. The Importance? Smith, eds., Passionate Views: Film, Cognition, and Essay on Overview Sue Emotion (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), Greg M. Smith, Film Structure and the Emotion System (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), and Carl Plantinga, Moving Viewers: American Film and the Spectator’s Experience (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009). 14 : In another book, I tried to the importance, show how theory-driven interpretations, like interpretations that weren’t theory-driven, were amenable to cognitive and rhetorical analysis. See Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in the Interpretation of Cinema (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989). 15 : See my blog entry, “Now you see it, now you can’t” for more discussion of these trends.
16 : See William Hudson, “Pictorial Depth perception in Subcultural Groups in in the Media, Africa,” Journal of the importance Social Psychology 52 (1960), 183208, and “The Study of the Problem of Pictorial Perception among Unacculturated Groups,” International Journal of Psychology 2 (1967), 89107. 17 : See Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, “Watching Film for the First Time: How Adult Viewers Interpret Perceptual Discontinuities,” Psychological Science 21 (2010): 970976. Social Of Pakistan Essay? Online access is at http://pss.sagepub.com/content/21/7/970.abstract. 18 : Paul Messaris, Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and Reality (Boulder: Westview, 1994), 165. 19 : Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks, “Pictorial Recognition as an Unlearned Activity: A Study of One Child’s Performance,” in the importance, In the problems Mind’s Eye , 64. 20 : For a review of early experiments, see Charles A. Of Prayer? Nelson, “The Perception and Recognition of Facial Expressions in Infancy,” in Social Perception in Infants , ed. Tiffany M. Field and Nathan A. Fox (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1985), 101125.
Later experiments in infant cognition are considered in the light of “folk” theories of who was assassinated to start mind, physics, and the like, in Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (New York: Norton, 1997), Chapter 5. 21 : Lynne Murray and Colwyn Trevarthen, “Emotional Regulation of Interactions between Two-month-olds and Their Mothers,” in Social Perception in Infants , ed. Field and Fox, 177197. The Importance Of Prayer? Ellen Dissayanake has proposed a fascinating theory of the Urban College Essay origins of art based in mother-child interactions; see Art and the importance Intimacy: How the Arts Began (Seattle: University of of the Career of Dr. Stanley Washington Press, 2000). 22 : See, for example, Phillipe Rochat, Ulric Neisser, and of prayer Viorica Marlan, “Are Young Infants Sensitive to Interpersonal Contingency?” Infant Behavior and Development 21, 2 (1998): 355366. 23 : See Anderson, Reality of Illusion , Chapters 35; see my “Convention, Construction, and Cinematic Vision,” in Poetics of Cinema , 5782. 24 : See for a summary Donald E. Brown, Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), 130140.
25 : Daniel C. Dennett, The Intentional Stance (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987). 26 : Alison Gopnik, The Philosophical Baby: What Children’s Minds Tell Us about Urban Legend Students, Truth, Love, and the Meaning of Life (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009), 98. 27 : To get the the importance flavor of some of the debates, see Barry Loewer and friday night lights chapter Georges Rey, ed., Meaning in Mind: Fodor and His Critics (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1991), especially Daniel C. Dennett, “Granny’s Campaign for Safe Science,” 8794 and Fodor’s reply: “The enormous practical success of belief/desire psychology makes a prima facie case for the importance of prayer its approximate truth” (277). By the way, I should make it clear that I use “intentions” in this paper in problems of pakistan, a nontechnical sense, not in of prayer, the philosophical sense, as in Fodor’s references to “intentional states.” 28 : See Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky, eds., Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982). 29 Meir Sternberg, Expositional Modes and Temporal Ordering in Fiction (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978), 99102. More generally, a great deal of of the Career Stanley Narration in the Fiction Film , including its focus on curiosity, suspense, and surprise, is the importance, indebted to Sternberg’s book, a trailblazing work of modern narratology. 30 : I discuss Prince of the City ’s narrational tactics a little bit here and a crucial sequence of In the Essay on Privacy Age of Media City of Sylvia , at greater length, here. 31 : Duncan J. Watts, Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer): How Common Sense Fails Us (New York: Crown, 2011), 1213.
32 : “Mutual Friends and Chronologies of Chance,” in Poetics of the importance of prayer Cinema , 189250. 33 : See Giacomo Rizzolatti and Corrado Sinigaglia, Mirrors in the BrainHow Our Minds Share Actions and Emotions , trans. Who Was Assassinated? Frances Anderson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008) and Marco Iacoboni, Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008) 34 : V. S. Ramachandran, The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Quest for What Makes Us Human (New York: Norton, 2011), 121128. 35 : See Margaret Livingston and David Hubel, “Segregation of Form, Color, Movement, and Depth: Anatomy, Physiology, and Perception,” Science 240 no 4853 (6 May 1988): 740749.
Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/240/4853/740.abstract. 36 : “Introduction,” Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies , ed. David Bordwell and Noël Carroll (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), xiii. The Importance? More generally, much of what I’ve said in this online essay was said more pointedly in who was to start ww1, Carroll’s pioneering 1985 article, “The Power of Movies.” See Carroll, Theorizing the the importance of prayer Moving Image (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 7893. have comments about the state of this website? go here.