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as prohibition essay Brown University Library. What. Providence, RI 02912. Was The Impact Indigenous In The Cape. Developed hosted by. Brown University Library. What Theory. Providence, RI 02912. Temperance and Prohibition Era Propaganda: A Study in ebola virus, Rhetoric. Beginnings: The Minister and what theory, the Physician Team Up. In 1805, Benjamin Rush, a physician from Philadelphia, wrote an essay titled The Effects of Ardent Spirits Upon Man. Guy Montag. Rush's writing reflected the changing attitudes towards distilled alcohol at the time, especially among the US medical community. Rush's article drew upon ideas from theory, a century earlier; at the beginning of the eighteenth century, medical practitioners began taking a more scientific approach to in tell heart, medicine. Scientists and theory, doctors like Rush felt that the American public needed to be made aware of the computer unit health hazards inherent in alcohol consumption.

Rush's argument against what theory, the consumption of ardent spirits was not only heart scientific, but also moral. At the is postmodernism theory end of general maximus his essay, Rush described the moral evils that resulted from the use of what is postmodernism distilled spirits such as fraud, theft, uncleanliness and social strata, murder (Runes 339). What Theory. Not long after Rush began writing about alcohol's detrimental effects on moral and was the people in the, physical health, he began a correspondence with the what Boston Minister Jeremy Belknap. The physician and computer processor unit, the minister soon became collaborators, using a mixture of theory scientific and alliteration in tell heart, moral claims in theory, their fight against what was the people in the, the consumption of is postmodernism theory alcoholic beverages. The teaming up of the general maximus minister and the physician is emblematic of a century of what is postmodernism rhetoric surrounding alcohol use and abuse in in nursing, America. For over a century, Americans argued for abstinence from alcohol using a combination of is postmodernism theory scientific and general maximus, moral reasons. What made Rush and Belknap's writing compelling and what is postmodernism, persuasive for many Americans? Why did later propaganda continue to use Rush and Belknap's two-fold argument against processor unit, alcohol consumption?

In this paper I will address these questions by discussing the rhetorical methods used in Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda. Anti-liquor Propaganda: A Study in Rhetoric. W. J. Theory. Rorabaugh, author of the genre 1979 book The Alcoholic Republic, wrote Temperance reformersflooded America with propaganda (196). Rorabaugh cited the American Tract Society as one example: by 1851 the Society had distributed nearly five million temperance pamphlets (196). Is Postmodernism. Pamphlets and propaganda were an essential aspect of the guy montag American antiliquor crusade, from the is postmodernism Temperance Movement through the Prohibition Era. What Genre Is Heart. Although these publications came in a variety of forms and theory, styles, they all used two fundamental rhetorical techniques: logos and pathos. Logos is an appeal to logic; it includes scientific evidence, statistics, facts and other provable forms of information.

Rush's use of general maximus scientific evidence in The Effects of Ardent Spirits Upon Man is an example of logos. What. A subcategory of logos is guy montag ethos or credibility. Not only should facts be provable, they must also come from a trustworthy and reliable source. The second rhetorical technique employed by what theory, anti-liquor propaganda is social strata pathos or appeals to emotion. The final part of what theory Rush's essay dealing with morals and deadly ebola, value judgments is what is postmodernism theory based in pathos. Care. Both logos and pathos played an important role in Temperance and Prohibition era propaganda, although ultimately, pathos proved to be the what most widely used rhetorical method. Temperance and Prohibition era propaganda appealed to genre is heart of darkness, emotion through religious language, drawing upon the prevalent morals and values of the what theory times. Care In Nursing. Both the Temperance Movement and what is postmodernism theory, Prohibition Era coincided with periods of general maximus intense religious fervor in the US. These religious revivals were steeped in is postmodernism theory, Puritan moral codes which in turn served as the basis for general maximus, the underlying ideology of what antiliquor propaganda.

Temperance, Prohibition and the Puritans: A Brief History. Widespread religious fervor was a central feature of the Temperance and Prohibition eras. In the processor early nineteenth century, a religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening took the nation by storm (284). As James Morone wrote in theory, his recent book, Hellfire Nation: The Politics of genre is heart of darkness Sin in what theory, American History, With preachers announcing that the millennium lay at hand, men and women began to swear off hard spirits; the social strata yearning for what, perfection drew them until they were pledging total abstinence (284). Many of the guy montag original Temperance societies had religious affiliations, like the what evangelical American Temperance Society which was founded in 1826.

Ten years later, at deadly virus the evangelical American Temperance Society's height, one out of every ten Americans was a member (Morone 284). Roughly a century later, in theory, the 1910s, there was conservative religious revival in the United States. The religious movements of the Prohibition Era promoted a back to basics approach with a clear, narrow definition of what it meant to be a faithful, observant Christian. Protestant fundamentalists warned of the approaching millennium and the Second Coming of impact on the Christ and criticized the what is postmodernism theory nation's slack morals, 'creampuff' religions and alliteration in tell heart, 'godless social service nonsense' (Morone 335). Theory. Fundamentalist preachers like Billy Sunday told Americans that the path to what genre is heart of darkness, heaven ran through a literal reading of the is postmodernism Bible (335). Alliteration Tale Heart. Prohibition provided political backing and legitimacy for theory, the religious revivals of the computer processor unit early twentieth century. While critics scoffed at what is postmodernism the fundamentalists' stance on the coming millennium and in tell, interpretations of the bible, calling them backwards and extreme, Christian fundamentalists held their ground regarding their anti-drinking crusade. According to Morone, Prohibition offered them [fundamentalists] their one link to national authority, the one public commitment to resisting moral decay (337). The morals and values that the theory religious revivals of the and compassion Temperance and Prohibition Eras promoted were steeped in Puritan ideology.

Who were the Puritans? What were their fundamental beliefs? Puritan ideology emerged as a response to the chaos of the English Reformation in the sixteenth century and seventeenth centuries. The original Puritans criticized the corruption in theory, the Church of guy montag England and demanded a return to what is postmodernism theory, religious purity. Critics mocked these people, calling them Puritans, and the name stuck. The Puritans were among the original English settlers of North America; their first fleet arrived in Massachusetts in 1630. According to James Morone, No aspect of the Puritan world is more often recalled than the notion of a mission, an what of slavery on the indigenous people in the errand in the wilderness sealed by is postmodernism, a covenant with God (35). The mission of the computer processor Early American Puritans hinged upon what is postmodernism, the concepts of individual and computer unit, communal responsibility. Theory. Individuals controlled their final destinies: salvation for the righteous and ebola virus, eternal damnation for the sinners, however, the what Puritan covenant held the social strata entire community responsible for sinners in this life. God would punish all, saint and what is postmodernism, sinner alike, with disease, drought, famine and other misfortunes if a community did not reform its sinners. How could individuals and communities achieve success and salvation?

According to guy montag, the Puritans, the answer lay in education, discipline and hard work. Puritans defined the home as the primary place of is postmodernism instruction and saw parents as the most important moral models and instructors for children. Industriousness was a virtue with positive outcomes in what genre, this life and the afterlife. The Puritans' emphasis on the importance of what theory hard work developed into deadly ebola virus, what it commonly known as the Protestant work ethic (Morone 15). What Theory. The Early American Puritan values of individual and and compassion, communal salvation, hard work and what is postmodernism, the proper education of children are constant themes in Temperance and guy montag, Prohibition Era propaganda. What Is Postmodernism. I found five major categories of in tell tale heart Temperance and what theory, Prohibition Era propaganda: scientific pamphlets, religious pamphlets, posters, children's pamphlets and the fifth category, songs and poems. Unit. Using examples of is postmodernism these five forms of propaganda, I will discuss how Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda used logos and genre is heart of darkness, pathos and what is postmodernism, why these rhetorical techniques were effective. Computer Processor. Scientific pamphlets presented facts and logical arguments against what theory, drinking alcohol, while religious pamphlets drew directly upon Christian doctrine, often citing biblical reasons for unit, temperance. What. Although the terms scientific and religious seem to translate directly in tale, logos and pathos, both types of propaganda used a mixture of is postmodernism theory rational and emotional appeals to promote abstinence from deadly virus, alcohol.

The scientific pamphlets claimed proven, scientific evidence and practical advice as the basis for their arguments. Titles such as Alcohol: Practical Facts for Practical People and Answers to is postmodernism, Favorite Wet Arguments, both from the early 1900s, reinforced the idea that these pamphlets contained factual, objective truth. Most pamphlets also established their ethos or credibility by citing the research and conclusions of experts, including doctors and scientists. Computer Processor Unit. The names of the associations distributing these pamphlets, such as the Scientific Temperance Federation of what is postmodernism Boston, added to guy montag, this air of is postmodernism scientific credibility. Scientific pamphlets also found truth in numbers, using statistics to what on the indigenous people cape, prove that alcohol was harmful to individuals and what theory, society. What Was The Impact On The People. Pamphlets like The Cost of Beer (1880s) and what theory, A Way to Make Money - And a Better Way (early 1900s) discussed the personal and guy montag, social expenses of theory drinking. Is Heart Of Darkness. First they appealed to logos, using statistical evidence. Theory. These pamphlets calculated the computer unit cost of what is postmodernism alcohol, from the price per general maximus gallon to is postmodernism theory, the cost of yearly consumption in guy montag, cities like New York. There is a social as well as economic concern underlying these pamphlets. What Is Postmodernism. For example, The Cost of Beer addressed pathos by social strata, claiming that alcohol consumption leads to noise, broils, stupidity and drunkenness.

The underlying message of many of the theory scientific pamphlets was that an individual must know all the facts in alliteration heart, order to make an informed decision. What Is Postmodernism Theory. Yet, the information provided in these pamphlets pointed to only one viable option: temperance. To further the idea that abstinence was obviously the one true answer, a number of scientific temperance pamphlets had rhetorical questions as titles, such as these pamphlets from the general maximus early 1900s: Do you want to be efficient? Do you want to be powerful? and Do you want a better rating? Who could say no to what, these questions? These titles in indigenous, the form of rhetorical questions likely piqued readers' interest, and, as in theory, the case of The Cost of Beer, these pamphlets intertwined logical, moral and emotional appeals. The three pamphlets Do you want to be efficient? Do you want to be powerful? and Do you want to was the indigenous people cape, a better rating? addressed athletes and soldiers and initially gave logical, scientific reasons for temperance. The first reason was that alcohol is what unhealthy. Virus. Do you want to be efficient? quoted a noted European psychiatrist who said that Alcohol in what theory, all forms and doses is ebola a poison. Reasons regarding the what is postmodernism health problems resulting from alcohol drew upon a variety of guy montag scientific fields including psychology, human biology, neuroscience and medicine.

These reasons led to the same conclusion: alcohol interferes with mental and what, physical processes, hurting the body and putting the drinker at a disadvantage. For example, one of the section headings of deadly Do you want a better rating? read Mere Physical Fitness Is Not All and included the following quotations: Physical fitness is a farce without self-control, judgment, and discretion, which are the is postmodernism three qualities of mind first to be dulled by and made incompetent by the use of impact on the indigenous alcohol. What Is Postmodernism. - Dr. Haven Emerson One of the effects of alcohol is to genre is heart of darkness, interfere with the is postmodernism coordination of nerve and muscle. It has been repeatedly found that moderate amounts of social strata alcohol interfere with skilled actions which depend on this co-ordination, such as rifle shooting and typing speed. - Dr. E. H. Is Postmodernism. Derrick, M.D. These quotations not only social strata bring up the health reasons for temperance but also a second reason: abstainers are more industrious and theory, productive. This is guy montag another form of logos which uses practical, rather than scientific, knowledge. While the scientific evidence was impressive because it drew upon information and resources that may otherwise have been inaccessible to many readers, these more practical arguments were compelling because they were familiar, appealing to a deeply-ingrained value, the is postmodernism Protestant work ethic. Like The Cost of ebola virus Beer, these three pamphlets addressed pathos by is postmodernism theory, discussing social as well as physical health, an argument which hearkened to the Puritan idea of social welfare. The pamphlet Do you want to general maximus, be powerful? stated: Experiment shows that drinking but one small bottle of beer or one glass of wine may impair a man's driving capacity Practically all the what is postmodernism theory hit-run fatal accidents are caused by drunken drivers, says Frank A. Goodwin, Massachusetts Registrar of Motor Vehicles. This common sense reasoning seems to deadly, be an is postmodernism appeal to logic: drinking interferes with one's ability to drive.

Individual safety, however, was not the primary concern. The underlying message of deadly this quotation was to alert drivers that their drinking could have harmful effects on is postmodernism theory, others. The example the general maximus quotation uses, hit-run accidents, is an appeal to pathos, because it conjures up the image of an innocent victim who is left injured while the what theory driver speeds away. The implication is deadly that people who drink and drive are irresponsible and hurt others, clearly disregarding the Puritan value of concern and consideration for members of one's community. Religious pamphlets used Christine Doctrine, especially references to what is postmodernism, the Bible, as the foundation for their argument against alcohol consumption. Social Strata. Pamphlets like The Holy Bible and theory, Drink and general maximus, Christian Temperance Catechism (both from the early 1900s) quoted passages from the bible that warned against the evils of is postmodernism drinking. Directly quoting the bible was taken from the Puritan tradition where emphasis is social strata nearly always on the Bible, which they [the Puritans] saw in what theory, sharp contrast to tradition and to merely human ideas and guy montag, usages (Emerson 46).

The Holy Bible and Drink presented twenty frequently asked questions about what alcohol consumption from care and compassion, What about 'one will not hurt you'? to What about drunkards being saved? (2) and theory, a list of guy montag pro-temperance answers in is postmodernism theory, the form of quotations from the bible. Christian Temperance Catechism took a more step by step approach, using a series of questions and social strata, answers which drew on theory, Christian Doctrine and sometimes included quotations from the scriptures. It began with the alliteration heart simplest and what is postmodernism theory, most innocuous seeming question and answer: What is temperance? The proper control of appetite (1). The questions and social strata, answers become more specific and what theory, emotionally charged throughout the social strata pamphlet, ending with question and answers like How can we work successfully against intemperance? By learning and by showing others how the what use of general maximus intoxicants ruins soul and body (8).

Although these pamphlets followed a logos structure with logical arguments citing evidence from an established source, i.e. the bible, their underlying messages appealed to pathos. For example, Christian Temperance Catechism mentioned alcohol as a major source of suffering in society, both spiritual and physical. According to this pamphlet, American society suffered more from intemperance than all other forms of sin and claimed alcohol was a poison and the cause of theory three fourths of what all of the disease and proverty [sic] and sorrow and theory, crime in our land (2). Not all Religious pamphlets utilized a logos format to guy montag, fight temperance. The early twentieth century pamphlet Don't Unwittingly Join The Enemy's Forces is a clear appeal to pathos. Taken from an is postmodernism address given by Bishop Nicholson of the Methodist Episcopal Church, this pamphlet draws upon guy montag, the Puritan tradition of preaching. The Puritans placed great emphasis on theory, preaching and most insisted that 'human authorities' have no place in and compassion, sermons (Emerson 45).

Religious leaders supporting the Temperance movement, like Bishop Nicholson, saw the fight against is postmodernism theory, intemperance as a crusade, literally a holy war. The authority justifying and guy montag, supporting this fight was not mere human beings, but God. In his address Bishop Nicholson appealed to deeply held American values and Puritan morals, describing intemperance as a threat to what is postmodernism theory, democracy and morality. Nicholson, like many Temperance leaders, described the struggle against liquor as a second American revolution; first Americans freed themselves from the in nursing British, now they must free themselves from alcohol. This argument drew upon the American value of theory liberty and Puritan morals concerning individual and communal responsibility and salvation. Deadly Ebola Virus. As in theory, a crusade, there was a clearly defined enemy in Nicholson's address. Computer. Nicholson not only what is postmodernism theory criticized his opposition, the wets or anti-Temperance supporters, he vilified them.

Nicholson inspired pathos by describing those who protested temperance as hateful, unprincipled and criminal men with unworthy motives. His argument was passionate and urgent. Virus. Not only was the what fight against intemperance the greatest struggle since the Civil War for the effectuation of Democracy (2), it was a life and death struggle with the alliteration tale greatest single evil of the agesthe most unprincipled, the most unscrupulous, and the most Satanic forces possible to what is postmodernism, conceive (5). Following in of slavery people cape, the tradition of Puritan preaching, Nicholson explained that the fight against intemperance was not merely a human endeavor, but God's mission: God expects every man and every woman to theory, do his or her duty (5) He conflated divine and earthly aspirations, saying that people can take part in in tell heart, God's mission by what is postmodernism, voting against pro-liquor legislation. Computer Processor. Nicholson then took his appeal to what theory, pathos a step further, claiming that those who do not actively fight intemperance were supporting the enemy, (hence the guy montag title of the pamphlet Don't Unwittingly Join the Enemy's Forces) and therefore neglecting their responsibilities as American Patriots and Christians. What Is Postmodernism. He criticized voter apathy, describing those who do not vote as criminal and unpatriotic (5), because by guy montag, not voting these people were effectively giving their vote to the enemy.

Although some religious pamphlets did contain appeals to what theory, logos in their structure or actual arguments, the overarching rhetorical technique in this form of propaganda was pathos. Religious pamphlets evoked emotional responses by appealing to processor, people's deeply held religious values and is postmodernism, patriotic sentiments. (All posters mentioned in this section are from alliteration heart, 1913) In many ways, Temperance and Prohibition Era posters offered a condensed version of the scientific and is postmodernism, religious pamphlets, presenting their most striking and what was the on the, compelling arguments through images and what theory, sound bytes. What Impact Of Slavery On The. Many of the what is postmodernism posters took the Benjamin Rush approach, showing scientific and logical evidence to prove that alcohol consumption was detrimental to both body and soul. Many posters referred to care and compassion, scientific studies and what is postmodernism theory, statistical information, citing medical and what genre is heart of darkness, scientific experts for ethos. What Is Postmodernism. Like the titles of tale scientific pamphlets (ex.

Alcohol: Practical Facts for is postmodernism theory, Practical People), the headings of the posters purported indisputable information. Poster headings like Deaths, Defect, Dwarfings in the Young of general maximus Alcoholized Guinea Pigs, Death Rate From Various Diseases in what theory, Drinkers and general maximus, General Class and theory, Insurance Records Show that Drink Shortens Life 11% with their graphs and charts hardly seem debatable. Despite their scientific and factual claims, many of the general maximus underlying messages of these posters were steeped in is postmodernism, Puritan morality and general maximus, appeals to pathos. Temperance Era posters hinted both at the importance of responsible parenting and the Protestant work ethic, both deeply held Puritan values. What Is Postmodernism. A number of posters described how children of social strata alcoholic parents suffered developmentally, both physically and emotionally, citing statistics and is postmodernism, scientific studies as proof. In Nursing. Some described how parents who drink have a higher rate of defective children: Defective Children Increased with Alcoholization of Fathers, Drinkers' Children Developed More Slowly, Hand in what is postmodernism theory, Hand: Feeblemindedness and Alcoholism: More alcoholism found in social strata, parents of Feebleminded than those of Normal Children and Child Death Rate Higher in Drinkers' Families. Theory. Others depicted the what was the of slavery on the indigenous psychological problems drinking caused children: Drink the Largest Cause of Unhappy Homes in is postmodernism theory, Chicago, Children in Misery, Parent's Drink to general maximus, Blame in at Least Three Cases Out of Every Four and Drink Burdens Childhood. Temperance and Prohibition Era posters described alcohol as the source of society's individual and social problems. Theory. Alcohol was the cause of general maximus laziness, inability to concentrate and is postmodernism, other impediments to the ideals of success and the Protestant work ethic as noted in the posters: Drink Impaired Scholarship, The Better Chances of the Sober Workman, Alcohol Impairs Muscle Work and Daily Drinking Impaired Memory. Alliteration Heart. Like the scientific pamphlets, these posters used charts, percentages, results from studies and quotations from is postmodernism, scientific and medical experts. Computer Processor. Still other posters were more explicitly moralizing, like the following poster which drew upon the Puritan value of care for others: DRINK MAKES ONE MORE LIABLE TO ACCIDENT.

WHAT THE ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMPANY SAYS: A man whose nerves have been made unsteady by theory, a recent debauch or by the habitual use of alcohol, should not be permitted to operate dangerous machinery or to what genre is heart of darkness, carry on is postmodernism, dangerous work. He endangers not only his own life, but the lives of care and compassion others. The last line, He endangers not only his own life, but the lives of others, is is postmodernism theory italicized, the implication being that individuals must care about the impact of slavery on the people in the welfare of their fellow human beings. A number of Temperance and theory, Prohibition Era posters, like a number of the virus religious pamphlets, used a logos format to make a pathos appeal. What. These posters contained graphs and statistical information, presenting moral claims as factual information, such as Alcoholism and Degeneracy, Intemperance as a Cause of Poverty Greatly Reduced Since Prohibition and Drink A Great Cause of what genre of darkness Immorality. The poster Drink A Great Cause of Immorality showed the results of a study of 865 Immoral Inebriate Women, claiming that 40% of their immorality was due solely to is postmodernism, drink, including as evidence a statement by a medical expert: There is no apparent reason why any of the personsshould have become immoral but for preceding alcoholism. Intemperance as a Cause of and compassion in nursing Poverty Greatly Reduced Since Prohibition presented a graph that tracked the drop in is postmodernism, poverty as a result of what genre is heart increased temperance, therefore conflating intemperance and immoral behavior with greater social ills like poverty. Posters are a powerful form of propaganda; their succinct and striking messages create a sense of urgency. What Is Postmodernism. In a poster, complex and general maximus, extensive information must be condensed into a few words and what, images. What Of Darkness. Temperance and theory, Prohibition Era posters did just this, using startling information and making emotional appeals to Americans' most deeply held morals and values.

A significant amount of Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda was targeted towards children. Since logical and scientific arguments may not have made sense to young children, the guy montag main rhetorical technique in children's pamphlets was pathos. This form of anti-liquor propaganda related children's emotional responses and theory, experiences to moral issues. The large quantity of temperance pamphlets targeted towards children was likely a result of what genre of darkness Puritan ideology. According to the Puritans, children's moral education began at home; as the Puritan minister and what theory, saint Richard Greenham, wrote in social strata, his essay Of the good education of children: If parents would have their children blessed at church and school, let them beware they give their children no corrupt examples at home by any carelessness, profaneness or ungodliness. Is Postmodernism. Otherwise, parents will do them more harm at home than both pastors and schoolmasters can do them good abroad. (Emerson 152) Although these pamphlets are written for what was the impact of slavery people cape, children, it is is postmodernism probable that they are also targeting parents. A central theme in many children's pamphlets is the role of social strata parents in is postmodernism, promoting temperance and care and compassion, how a child should react if his/her parent is is postmodernism intemperate. Children's pamphlets generally began with an social strata illustration and what, a story about a child or an impact indigenous people cape animal whose experiences served as a subtle or direct warning against what, intemperance. The next section would usually contain a poem, dialogue or mini-story which reinforced the ideas presented in the first story. Many of what was the impact on the people in the these pamphlets also ended with advice, telling children to what theory, abstain from was the of slavery on the people in the cape, alcohol and to join the temperance crusade.

Two examples of children's pamphlets are Grandmother's boy (1880s) and Look out for the trap! (1870s) The cover story of Grandmother's boy deals directly with Puritan values concerning salvation and good parenting. In the pamphlet's opening story, a little boy who has been raised by what theory, his pro-temperance grandmother pays his father a visit. Social Strata. The father is a wealthy, educated man who is enjoying a bottle of wine with his friends. The son, who has taken the is postmodernism theory temperance pledge, embarrasses his father, asking him why he is drinking alcohol, and then says: 'If I'd known you drinked such stuff, I shouldn't wanted to come and care, see you. Is Postmodernism. It makes folks drunkards, and guy montag, makes them so wicked they can't go to heaven (3-4).' The child's reaction to his father's drinking appeals to pathos, especially fear, in two ways. First, it plays upon parents' fear that their children will lose respect for what is postmodernism, them and virus, not want to spend time with them. Second, his statement refers to the Puritan idea that sinners who do not reform cannot be saved, a warning which uses intimidation to encourage self-improvement. The following section in is postmodernism, the pamphlet Grandmother's boy is a poem titled Johnny's Soliloquy, which expresses the and compassion messages of the first story even more explicitly. The poem encourages children to serve as models to their parents, as in the phrase, The boy is is postmodernism father to the man (3) which is repeated throughout the general maximus poem.

By taking the what is postmodernism theory temperance pledge of total abstinence from alcohol and social strata, encouraging their parents to is postmodernism, do so, children modeled the social strata Puritan ideal of saving oneself and theory, others. The last two paragraphs of the Grandmother's Boy titled Stand Firm! make a stirring call to alliteration, arms. What Theory. Describing temperance as the in tell heart way of truth and right (4), this section of the what is postmodernism pamphlet reads like an excerpt from guy montag, a passionate sermon. Theory. It draws upon the crusade concept, telling the reader that God will help us and that the struggle against alliteration, temptation is theory a fight children can and must win. The children's pamphlet Look out for the trap! also warns against care and compassion, the dangers of temptation. This pamphlet begins with a picture and theory, story of processor two squirrels. As in an Aesop's fable, the two squirrels come into what, trouble as a result of what their own foolishness - both fell prey to temptation - and what is postmodernism theory, there is a moral at the end of the story: Children, avoid temptation. Always be sure there is no trap beyond (2). What Of Slavery Indigenous People Cape. In this story the trap beyond is what is postmodernism theory set by Charlie Wood, who tempts the general maximus squirrels into his home with good food. Once Charlie slams the what is postmodernism theory door shut, the squirrels realize that they were no longer their own masters (2). Charlie's imprisonment of the squirrels is virus analogous to, as temperance supporters would have put it, a drunkard's enslavement to is postmodernism theory, drink.

The story of the general maximus two squirrels ends with an anecdote. The narrator switches from third person omniscient to a more conversational, first person, telling the what is postmodernism reader he saw a young boy give in to temptation. Worst of all, the was the impact on the cape one who tempted him was his mother. This final appeal to pathos is what is postmodernism meant to shock both children and parents and to show children that even though their parents may have the deadly ebola best intentions, those intentions may be wrong and is postmodernism theory, harmful. The second part of Look out for the trap! is a short story titled Why Joseph Signed the in tell heart Pledge.

The story draws upon a common theme in Temperance propaganda: a child living in poverty whose father is a drunkard and therefore cannot provide for is postmodernism, his family. The story evokes a great deal of deadly ebola virus pity for what theory, Joseph, the protagonist, who is taunted by a wealthier classmate. Oh! You needn't feel so big says the classmate, your folks are poor and in tell, your father is a drunkard (3). The story describes the Puritan ideal of redemption through self-improvement and helping others. What Is Postmodernism Theory. Joseph's mother reminds him to genre is heart, depend upon his own energies, trust in God and remember that he is responsible only for is postmodernism theory, his own faults (4). Joseph remembers his mother's advice and, through his hard work and alliteration in tell heart, determination achieves the is postmodernism theory epitome of the Protestant work ethic, becoming a useful and guy montag, respected man. He follows the theory Puritan value of individual and general maximus, communal improvement by what theory, helping his father become a sober man and guy montag, 'respected by other folks' (4).

The boy who taunted Joseph in what theory, school, however, lives to see his wealthy father become poor and a drunkard. Guy Montag. Joseph's story concludes with a piece of what is postmodernism advice: Boys, never twit another for social strata, what he can not help (4). The moral of the theory story is a direct reference to the gold rule (i.e. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you) and appeals to social strata, human compassion, kindness and respect. Theory. Grandmother's boy, Look out for the trap and many other children's pamphlets present a dilemma whose solution is temperance. The dilemma is an what genre is heart extreme situation, often of pain, suffering or another intense emotion which must be immediately and directly addressed. Abstinence from theory, alcohol is always the alliteration happy ending - as soon as the characters in the story swear off spirits they become successful, happy and achieve salvation. What Is Postmodernism Theory. In Hellfire Nation, James Morone discusses one of America's earliest anthems, the jeremiad. Dating back to the seventeenth century, the jeremiad was a lament that the alliteration heart people have fallen into sinful ways and face ruin unless they swiftly reform (14).

The jeremiad described specific crimes which had invoked God's wrath, scolding Americans for their moral degeneracy, and reminding people of their mission with an immodest goal: redeem the what world (Morone 42, 45). General Maximus. The poems and songs of the Temperance and Prohibition Eras were direct descendants of the jeremiad. Theory. Like the what impact of slavery indigenous people in the cape jeremiad, these poems and what is postmodernism, songs defined a specific problem, intemperance, its ruinous effects on both individual and society, and the need for personal and what impact of slavery on the people cape, communal responsibility and reform. Three central themes in Temperance era songs and what is postmodernism, poetry were the drunkard's story, the crusade and temperance as a form of what on the in the cape liberty. Although their themes were similar to other Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda, songs and poems had a distinct style and what, structure. Unlike scientific and processor unit, religious pamphlets, posters, and children's pamphlets, which used text and images, songs and poems formed part of an oral tradition. Theory. While a reader can always re-read a complex argument or refer to genre, a new fact or statistic in what is postmodernism theory, a text, a listener cannot re-hear a song or poem. And Compassion. As a result, the what is postmodernism songs and social strata, poems are more repetitive and direct, drawing upon is postmodernism, common themes and ebola virus, widely accepted ideas rather than introducing new information.

Like children's pamphlets, Temperance and Prohibition Era songs and poems use pathos more or less exclusively. Many songs and what, poems speak specifically to and compassion, the plight of drunkards, both as an example of the is postmodernism theory dangers of was the impact of slavery on the indigenous in the cape intemperance and to what theory, encourage people to processor unit, join the temperance crusade. Religious references are especially prevalent: alcohol is described as an what is postmodernism theory evil temptation and the devil's agent. Drunkards are those who have fallen from grace; they have lost control of their lives and general maximus, sunk to theory, ruin and virus, damnation. Is Postmodernism Theory. According to in nursing, these poems and songs, alcohol is to blame for what is postmodernism theory, most of society's ills. Once complete abstinence is care and compassion in nursing achieved, prisons will empty, crime will cease, humanity will be saved and the kingdom of what is postmodernism heaven will reign on earth. The poems The Curse of Rum (1800s) and The Face Upon the Floor (early 1900s) and what was the of slavery on the indigenous people in the, the song The Drunkard's Fall (early 1900s) depict the dangers of drinking and is postmodernism theory, the plight of the drunkard. The Curse of Rum draws upon guy montag, common religious themes in theory, order to demonize alcohol. The poem describes rum as the and compassion in nursing serpent from the Garden of Eden, a soul destroyer (1) that has destroyed the paradise of the home by what, bringing disease and of darkness, sin into society. Is Postmodernism. The underlying message in guy montag, these songs and poems is what is postmodernism not to take the first drink, because once people begin, they lose control and computer processor, cannot stop.

According to The Face Upon the Floor and what theory, The Drunkard's Fall, even the most successful and promising individuals can fall prey to alcohol's evils once they take their first drink. What Of Slavery. The Face Upon the what Floor depicts a penniless, filthy, wretched drunkard who wanders into what impact of slavery indigenous cape, a bar and tells a group of young men his story, from what is postmodernism theory, wealth, good looks and social strata, a loving wife to is postmodernism theory, how drinking led him to current state, and unit, then falls to the floor dead. The Drunkard's Fall, whose subtitle reads a warning for what theory, all college men wherein is genre of darkness declared how a Yale man was fired yesterday for what is postmodernism theory, over-cutting describes how even the deadly best and the brightest fall to ruin once they take to drinking. As the refrain states: He was a Yale man, but he done all wrong. Is Postmodernism. The young man becomes apathetic, lazy and guy montag, eventually goes insane from drinking. Neither he nor the drunkard in what is postmodernism, The Face Upon The Floor can achieve the was the of slavery on the indigenous people goals of the theory Protestant work ethic or reach spiritual salvation. Their alcohol abuse has taken away their capabilities for care, productivity and success, both on earth and in the world to come. What Theory. Songs and poetry make more direct appeals to pathos than other types of temperance propaganda because of their oversimplification and use of care and compassion hyperbole. What Is Postmodernism Theory. Oftentimes the heart title of a song or poem is enough to evoke a strong emotional response, as in the case of the song title Father's a Drunkard and Mother is Dead (1866). Song and what theory, poem titles may give a clear warning or command, like the deadly virus songs Girls, Wait For A Temperance Man (1867) and Help The Fallen Brother (mid to late 1800s).

The first song is a reference to the Puritan ideal of good parenting and addresses both children's' and parents' fears that children will not be taken care of and even abandoned. What Theory. Help The Fallen Brother is general maximus a clear appeal to what, compassion and virus, the Puritan idea that everyone must be reformed in theory, order for social strata, a community to is postmodernism, achieve success and salvation. The solution to deadly ebola, these individual and social ills, as mentioned in other types of Temperance Propaganda, was the crusade. The first verse and what is postmodernism, chorus of the Anti-Saloon Battle Hymn (1907) for example, provides a rousing call to arms: The might are gathering for alliteration tale heart, conflict; / The right is is postmodernism theory arrayed against wrong; / The hosts of the righteous are singing, / And this is the voice of their song: Cho. The Saloon, it must go! Do you hear us?/ Repeat it again and social strata, again. They strive to what theory, make millions of of slavery on the indigenous people in the money;/ We strive to save hundreds of men! As in Bishop Nicholson's address, the enemy, in is postmodernism, this case the care and compassion saloon, is clearly defined and its motives are proclaimed immoral and unjust. The battle hymn describes the saloon as an awful, unspeakable monster and asks God to free the people of the United states from theory, its shackles. Metaphors of slavery and liberation and their relationship to the temperance crusade are a significant aspect of Temperance era songs and social strata, poetry.

The song Emancipation (1914) speaks of is postmodernism America as a nation with True liberty so grand,/ that makes men free and social strata, alcohol as a monster that enslaves Americans. Is Postmodernism. The song conflates the crusade's mission with Puritan ideals of personal and communal salvation, ending with the care and compassion in nursing stanza: This is the hope of all / To see the traffic fall, / And not one slave. Then wave from what is postmodernism theory, sea to sea, / By union temperance plea, / Old Glory's jubilee, / Our nation free! Even the most convincing anti-temperance supporter would have been hard pressed to refute the what was the impact of slavery indigenous people stanza above. Theory. It makes a powerful appeal to pathos, addressing many Americans' pride in their freedom and faith. How could anyone question such fundamental beliefs? And, if anyone did, who would listen? Despite Benjamin Rush's efforts, his widely circulated warnings had little influence upon general maximus, the consumption of is postmodernism theory alcohol (Rorabaugh 187). In fact, alcohol consumption actually rose during Rush's anti-liquor crusade and did not begin to what was the impact on the people, decrease until the early 1830s (Rorabaugh 187). W.J.

Rorabaugh explains in is postmodernism, The Alcoholic Republic that historians are still unsure as to why Rush's anti-liquor crusade failed while later temperance efforts had great success (187). I propose that the genre answer lies in theory, the rhetoric. Guy Montag. Benjamin Rush took a logos approach to promoting temperance, noting the harmful physiological effects of is postmodernism alcohol. He did not appeal to pathos until the end of The Effect of Ardent Spirits Upon Man, when he described the moral depravity and social ills caused by alcohol consumption. Rush's use of general maximus pathos may have been too little too late. The weakness of using a logical argument is that it can be refuted, either with other logical explanations, new information or emotional appeals. It is theory harder to question people's emotions and deeply held morals and social strata, values. To do so would not only be considered offensive, it would also be futile. As I wrote earlier, how could anyone question such fundamental beliefs? And, if anyone did, who would listen?

Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda were founded on what theory, pathos. Was The Of Slavery Indigenous In The Cape. Although a number of pamphlets drew upon is postmodernism theory, both logos and in tell heart, pathos, many forms of propaganda, including children's pamphlets, songs and what is postmodernism theory, poems, used only emotional appeals. Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda appealed to deeply held beliefs, based upon Puritan ideology and all-American values. While Rush's more scientific arguments could be disputed or ignored, most Americans would not question the genre is heart importance of God, hard work, personal and what theory, communal salvation and freedom. Alcohol Impairs Muscle Work. Boston, MA and Westerville, Ohio: Scientific Temperance Federation and American Issue Publishing Company, 1913.

Alcohol, Temperance and Prohibition: A Brown University Library Digital Collection. Written in general maximus, partial fulfillment of is postmodernism requirements for unit, UC 116: Drug and what is postmodernism theory, Alcohol Addiction in the American Consciousness (Professor David Lewis Fall 2004)

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How Roger Goodell became the most powerful man in American sports. The inside track on Washington politics. *Invalid email address. NFL commissioner Roger Goodell. What Is Postmodernism Theory! (Ben Margot/AP) This article was updated Thursday with the news of a U.S. District Court judges decision nullifying Tom Bradys suspension and the NFLs appeal. Early in social strata 2013, former National Football League commissioner Paul Tagliabue traveled from Washington to what is postmodernism theory, New York to meet with his successor, Roger Goodell.

Goodell months earlier had imposed sweeping discipline on New Orleans Saints coaches, players and an executive in response to a program that allegedly rewarded players for inflicting injuries on opponents. When players appealed, dragging a messy scandal into the regular season, Goodell appointed Tagliabue to social strata, issue a ruling. Tagliabues decision in December 2012 mostly agreed with Goodells findings but, in hopes of avoiding further litigation by is postmodernism theory, the players, he overturned the players suspensions. Goodell wasnt happy. He expected his discipline to be upheld to the letter and was willing to draw out BountyGate as long as it took to virus, secure a victory. Tagliabue felt that prolonging the matter even one day was counterproductive and potentially damaging to the league. Enough is enough, Tagliabue told Goodell, according to an individual familiar with their conversation, but Goodell didnt see it that way. The men havent spoken much since. That scene, according to interviews with more than two dozen people who have worked with, negotiated against, or otherwise spent significant time around the most powerful man in American sports, was classic Goodell: He wanted a victory for the league or at least the appearance of what is postmodernism theory one and the team owners who employ him.

Anything less was unacceptable and seen as a direct hit on the commissioners authority. Good is not good enough, a former league office colleague said of the what indigenous in the, kind of outcome Goodell pursues. Its got to be perfect. Goodell, 56, has spent the past 12 months explaining often clumsily crisis after crisis, deflecting the is postmodernism theory, occasional call for him to deadly, resign. As he did three years ago, the commissioner has again dug in his heels: this time involving deflated footballs and the Super Bowl champion New England Patriots, whose owner, Robert Kraft, is one of Goodells closest allies. Is Postmodernism Theory! DeflateGate has entered its ninth month and advanced to federal court, and general maximus, even with a new season set to what theory, begin, Goodell seems unwilling to accept anything less than total victory, in guy montag this case upholding his four-game suspension of what is postmodernism theory Patriots quarterback Tom Brady. Even after a federal district court in was the indigenous people New York vacated Bradys suspension on Thursday, a major loss for is postmodernism theory the NFL and its commissioner, the league was quick to promise an deadly, appeal guaranteeing that another controversy will carry into the regular season. The commissioners responsibility to secure the competitive fairness of our game is what theory a paramount principle, an NFL-issued statement read, and the league and our 32 clubs will continue to deadly virus, pursue a path to what is postmodernism, that end.

The son of social strata a former U.S. senator, Goodell is the closest professional sports has to a politician. He is versatile and talented and theory, stubborn, and he learned as a young man in Washington a city driven by the wielding of power and distribution of favors that higher office is only as secure as his supporters faith in him. In Goodells case it is the owners of the 31 privately held NFL franchises. Indeed, Goodell runs NFL ownership like a politician works an guy montag, unwieldy caucus: There are those he can count on and others who will cause headaches. Some are more engaged and influential than others.

The real trick is keeping everyone happy and in line. Goodell is an expert at what is postmodernism managing up, and he has learned that the key to succeeding and, more recently, surviving in a sprawling and complicated business is by identifying and leaning on the four or five owners that Roger uses to run the league, one NFL executive said. Everyone else is irrelevant or unheard. Goodell has spent every day of his career working for the NFL and is a true creature of its culture. Hes been at it long enough to know that certain owners in his case Kraft, Dallass Jerry Jones, the New York Giants John Mara, Carolinas Jerry Richardson and Pittsburghs Art and unit, Dan Rooney can be powerful allies. They are active in league politics, men of interest and influence in is postmodernism a vast corporation expected this year to computer processor, reach about $12 billion in revenue, the kinds of figures capable of guiding an is postmodernism, ambitious NFL intern through three decades and eventually make him commissioner. He has spent a lifetime preparing himself to be the commissioner, Jones said last month at an NFL owners meeting outside Chicago. Nine years into his term, Goodell is far removed from that young man who long ago wanted nothing more than responsibility.

His refusal to back down against Kraft might be a short-term strategy or a long-term message to other owners. Regardless, Goodell is using that practiced acumen to do the one thing in computer unit politics more difficult than reaching power: maintaining a grip on what is postmodernism, it. He spent part of his childhood in Northwest Washington, not far from the National Cathedral, accompanying his father, Charles, on the campaign trail and playing with kids whose names carried weight on Capitol Hill: Udall and Mondale. Young Roger experienced the best and worst of politics as a boy. But in part because of the way it ended for his dad, he grew up with aspirations beyond entering the care and compassion in nursing, family business. He was 22 when he wrote the first of what 40 letters to guy montag, the NFL. I have always desired a career in the NFL, Goodell typed in a July 2, 1981, letter to Commissioner Pete Rozelle. He went on to write to each of the 28 teams at what the time and any other league property with a potential job. Somewhere amid the rejection letters was an social strata, offer for a three-month internship in the league office in New York, and almost as soon as he started, he began jockeying for more to do. Theory! One word you could use is impatient, recalled Jay Moyer, a now-retired attorney and executive for the league. One thing that became clear to me was that Roger wanted more responsibility. Goodell, who declined an interview request for ebola virus this story through a league spokesman, spent those earliest months answering fan phone lines and, working in the public relations department, responding to basic media questions. Is Postmodernism Theory! He took a one-year internship with the New York Jets, making the virus, one-hour drive before sunrise to what theory, make copies for coaches and reporters, finishing each assignment before badgering the general maximus, Jets PR man, Frank Ramos, for a new task. Everything was: Give me more to theory, do, Ramos said. I can do this; I can do that.

You want me to call so and processor unit, so? You want me to do this? I can get that done. He returned to the league office in 1984, agreeing to fill in sometimes as Rozelles driver, and when the NFL set up a hotline for college players and their families, it was Goodells warm, friendly voice on the recording. He was outspoken in meetings and confident in his value, arguing with Moyer once over the paltriness of what is postmodernism theory his pay raise. General Maximus! Pay your dues, Moyer told the young staffer, but Goodell was in what theory much too big a hurry for that. Goodells ambitions and personality were on and compassion in nursing, full display, but because he was trying to make his own name instead of what is postmodernism playing on his fathers, he kept some things to himself. Charles Goodell had been, during Rogers youth, a promising Republican who had been appointed a New York senator in 1968, filling the ebola virus, seat vacated when Robert F. Kennedy was assassinated. The elder Goodell, seen as a loyalist, had been created by the party; by 1970 his own people were destroying him. Against the what is postmodernism, Nixon administrations wishes, Goodell had boldly spoken out against U.S. involvement in Vietnam an act of rebellion against the White House.

Republicans made sure Goodell would never hold another office; in fact, the experience had been so painful that he never again pursued one. Roger Goodells league office colleagues knew the story, some believing his dads fall from grace steered the was the people, young man away from what is postmodernism theory, a career in politics. Computer Unit! But others noticed a few inherited skills. He has his fathers political genes, Joe Browne, the is postmodernism theory, leagues longest-serving employee and social strata, a senior adviser to Goodell, wrote in an e-mail. This was one of the things Tagliabue liked about Goodell after Tagliabue succeeded Rozelle as commissioner in 1989. The young man could get along with most anyone, brokering agreements no matter the key players backgrounds. He could reach across the aisle, Tagliabue said, borrowing a political analogy. Thats one of what is postmodernism his great skills. An NFL executive by age 31, Goodell was put in charge of international development and, later, of general maximus club relations and expansion. He was, more simply, Tagliabues point man when it came to dealing with team owners on these matters, a young power broker referred to as boy wonder in 1993 by the Atlanta Journal-Constitution.

Goodell spent time at team facilities and learned the figures involved in league politics the what theory, key owners, as Tagliabue put it. Deadly Virus! Goodell spent time with Dan Rooney, the Steelers owner who would later be named U.S. What Theory! ambassador to care and compassion, Ireland, on the potential of what theory moving a franchise overseas. Goodell worked closely with Wellington and John Mara, one of a fading number of deadly virus NFL legacy families, and what is postmodernism theory, shared a respect for the leagues traditions. He grew close with Richardson as a new franchise was awarded to Charlotte, and in nursing, with Kraft in the mid-1990s as the what theory, Patriots remained in social strata the Boston area and construction on a new stadium began in what theory 2000. When Jones antagonized the NFL over franchises entitlement to apparel licensing revenues, it was Goodell who understood the Cowboys owners argument and presented it within the league office. In Goodell, the NFLs most powerful owners had an executive who hadnt just gotten to know them; he recognized the subjects closest to their hearts. Social Strata! And he was willing to keep them happy and, in the league office, have their backs.

In 2006, a few of what is postmodernism them would return the favor. Tagliabue was stepping down after 17 years as commissioner, and an eight-person committee Richardson, Dan Rooney, Jones and Kraft among the members would select his replacement. Processor! As he had done as a 22-year-old, Goodell who by what is postmodernism, then was the leagues executive vice president and chief operating officer sat down that August and began to social strata, write. On the ninth and theory, final page of his speech to general maximus, NFL owners, he outlined reasons why he should become commissioner: I live and breathe the league your league, he wrote. A few days later, the votes having been cast, someone knocked on Goodells hotel room door. He opened it and saw Rooney, standing there with a smile. Goodell had a strange way of thanking Rooney: Eight weeks after assuming his new office, the new commissioner hit the what is postmodernism theory, Steelers owner with a $25,000 fine for publicly criticizing game officials.

But it wasnt meant as just routine discipline. Social Strata! It was a message to the league: No one would be protected from Goodells crosshairs. Hes very mindful of the importance of being even-handed, one longtime league employee said. After two seasons, Goodell was already making his mark on theory, a changing NFL. He had issued a dozen player suspensions, more than in Tagliabues final five years as commissioner, and was determined to computer unit, curb a reputation of lawlessness that had surrounded the league. DeAngelo Hall, at the time an Atlanta Falcons cornerback, called Goodell the sheriff; the Orlando Sentinel in 2008 floated a loftier title: potential presidential candidate, an ambition Goodells father, who died in 1987, never had the chance to pursue. He was featured on a 2012 cover of Time magazine, the theory, words THE ENFORCER emblazoned in red type over a stately portrait of Goodell, who had said frequently since becoming commissioner that his job was to protect the integrity of the in nursing, game and the NFLs symbolic shield. Indeed, the man looked comfortable in a suit, coming across as approachable and light-hearted. More important, he kept his 31 bosses happy as Goodells corporate leveraging which some believe was directly tied to the leagues cleaner image led to the average value of theory each NFL team swelling from $897 million in 2006, according to Forbes magazine, to $1.43 billion in 2015.

Overall league revenue, which was about $6 billion when Goodell took over, has doubled; the commissioner in 2010 told owners that, by 2027, he had a larger number in mind: $25 billion. Goodells pay determined annually by an owner-led compensation committee grew as a result: roughly $11 million in his first year, ballooning to more than $44 million in care in nursing 2012 and theory, $35 million in 2013. Still, there were dissidents. James Harrison, the Steelers linebacker who has been fined a total of $150,000 since 2010, referred to Goodell as a crook and a puppet in a 2011 interview with Mens Journal. Others in and around the league, noticing that certain owners seemed closer to the commissioner than others, wondered whether Goodell played favorites. The perception was underscored in 2007, when Goodell penalized Krafts Patriots for videotaping an opposing teams signals: stripped draft picks, a combined $750,000 in what impact of slavery indigenous people in the cape fines but no suspensions, leading some to wonder if the is postmodernism theory, commissioner had taken it easy on Krafts franchise. The league office adamantly denied any favoritism was involved. In 2012, the Washington Redskins were docked $36 million in potential spending for guy montag illegally manipulating the salary cap. Mike Shanahan, Washingtons head coach at the time, would say later that the what theory, team whose owner, Daniel Snyder, is neither involved in league politics nor especially close with Goodell was notified less than an hour before free agency began, effectively wrecking the teams offseason plans without recourse.

The Cowboys, whose owner, Jones, is within Goodells innermost circle, were penalized $10 million for social strata similar violations, but nonetheless Shanahan couldnt help but wonder if a team owned by a Goodell ally would have at least had a chance to explain. The worst fine in the history of the league without giving a team the chance to what is postmodernism theory, defend themselves? Shanahan said. Thats when you say theres something wrong. Care And Compassion In Nursing! Would he have done that to is postmodernism, whoever? I dont know. Empowered and popular, Goodell has had his authority rarely challenged. He had reached a mountaintop hed pursued for more than two decades. But at was the impact of slavery on the indigenous in the cape some point, scandals and the NFLs occasionally bizarre reaction to them player concussions, the Patriots videotaping controversy, the 2011 player lockout, the Saints alleged bounty program, a lockout of what is postmodernism game officials, a series of domestic violence cases punctuated by social strata, an incident involving former Baltimore Ravens running back Ray Rice led the proactive, approachable commissioner to give way to a man frequently in a defensive posture, scrambling to project a league in is postmodernism theory control. All the owners are looking at him, one former team executive said, and deadly, after Judge Richard Bermans ruling in favor of Brady on Thursday, owners might be looking more closely than ever at is postmodernism theory Goodells next move. If a proposal was rejected or a decision skirted, Goodells default response by 2011 was to general maximus, hunker down or to explode. During collective bargaining negotiations with the NFL Players Association in 2011, Goodells face turned red so often that union representatives often spent mornings predicting which of the days topics would send the commissioner over the edge. Thats what I remember: I bet hes going to is postmodernism theory, turn red when he hears this, said a former NFL player who was involved in the discussions.

A few times, the former player said, Goodell would storm out of the meeting room, leaving a few franchise owners often Kraft, Richardson and Jones to resume negotiations while Goodell cooled off. During Tagliabues time as commissioner, he preferred quietly settling disputes with franchises or the social strata, union, often agreeing to compromises so that the sides could move on. Alls well that ends well wasnt how Tagliabue ran his league. He preferred a variation of that saying: Alls well that ends. The perfect is the enemy of the good, said Tagliabue, who oversaw an occasionally renegade league but nonetheless presided over what is postmodernism theory, 17 years of labor peace. The league office under Goodell seems to favor an was the of slavery indigenous people in the cape, approach taken from a political campaign playbook: taking the temperature of ideas through media leaks, extensive polling and third-party data gathering. Crises often become endurance tests waged in the public sphere. For nearly seven months in 2011, labor negotiations (leading to the first work stoppage since 1987) dominated headlines. For nine months in 2012, BountyGate cast a shadow over the league and, eventually, its regular season.

For nine months in 2014, again during the season, the Rice domestic assault case went on. For eight months (and counting) in is postmodernism theory 2015, DeflateGate has lingered Goodell refusing to let go as he plays defense for deadly ebola virus the league again. That obsessive, compulsive commitment to doing whats right for the shield and for the image of the NFL, the former executive said. What! There are times where you have to make that kind of decision. But you dont have to guy montag, make that kind of theory decision all the time. Goodell wore a dark suit Monday morning as he entered Federal District Court in processor unit Manhattan for the third time in is postmodernism a month, his final appearance before Judge Berman issued his ruling. This visit was no different from the first two. Goodell wasnt ready to give in.

Thirty-two weeks have passed since the AFC championship game, when the Patriots were found to have used partially deflated footballs in a victory over the Indianapolis Colts. Since then, the controversy has advanced and escalated: the more than $2.5 million investigation commissioned by the league, Goodell himself presiding over the players unions appeal on Bradys behalf, into Judge Bermans court, and was the indigenous in the, now as the NFL redoubles its pursuit of a victory in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Kraft is upset, but he is said to view Goodell like a son and therefore isnt expected to hold a grudge. Besides, in league politics, an owners loyalties ultimately lie with the commissioner, not a player even one as connected to the NFL and what theory, his team as Brady. As for general maximus Goodell, Kraft is what is postmodernism a longtime ally, but he is only one. The others, league insiders have speculated, are likely leaning in to measure where the commissioners loyalties truly lie: with one owner whose franchise has earned resentment in virus part by winning four Super Bowls since the is postmodernism, 2001 season or with the league itself. Probably if you polled all the owners in the room, a former team executive said, a lot of them are probably happy. One franchise owner said that despite the challenges of the was the of slavery on the people in the cape, past year, there is universal support for Goodell as commissioner. Overall, the what theory, owner said, everybody thinks hes doing a very good job in a very, very challenging environment. Charles Goodell spent his final 16 years bouncing from Washington to guy montag, New York, from lawyer to lobbyist, from a man who spent the 1970s losing his career and first marriage to one who spent his final decade of life trying to rediscover his footing. He never regretted the decision he made, Roger Goodell included in what his remarks to NFL owners in August 2006 as they prepared to elect a new commissioner. But those who know the former senators ambitious middle son wonder now if Roger Goodell is at care and compassion a similar crossroads and whether, unlike his dad, hell do anything to is postmodernism, stay on the good side of the powerful people who brought him to this point. Its like Roger thinks: I may win, I may lose, one acquaintance said. What Was The Impact Of Slavery On The Indigenous People In The Cape! But Im never going to lose in a way that my own people cut my throat. Nine years ago this week, Goodell moved into the commissioners office, six blocks away from what is postmodernism, where he once worked as an computer processor, intern so many years earlier.

He was an idealist, the same as his dad, moving into an office whose layout had despite new buildings and changing times remained the same since 1960. He personalized the wall by hanging two framed pages of the what, Congressional Record from processor, September 1969, when a politician made his stand, not willing to give in: Mr. What! President, the war drags on, the commissioners father once said. . . . It seems to know no end.

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The Neuroscience Revolution, Ethics, and is postmodernism the Law. There's no art to find the mind's construction in virus, the face; He was a gentleman on is postmodernism theory whom I built an deadly ebola virus absolute trust. 1. The lament of Duncan, King of Scotland, for the treason of the Thane of is postmodernism theory Cawdor, his trusted nobleman, echoes through time as we continue to guy montag feel the sting of not knowing the theory, minds of those people with whom we deal. From we have a deal to will you still love me tomorrow?, we continue to live in fundamental uncertainty about the minds of social strata others. Duncan demonstrated this by immediately giving his trust to Cawdor's conqueror, one Macbeth, with fatal consequences. But at least some of this uncertainty may be about to lift, for is postmodernism better or for worse.

Neuroscience is rapidly increasing our knowledge of the functioning, and malfunctioning, of that intricate three-pound organ, the human brain. When science expands our understanding of general maximus something so central to human existence, these advances will necessarily cause changes in both our society and its laws. This paper seeks to forecast and explore the social and legal changes that neuroscience might bring in four areas: prediction, litigation, confidentiality and privacy, and patents. It complements the paper in this volume written by Professor Stephen Morse, which covers issues of personhood and responsibility, informed consent, the reform of what is postmodernism existing legal doctrines, enhancement of deadly virus normal brain functions, and the admissibility of neuroscience evidence. Two notes of caution are in order.

First, this paper may appear to what is postmodernism theory paint a gloomy picture of general maximus future threats and abuses. The technologies discussed may, in fact, have benefits far outweighing their harms. What Theory! It is the and compassion, job of what is postmodernism theory people looking for social strata ethical, legal, and social consequences of new technologies to look disproportionately for troublesome consequences or, at least, that's the convention. Second, as Nils Bohr (probably) said, It is always hard to predict things, especially the future. 2 This paper builds on experience gained in studying the ethical, legal, and social implications of what human genetics over the last decade. That experience, for me and for the whole field, has included both successes and failures. In neuroscience, as in general maximus, genetics, accurately envisioning the future is particularly difficult as one must foresee successfully both what changes will occur in the science and how they will affect society. I am confident about only what is postmodernism, two things concerning this paper: first, it discusses at length some things that will never happen, and, second, it ignores what will prove to be some of the most important social and legal implications of neuroscience. Nonetheless, I hope the paper can be useful as a guide to beginning to think about these issues.

Advances in neuroscience may well improve our ability to guy montag make predictions about an is postmodernism theory individual's future. Guy Montag! This seems particularly likely through neuroimaging, as different patterns of brain images, taken under varying circumstances, will come to be strongly correlated with different future behaviors or conditions. What Theory! The images may reveal the structure of the living brain, through technologies such as computer-assisted tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or they may show how different parts of the brain function , through positron emission tomography (PET) scans, single photon emission tomography (SPET) scans, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neuroscience might make many different kinds of general maximus predictions about people. It might predict, or reveal, mental illness, behavioral traits, or cognitive abilities, among other things. For the purposes of is postmodernism theory this paper, I have organized these predictive areas not by the nature of the prediction but by who might use the care and compassion in nursing, predictions: the health care system, the criminal justice system, schools, businesses, and parents. The fact that new neuroscience methods are used to make predictions is is postmodernism theory, not necessarily good or bad.

Our society makes predictions about people all the time: from a doctor determining a patient's prognosis, to ebola virus a judge (or a legislature) sentencing a criminal, to colleges using the Scholastic Aptitude Test, to automobile liability insurers setting rates. But although prediction is what, common, it is not always uncontroversial. The Analogy to Genetic Predictions. The issues raised by care predictions based on neuroscience are often similar to those raised by genetic predictions. Indeed, in some cases the two areas are the same genetic analysis can powerfully predict several diseases of the brain, including Huntington disease and what theory some cases of what of slavery on the indigenous people in the cape early-onset Alzheimer disease.

Experience of genetic predictions teaches at least three important lessons. First, a claimed ability to what predict may not, in fact, exist. Many associations between genetic variations and various diseases have been claimed, only to fail the test of replication. Interestingly, many of these failures have involved two mental illnesses, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Second, and more important, the strength of the predictions can vary enormously. For some genetic diseases, prediction is overwhelmingly powerful. Social Strata! As far as we know, the only way a person with the genetic variation that causes Huntington disease can avoid dying of that disease is to die first from is postmodernism theory something else. On the other hand, the widely heralded breast cancer genes, BRCA 1 and BRCA 2, though they substantially increase the likelihood that a woman will be diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer, are not close to determinative. Somewhere between 50 and 85 percent of women born with a pathogenic mutation in either of those genes will get breast cancer; 20 to 30 percent (well under half) will get ovarian cancer. Men with a mutation in BRCA 2 have a hundred-fold greater risk of deadly ebola breast cancer than average men but their chances are still under five percent. A prediction based on an association between a genetic variation and a disease, even when true, can be very strong, very weak, or somewhere between.

The popular perception of genes as extremely powerful is probably a result of ascertainment bias: the diseases first found to be caused by genetic variations were very powerful because powerful associations were the easiest to find. Is Postmodernism Theory! If, as seems likely, the general maximus, same holds true for predictions from neuroscience, such predictions will need to be used very carefully. Finally, the use of genetic predictions has proven controversial, both in what is postmodernism, medical practice and in social settings. Much of the debate about the uses of general maximus human genetics has concerned its use to predict the future health or traits of is postmodernism patients, insureds, employees, fetuses, or embryos. Neuroscience seems likely to raise many similar issues. Much of health care is about prediction predicting the outcome of a disease, predicting the results of a treatment for a disease, predicting the social strata, risk of getting a disease. When medicine, through neuroscience, genetics, or other methods, makes an accurate prediction that leads to a useful intervention, the what is postmodernism theory, prediction is clearly valuable. But predictions also can cause problems when they are inaccurate (or are perceived inaccurately by patients). Even if the predictions are accurate, they still have uncertain value if no useful interventions are possible. Indigenous People In The Cape! These problems may justify regulation of what is postmodernism theory predictive neuroscientific medical testing. Some predictive tests are inaccurate, either because the scientific understanding behind them is wrong or because the test is poorly performed.

In other cases the guy montag, test may be accurate in the sense that it gives an what theory accurate assessment of the probability of a certain result, but any individual patient may not have the most likely outcome. In addition, patients or others may misinterpret the test results. In genetic testing, for example, a woman who tests positive for guy montag a BRCA 1 mutation may believe that a fatal breast cancer is inevitable, when, in fact, her lifetime risk of breast cancer is between 50 and 85 percent and her chance of dying from a breast cancer is roughly one-third of the risk of is postmodernism diagnosis. Alternatively, a woman who tests negative for the mutation may falsely believe that she has no risk for care and compassion in nursing breast cancer and theory could stop breast self-examinations or mammograms to her harm. Computer Processor Unit! Even very accurate tests may not be very useful. Genetic testing to predict Huntington disease is quite accurate, yet, with no useful medical interventions, a person may find foreknowledge of Huntington's disease not only unhelpful but psychologically or socially harmful. Theory! These concerns have led to widespread calls for regulation of genetic testing.

3. The same issues can easily arise through neuroscience. What Was The Of Slavery On The Indigenous In The! Neuroimaging, for example, might easily lead to predictions, with greater or lesser accuracy, of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Such imaging tests may be inaccurate, may present information patients find difficult to evaluate, and may provide information of what is postmodernism dubious value and some harm. One might want to regulate some such tests along the lines proposed for genetic tests: proof that the test was effective at predicting the condition in question, assessment of the competency of those performing the tests, required informed consent so that patients appreciate the test's possible consequences, and assurance of post-test counseling to deadly virus assure that patients understand the what theory, results. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has statutory jurisdiction over social strata, the use of drugs, biologicals, or medical devices. For covered products, it requires proof that they are both safe and effective. FDA has asserted that it has jurisdiction over genetic tests as medical devices, but it has chosen only to impose significant regulation on genetic tests sold by manufacturers as kits to clinical laboratories, physicians, or consumers.

Tests done as home brews by clinical laboratories have only been subject to very limited regulation, which does not include proof of safety or efficacy. Neuroscience tests might well be subject to even less FDA regulation. If the test used an existing, approved medical device, such as an MRI machine, no FDA approval of this additional use would be necessary. The test would be part of the practice of medicine, expressly not regulated by the FDA. The FDA also implements the theory, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments Act (CLIA), along with the Center for Disease Prevention and Control and ebola the Center for Medicare and what is postmodernism theory Medicaid Services. CLIA sets standards for the training and working conditions of clinical laboratory personnel and requires periodic testing of laboratories' proficiency at different tests.

Unless the tests were done in a clinical laboratory, through, for example, pathological examination of brain tissue samples or analysis of chemicals from the brain, neuroscience testing would also seem to avoid regulation under CLIA. At present, neuroscience-based testing, particularly through neuroimaging using existing (approved) devices seems to processor be entirely unregulated except, to a very limited extent, by malpractice law. One important policy question should be whether to regulate such tests, through government action or by professional self-regulation. The criminal justice system makes predictions about individuals' future behavior in sentencing, parole, and other decisions, such as civil commitment for sex offenders. 4 The trend in recent years has been to limit the is postmodernism theory, discretion of guy montag judges and parole boards to what is postmodernism theory use predictions by setting stronger sentencing guidelines or mandatory sentences. Neuroscience could conceivably affect that trend if it provided scientific evidence of a person's future dangerousness. Such evidence might be used to increase sentencing discretion - or it might provide yet another way to limit such discretion. 5. One can imagine neuroscience tests that show a convicted defendant was particularly likely to commit dangerous future crimes by showing that he has, for example, poor control over his anger, his aggressiveness, or his sexual urges.

This kind of evidence has been used in deadly virus, the past; neuroscience may come up with ways that either are more accurate or that appear more accurate (or more impressive). For example, two different papers have already linked criminality to variations in is postmodernism, the gene for monoamine oxidase A, a protein that plays an important role in the brain. 6 Genetic tests may seem more scientific and more impressive to a judge, jury, or parole board than a psychologist's report. The use of neuroscience to make these predictions raises at least two issues: are the neuroscience tests for future dangerousness or lack of self-control valid at all and, if so, how accurate do they need to be before they should be used? The law has had prior experience with claims of tests for and compassion in nursing inherent violent tendencies. The XYY syndrome was widely discussed and , accepted, , in the literature though not by the courts 7 , in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Men born with an additional copy of the Y chromosome were said to be much more likely to become violent criminals. Further research revealed, about is postmodernism, a decade later, that XYY men were somewhat more likely to have low intelligence and to deadly ebola virus have long arrest records, typically for petty or property offenses.

They did not have any higher than average predisposition to violence. If, unlike XYY syndrome, a tested condition were shown reliably to what predict future dangerousness or lack of control, the unit, question would then become how accurate the test must be in order for is postmodernism theory it to be used. A test of dangerousness or lack of control that was only slightly better than flipping coins should not be given much weight; a perfect test could be. At what accuracy level should the line be set? In the context of civil commitment of sexual offenders, the Supreme Court has recently spoken twice on this issue, both times reviewing a Kansas statute. 8 The Kansas act authorizes civil commitment of a sexually violent predator, defined as any person who has been convicted of or charged with a sexually violent offense and who suffers from a mental abnormality or personality disorder which makes the social strata, person likely to engage in repeat acts of sexual violence. What Is Postmodernism Theory! 9 In Kansas v. Hendricks , the Court held the Act constitutional against guy montag a substantive due process claim because it required, in addition to theory proof of dangerousness, proof of the defendant's lack of what indigenous people control. This admitted lack of volitional control, coupled with a prediction of future dangerousness, adequately distinguishes Hendricks from other dangerous persons who are perhaps more properly dealt with exclusively through criminal proceedings. 10 Id. at 360. It held Hendricks's commitment survived attack on ex post facto and double jeopardy grounds because the commitment procedure was neither criminal nor punitive.

11. Five years later, the Court revisited this statute in Kansas v. Crane . 12 It held that the what, Kansas statute could only be applied constitutionally if there were a determination of the what impact people, defendant's lack of what is postmodernism control and not just proof of the existence of general maximus a relevant mental abnormality or personality disorder: It is theory, enough to what impact indigenous people cape say that there must be proof of serious difficulty in controlling behavior. And this, when viewed in what is postmodernism, light of such features of the case as the nature of the social strata, psychiatric diagnosis, and what the severity of the mental abnormality itself, must be sufficient to distinguish the dangerous sexual offender whose serious mental illness, abnormality, or disorder subjects him to civil commitment from the deadly ebola, dangerous but typical recidivist convicted in is postmodernism, an ordinary criminal case. 13. We know then that, at least in civil commitment cases related to prior sexually violent criminal offenses, proof that the guy montag, particular defendant had limited power to control his actions is what theory, constitutionally necessary. There is no requirement that this evidence, or proof adduced in sentencing or parole hearings, convince the and compassion, trier of fact beyond a reasonable doubt. The Court gives no indication of how strong that evidence must be or how its scientific basis would be established. Would any evidence that passed Daubert or Frye hearings be sufficient for civil commitment (or for enhancing sentencing or denying parole) or would some higher standard be required?

It is what, also interesting to speculate on how evidence of the accuracy of such tests would be collected. It is unlikely that a state or federal criminal justice system would allow a randomized double-blind trial, performing the neuroscientific dangerousness or volition tests on all convicted defendants at the time of their conviction and social strata then releasing them to see which ones would commit future crimes. What Theory! That judges, parole boards, or legislatures would insist on on the in the cape rigorous scientific proof of connections between neuroscience evidence and future mental states seems doubtful. It is conceivable that neuroscience could provide other methods of is postmodernism theory testing ability or aptitude. Of course, the standard questions of the accuracy of unit those tests would apply. Tests that are highly inaccurate usually should not be used.

But even assuming the tests are accurate, they would raise concerns. Those tests might be used only positively, as Dr. Binet intended his early intelligence test to be used to identify children who need special help. To the what is postmodernism, extent they were used to deny students, especially young children, opportunities, they seem more troubling. It is not clear why a society that uses aptitude tests so commonly for admission into elite schools should worry about their neuroscience equivalents. The SAT and other similar aptitude tests claim that student preparation or effort will not substantially affect student results, just as, presumably, preparation (at least in care in nursing, the short term) seems at least as unlikely to alter neuroscience tests of aptitude.

The existing aptitude tests, though widely used, remain controversial. Neuroscience tests, particularly if given and acted upon at an early age, are likely to exacerbate the discomfort we already feel with predictive uses of what is postmodernism theory aptitude tests in education. The possibilities for neuroscience discrimination seem at least as real as with genetic discrimination. A predictive test showing that a person has a high likelihood of developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, early-onset Alzheimer disease, early-onset Parkinson disease, or Huntington disease could certainly provide insurers or employers with an incentive to avoid that person. To the extent one believes that health coverage should be universal or that employment should be denied or terminated only for good cause, banning neuroscientific discrimination might be justified as an incremental step toward this good end. Otherwise, it may be difficult to say why people should be more protected from adverse social consequences of on the indigenous people in the cape neuroscientific test results than of cholesterol tests, x-rays, or colonoscopies.

Special protection for genetic tests has been urged on the ground that genes are more fundamental, more deterministic, and less the result of what theory personal actions or chance than other influences on guy montag health. What Is Postmodernism Theory! Others have argued against such genetic exceptionalism, denying special power to computer genes and contending that special legislation about genetics only confirms the public a false view of genetic determinism. What Is Postmodernism Theory! Still others, including me, have argued that the public's particularly strong fear of genetic test results, even though exaggerated, justifies regulation in order to gain concrete benefits from reducing that fear. The same arguments could be played out with respect to deadly virus predictive neuroscience tests. Although this is an open empirical question, it does seem likely that the public's perception of the what is postmodernism theory, fundamental or deterministic nature of genes does not exist with respect to neuroscience. One other possible business use of neuroscience predictions should be noted, one that has been largely ignored in genetics. Neuroscience might be used in marketing. Firms might use neuroscience techniques on test subjects to enhance the appeal of social strata their products or the effectiveness of their advertising.

Individuals or focus groups could, in the future, be examined under fMRI. At least one firm, Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences, has embraced this technology, and, in a press release from 2002, announced its intentions of revolutionizing the marketing industry. 17. More alarmingly, if neuro-monitoring devices were perfected that could study a person's mental function without his knowledge, information to predict a consumer's preferences might be collected for marketing purposes. Privacy regulation seems appropriate for the undisclosed monitoring in the latter example. Regulating the former seems less likely, although it might prove attractive if such neuroscience-enhanced market research proved too effective an is postmodernism theory aid to selling. The prenatal use of genetic tests to predict the future characteristics of fetuses, embryos, or as-yet unconceived offspring is one of the most controversial and guy montag interesting issues in human genetics. Neuroscience predictions are unlikely to have similar power prenatally, except through neurogenetics. It is what theory, possible that neuroimaging or other non-genetic neuroscience tests might be performed on a fetus during pregnancy.

Structural MRI has been used as early as about social strata, 24 weeks to look for major brain malformations, following up on earlier suspicious sonograms. At this point, no one appears to have done fMRI on the brain of a fetus; the classic method of stimulating the is postmodernism theory, subject and watching which brain regions react would be challenging in general maximus, utero, though not necessarily impossible. What Is Postmodernism Theory! In any event, fetal neuroimaging seems likely to social strata give meaningful results only for serious brain problems and even then at fairly late stage of fetal development so that the most plausible intervention, abortion, would be rarely used and only in the most extreme cases. What! 18. Parents, however, like schools, might make use of predictive neuroscience tests during childhood to help plan, guide, or control their children's lives. Of course, parents already try to guide their children's lives, based on everything from good data to wishful thinking about a child's abilities. Computer! Would neuroscience change anything?

It might be argued that parents would take neuroscience testing more seriously than other evidence of what is postmodernism a child's abilities because of its scientific nature, and thus perhaps exaggerate its accuracy. Computer Processor! More fundamentally, it could be argued that, even if the test predictions were powerfully accurate, too extreme parental control over a child's life is theory, a bad thing. From this perspective, any procedures that are likely to add strength to parents' desire or ability to computer processor exercise that control should be discouraged. On the what is postmodernism theory, other hand, society vests parents with enormous control over their children's upbringing, intervening only in social strata, strong cases of what theory abuse. To some extent, this parental power may be a matter of federal constitutional right, established in a line of cases dating back 80 years.

19. This issue is perhaps too difficult to be tackled. Guy Montag! It is worth noting, though, that government regulation is is postmodernism theory, not the only way to approach it. Deadly Virus! Professional self-regulation, insurance coverage policies, and theory parental education might all be methods to guy montag discourage any perceived overuse of children's neuroscience tests by their parents. Predictions may themselves be relevant in some litigation, particularly the criminal cases discussed above, but other, non-predictive uses of neurosciences might also become central to litigated cases. Neuroscience might be able to what theory provide relevant, and social strata possibly determinative, evidence of a witness's mental state at what, the time of social strata testimony, ways of is postmodernism theory eliciting or evaluating a witness's memories, or other evidence relevant to a litigant's claims. Guy Montag! This section will look at a few possible litigation uses: lie detection, bias determination, memory assessment or recall, and other uses.

Whether any of these uses is what is postmodernism theory, scientifically possible remains to be seen. It is also worth noting that the extent of the use of any of these methods will also depend on impact on the people in the their cost and intrusiveness. A method of, for example, truth determination that required an what intravenous infusion or examination inside a full scale MRI machine would be used much less than a simple and portable headset. The implications of any of these technologies for litigation seem to depend largely on impact of slavery indigenous people four evidentiary issues. First, will the technologies pass the Daubert 20 or Frye 21 tests for the admissibility of scientific evidence? (I leave questions of Daubert and Frye entirely to Professor Morse.) Second, if they are held sufficiently scientifically reliable to what pass Daubert or Frye , are there other reasons to forbid or to compel the admissibility of the results of such technologies when used voluntarily by a witness? Third, would the refusal or the in nursing, agreement of a witness to use one of these technologies itself be admissible in evidence?

And fourth, may a court compel witnesses, under varying circumstances, to use these technologies? The answers to these questions will vary with the setting (especially criminal or civil), with the what theory, technology, and with other circumstances of the case, but they provide a useful framework for analysis. Detecting Lies or Compelling Truth. The concept behind current polygraph machines dates back to the early 20th century. 22 They seek to measure various physiological reactions associated with anxiety, like sweating, breathing rate, and blood pressure, in the expectation that those signs of nervousness correlate with the speaker's knowledge that what he is deadly virus, saying is false. American courts have generally, but not universally, rejected them, although they are commonly used by the federal government for what is postmodernism theory various security clearances and computer unit investigations. What Is Postmodernism Theory! 23 It has been estimated that their accuracy is about 85 to 90 percent.

24. Now imagine that neuroscience leads to what of slavery on the indigenous people in the new ways to determine whether or not a witness is telling a lie or even to compel a witness to tell the is postmodernism theory, truth. A brain imaging device might, for example, be able to what of slavery on the cape detect patterns or locations of brain activity known from what is postmodernism experiments to be highly correlated with the subject's consciousness of falsehood. Of Slavery On The Indigenous! (I will refer to this as lie detection.) Alternatively, drugs or other stimuli might be administered that made it impossible for a witness to do anything but tell the truth an effective truth serum. What! (I will refer to this as truth compulsion and to the two collectively as truth testing.) Assume for computer unit the moment, unrealistically, that these methods of truth testing are absolutely accurate, with neither false positives nor false negatives. How would, and should, courts treat the what, results of such truth testing? The question deserves much more extensive treatment than I can give it here, but I will try to sketch some issues. Consider first the non-scientific issues of admissibility. One argument against admissibility was made by four justices of the Supreme Court in United States v. Scheffer 25 , a case involving a blanket ban on deadly ebola virus the admissibility of polygraph evidence.

Scheffer, a enlisted man in the Air Force working with military police as an what is postmodernism theory informant in general maximus, drug investigations, wanted to introduce the results of what is postmodernism theory a polygraph examination at his court-martial for illegal drug use. 26 The polygraph examination, performed by the military as a routine part of his work as an informant, showed that he denied illegal drug use during the same period that a urine test detected the social strata, presence of methamphetamine. 27 Military Rule of Evidence 707, promulgated by President George H.W. Bush in 1991, provides that Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the results of a polygraph examination, the opinion of a polygraph examiner, or any reference to an offer to take, failure to take, or taking of theory a polygraph examination, shall not be admitted into evidence. The court-martial refused to admit Scheffer's evidence on the basis of Rule 707. His conviction was overturned by the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, which held that this per se exclusion of all polygraph evidence violated the what of slavery on the indigenous cape, Sixth Amendment. 28 The Supreme Court reversed in turn, upholding Rule 707, but in a fractured opinion. Justice Thomas wrote the opinion announcing the decision of the Court and finding the is postmodernism, rule constitutional on three grounds: continued question about the reliability of polygraph evidence, the need to preserve the jury's core function of making credibility determinations in criminal trials, and the avoidance of collateral litigation.

29 Justices Rehnquist, Scalia, and Souter joined the social strata, Thomas opinion in theory, full. Justice Kennedy, joined by Justices O'Connor, Ginsburg, and Breyer, concurred in the section of the Thomas opinion based on reliability of general maximus polygraph evidence. Those four justices did not agree with the other two grounds. 30 Justice Stevens dissented, finding that the reliability of polygraph testing was already sufficiently well established to invalidate any per se exclusion. What Is Postmodernism Theory! 31. Our hypothesized perfect truth testing methods would not run afoul of the reliability issue.

Nor, assuming the rules for its admissibility were sufficiently clear, would collateral litigation appear to be a major concern. It would seem, however, even more than the polygraph, to evoke the concerns of social strata four justices about invading the sphere of the is postmodernism, jury even when the witness had agreed to the use. Although at this point Justice Thomas's concern lacks the general maximus, fifth vote it needs to become a binding precedent, the preservation of the jury's role might be seen by some courts as rising to a constitutional level under a federal or state constitutional right to a criminal, or civil, jury trial. It could certainly be used as a policy argument against what allowing such evidence and, as an underlying concern of the judiciary, it might influence judicial findings under Daubert or Frye about the care and compassion in nursing, reliability of the methods. 32 Assuming robust proof of reliability, it is hard to see any other strong argument against the admission of this kind of evidence. (Whether Justice Thomas's rationale, either as a constitutional or a policy matter, would apply to non-jury trials seems more doubtful.) On the what, other hand, some defendants might have strong arguments for the admission of such evidence, at least in criminal cases. Courts have found in the Sixth Amendment, perhaps in combination with the Fifth Amendment, a constitutional right for criminal defendants to present evidence in their own defense. Scheffer made this very claim, that Rule 707, in deadly ebola, the context of his case, violated his constitutional right to present a defense. What! The Supreme Court has two lines of cases dealing with this right. In Chambers v. Mississippi , the Court resolved the defendant's claim by balancing the importance of the evidence to general maximus the defendant's case with the theory, reliability of the evidence.

33 In Rock v. Arkansas , a criminal defendant alleged that she could remember the events only after having her memory hypnotically refreshed. 34 The Court struck down Arkansas's per se rule against social strata hypnotically refreshed testimony on is postmodernism theory the ground that the rule, as a per se rule, was arbitrary and therefore violated the Sixth Amendment's rights to present a defense and to testify in her own defense. Guy Montag! The Rock opinion also stressed that the Arkansas rule prevented the defendant from telling her own story in any meaningful way. That might argue in favor of the admissibility of what a criminal defendant's own testimony, under truth compulsion, as opposed to an examiner giving his expert opinion about the of slavery people in the cape, truthfulness of the witness's statements based on the truth detector results. These constitutional arguments for what is postmodernism the admission of such evidence would not seem to arise with the prosecution's case or with either the plaintiff's or defendant's case in a civil matter (unless some state constitutional provisions were relevant). 35. Assuming truth tested testimony were admissible, should either a party's, or a witness's, offer or refusal to undergo truth testing be admissible in ebola, evidence as relevant to their honesty? Consider how powerful a jury (or a judge) might find a witness's refusal to be truth tested, particularly if witnesses telling contrary stories have successfully passed such testing.

Such a refusal could well prove fatal to the witness's credibility. The Fifth Amendment would likely prove a constraint with respect to criminal defendants. The fact that a defendant has invoked the what is postmodernism, Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination cannot normally be admitted into evidence or considered by the trier of fact. Otherwise, the care and compassion, courts have held, the is postmodernism, defendant would be penalized for having invoked the privilege. A defendant who takes the stand might well be held to have waived that right and so might be impeached by his refusal to undergo truth testing. To what extent a criminal defendant's statements before trial could constitute a waiver of his right to avoid impeachment on this ground seems a complicated question, involving both the Fifth Amendment and the effects of the general maximus, rule in Miranda v. Arizona . 36 These complex issues would require a paper of their own; I will not discuss them further here. Apart from a defendant in a criminal trial, it would seem that any other witnesses should be impeachable for their refusal to be truth tested; they might invoke the privilege against self-incrimination but the trier of is postmodernism theory fact, in weighing their credibility in this trial, would not be using that information against them. And this should be true for prosecution witnesses as well as defense witnesses.

Both parties and non-party witnesses at general maximus, civil trials would seem generally to be impeachable for their refusal to be truth-tested, except in some jurisdictions that hold that a civil party's invocation of the Fifth Amendment may not be commented upon what theory, even in a civil trial. It seems unlikely that a witness's willingness to undergo truth testing would add anything to the results of a test in most cases. It might, however, be relevant, and social strata presumably admissible, if for some reason the test did not work on that witness or, unbeknownst to the witness at the time she made the offer, the test results turned out to be inadmissible. The questions thus far have dealt with the admissibility of evidence from witnesses who have voluntarily undergone truth testing or who have voluntarily agreed or refused to undergo such testing. Could, or should, either side have the power to what is postmodernism theory compel a witness to undergo either method of and compassion in nursing truth testing? At its simplest, this might be a right to theory re-test a witness tested by was the on the indigenous cape the other side, a claim that could be quite compelling if the results of these methods, like the results of is postmodernism polygraphy, were believed to general maximus be significantly affected by the means by which it was administered not just the scientific process but the substance and what is postmodernism theory style of the computer processor unit, questioning. More broadly, could either side compel a witness, in a criminal or a civil case, to undergo such truth testing as part of either a courtroom examination or in what is postmodernism, pretrial discovery? Witnesses certainly can be compelled to testify, at impact of slavery people in the cape, trial or in what is postmodernism theory, deposition. Care! They can also be compelled, under appropriate circumstances, to undergo specialized testing, such as medical examinations. (These latter procedures typically require express authorization from the what, court rather than being available as of right to the other side.) Several constitutional protections might be claimed as preventing such compulsory testimony using either lie detection or truth compulsion.

A witness might argue that the method of truth testing involved was so great an guy montag intrusion into the person's bodily (or mental) integrity as to shock the conscience and violate the Fifth or Fourteenth Amendment, as did the theory, stomach pumping in Rochin v. California . 37 A test method involving something like the general maximus, wearing of headphones might seem quite different from one involving an what is postmodernism theory intravenous infusion of a drug or envelopment in the coffin-like confines of a full-sized MRI machine. The strength of such a claim might vary with whether the process was lie detection and merely verified (or undercut) the witness's voluntarily chosen words or whether it was truth compulsion and interfered with the witness's ability to choose her own words. The Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination would usually protect those who choose to invoke it (and who had not been granted immunity). As noted above, that would not necessarily protect either a party in a civil case or a non-defendant witness in a criminal case from impeachment for invoking the privilege. Would a witness have a possible Fourth Amendment claim that such testing, compelled by court order, was an general maximus unreasonable search and seizure by the government? I know of no precedent for considering questioning itself as a search or seizure, but this form of what is postmodernism questioning could be seen as close to of slavery on the indigenous in the cape searching the confines of the witness's mind. In that case, would a search warrant or other court order suffice to authorize the test against a Fourth Amendment claim?

And, if it were seen in that light, could a search warrant issue for what is postmodernism the interrogation of a person under truth testing outside the context of care and compassion in nursing any pending criminal or civil litigation - and possibly even outside the context of an arrest and its consequent Miranda rights? If this seems implausible, consider what an attractive addition statutory authorization of such mental searches might seem to the Administration or the Congress in theory, the next version of the USA PATRIOT Act. 38. In some circumstances, First Amendment claims might be plausible. Truth compulsion might be held to violate in some respects the right not to speak, although the precedents on guy montag this point are quite distant, involving a right not to be forced to say, or to publish, specific statements.

It also seems conceivable that some religious groups could object to these practices and might be able to make a free exercise clause argument against such compelled speech. These constitutional questions are many and knotty. Equally difficult is the question whether some or all of them might be held to be waived by witnesses who had either undergone truth testing themselves or had claimed their own truthfulness, thus putting it in question. And, of course, even if parties or witnesses have no constitutional rights against being ordered to undergo truth testing, that does not resolve the policy issue of whether such rights should exist as a matter of statute, rule, or judicial decision. Parties and witnesses are not the only relevant actors in trials. Truth testing might also be used in theory, voir dire. Prospective jurors might be asked about their knowledge of the parties or of the case or their relevant biases.

Could a defendant claim that his right to computer processor an unbiased juror was infringed if such methods were not used and hence compel prospective jurors to what is postmodernism theory undergo truth testing? Could one side or the other challenge for cause a prospective juror who was unwilling to guy montag undergo such testing? In capital cases, jurors are asked whether they could vote to convict in is postmodernism, light of a possible death penalty; truth testing might be demanded by the prosecution to make sure the prospective jurors are being honest. It is also worth considering how the existence of such methods might change the pretrial maneuvers of the parties. General Maximus! Currently, criminal defendants taking polygraph tests before trial typically do so through a polygrapher hired by their counsel and what is postmodernism thus protected by the attorney-client privilege. Deadly Ebola! Whatever rules are adopted concerning the admissibility of what is postmodernism evidence from truth testing will undoubtedly affect the incentives of the parties, in civil and criminal cases, to undergo truth testing. This may, in turn, have substantial, and perhaps unexpected, repercussions for the practices of criminal plea bargaining and civil settlement. As the vast majority of criminal and civil cases are resolved before trial, the what on the indigenous in the, effects of truth testing could be substantial. Even more broadly, consider the possible effects of theory truth testing on judicial business more generally. Certainly not every case depends on the honesty of witness testimony.

Some hinge on conclusions about reasonableness or negligence; others are determined by questions of law. Social Strata! Even factual questions might be the focus of is postmodernism subjectively honest, but nevertheless contradictory, testimony from different witnesses. Still, it seems possible that a very high percentage of cases, both criminal and guy montag civil, could be heavily affected, if not determined, by truth-tested evidence. If truth testing reduced criminal trials ten-fold, that would surely raise Justice Thomas's concern about the proper role of the jury, whether or not that concern has constitutional implications. It would also have major effects on theory the workload of the judiciary and, perhaps, on what impact on the indigenous people the structure of the courts. The questions raised by a perfect method of truth testing are numerous and complicated. Is Postmodernism! They are also probably unrealistic given that no test will be perfect.

Most of these questions would require reconsideration if truth testing turned out to be only 99.9% accurate, or 99% accurate, or 90% accurate. General Maximus! That reconsideration would have to consider not just overall accuracy but the rates of both false positives (the identification of is postmodernism theory a false statement as true) and guy montag false negatives (the identification of a true statement as false), as those may have different implications. Similarly, decisions on admissibility might differ if accuracy rates varied with a witness's age, sex, training in beating the theory, machine, or other traits. And, of guy montag course, proving the accuracy of such methods as they are first introduced or as they are altered will be a major issue in court systems under the Daubert or Frye tests. In sum, the invention by neuroscientists of perfectly or extremely reliable lie detecting or truth compelling methods might have substantial effects on almost every trial and on the entire judicial system.

How those effects would play out in light of our current criminal justice system, including the theory, constitutional protections of the Bill of unit Rights, is not obvious. Evidence produced by what is postmodernism theory neuroscience may play other significant roles in the courtroom. Consider the possibility of testing, through neuroimaging, whether a witness or a juror reacts negatively to and compassion particular groups. Already, neuroimaging work is going on that looks for and finds differences in a subject's brain's reaction to people of is postmodernism different races. If that research is computer processor, able to associate certain patterns of what is postmodernism theory activity with negative bias, its possible use in litigation could be widespread. As with truth testing, courts would have to decide whether bias testing met Daubert or Frye , whether voluntary test results would be admissible, whether a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to take the computer processor, test could be admitted into evidence, and whether the testing could ever be compelled.

The analysis on these points seems similar to that for truth testing, with the possible exception of a lesser role for the privilege against self-incrimination. If allowed, neuroscience testing for racial bias might be used where bias was a relevant fact in the case, as in what theory, claims of employment discrimination based on race. It might be used to guy montag test any witness for what theory bias for or against a party of a particular race. It might be used to general maximus test jurors to ensure that they were not biased against the parties because of their race. One could even, barely, imagine it being used to test judges for what is postmodernism theory bias, perhaps as part of a motion to disqualify for bias. And, of course, such bias testing need not to be limited bias based on race, nationality, sex, or other protected groups. One could seek to test, in appropriate cases, for bias against parties or witnesses based on their occupation (the police, for example), their looks (too fat, too thin), their voices (a southern accent, a Bahston accent), or many other characteristics. If accurate truth testing were available, it could make any separate bias testing less important. Witnesses or jurors could simply be asked whether they were biased against the relevant group. On the other hand, it is possible that people might be able to answer honestly that they were not biased, when they were in fact biased.

Such people would actually act on guy montag negative perceptions of different groups even though they did not realize that they were doing so. If the neuroimaging technique were able accurately to detect people with that unconscious bias, it might still be useful in addition to truth testing. Bias testing might even force us to re-evaluate some truisms. We say that the parties to litigation are entitled to unbiased judges and juries, but we mean that they are entitled to what judges and juries that are not demonstrably biased in a context where demonstrating bias is care and compassion in nursing, difficult. Theory! What if demonstrating bias becomes easy and bias is ubiquitous? Imagine a trial where neuroimaging shows that all the prospective jurors are prejudiced against social strata a defendant who looks like a stereotypical Hell's Angel because they think he looks like a criminal.

Or what if the only potential jurors who didn't show bias were themselves members of is postmodernism quasi-criminal motorcycle gangs? What would his right to what indigenous people cape a fair trial mean in that context? Evaluating or Eliciting Memory. The two methods discussed so far involve analyzing (or in the case of truth compulsion, creating) a present state of mind. It is what, conceivable that neuroscience might also provide courts with at least three relevant tools concerning memory. Guy Montag! In each case, courts would again confront questions of the reliability of the tools, their admissibility with the witness's permission, impeaching witnesses for failing to use the tools, or compelling a witness to use such a memory-enhancing tool. The first tool might be an intervention, pharmacological or otherwise, that improved a witness's ability to remember events. It is is postmodernism, certainly conceivable that researchers studying memory-linked diseases might create drugs that help people retrieve old memories or retrieve them in more detail. This kind of ebola virus intervention would not be new in litigation. The courts have seen great controversy over the past few years over repressed or recovered memories, typically traumatic early childhood experiences brought back to adult witnesses by therapy or hypnosis.

Similarly, some of the child sex abuse trials over the past decade have featured questioned testimony from young children about their experiences. In both cases, the validity of these memories has been questioned. We do know from what is postmodernism theory research that people often will come to remember, in good faith, things that did not happen, particularly when those memories have been suggested to them. 39 Similar problems might arise with enhanced memories. 40. A second tool might be the guy montag, power to is postmodernism assess the validity of a witness's memory. Unit! What if neuroscience could give us tools to distinguish between true and false memory? One could imagine different parts of a witness's brain being used while recounting a true memory, a false memory, or a creative fiction. Is Postmodernism Theory! Or, alternatively, perhaps neuroscience could somehow date memories, revealing when they were laid down. These methods seem more speculative than either truth testing or bias testing, but, if either one (or some other method of testing memory) turned out to be feasible, courts would, after the general maximus, Daubert or Frye hearings, again face questions of admitting testimony concerning their voluntary use, allowing comment on a witness's refusal to take the test, and is postmodernism theory possibly compelling their use. A third possible memory-based tool is still more speculative but potentially more significant.

There have long been reports that electrical stimulation can, sometimes, trigger a subject to have what appears to be an social strata extremely detailed and vivid memory of a past scene, almost like reliving the experience. At this point, we do not know whether these experiences are truly memories or are more akin to hallucinations; if it is a memory, how to reliably call it up; how many memories might potentially be recalled in this manner; or, perhaps most importantly, how to recall any specific memory. Is Postmodernism Theory! Whatever filing system the brain uses for memories seems to be, at virus, this point, a mystery. Assume that it proves possible to cause a witness to recall a specific memory in its entirety, perhaps by localizing the theory, site of the memory first through neuroimaging the witness while she calls up her own existing memories of the event. A witness could then, perhaps, relive an event important to trial, either before trial or on the witness stand. General Maximus! One could even, just barely, imagine a technology that might be able to what is postmodernism theory read out the witness's memories, intercepted as neuronal firings, and social strata translate it directly into what theory voice, text, or the equivalent of a movie for what people review by the finder of fact.

Less speculatively, one could certainly imagine a drug that would improve a person's ability to retrieve specific long-term memories. While a person's authentic memories, no matter how vividly they are recalled, may not be an what theory accurate portrayal of what actually took place, they would be more compelling testimony than provided by typically foggy recollections of past events. Once again, if the validity of these methods were established, the key questions would seem to social strata be whether to what theory allow the admission of evidence from such a recall experience, voluntarily undertaken; whether to admit the guy montag, fact of a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to use such method; and what theory whether, under any circumstances, to compel the use of such a technique. 41. Other Litigation-Related Uses. Neuroscience covers a wide range of brain-related activities. The three areas sketched above are issues where neuroscience conceivably could have an impact on general maximus almost any litigation, but neuroscience might also affect any specific kind of litigation where brain function was relevant.

Consider four examples. The most expensive medical malpractice cases are generally considered so-called bad baby cases. Theory! In these cases, children are born with profound brain damage. Damages can be enormous, sometimes amounting to the cost of round-the-clock nursing care for seventy years. Evidence of causation, however, is often very unclear. The plaintiff parents will allege that the defendants managed the delivery negligently, which led to a lack of oxygen that in turn caused the brain damage. Defendants, in addition to denying negligence, will usually claim that the damage had some other, often unknown, cause. Jurors are left with a family facing a catastrophic situation and no strong evidence about social strata, what caused it. Trial verdicts, and settlements, can be extremely high, accounting in part for what the high price of malpractice insurance for obstetricians. If neuroscience would reliably distinguish between brain damage caused by oxygen deprivation near birth and care that caused earlier, these cases would have more accurate results, in terms of compensating only families where the damage was caused around delivery. Theory! Similarly, if fetal neuroimaging could reveal serious brain damage before labor, those images could be evidence about the cause of the damage. (One can even imagine obstetricians insisting on prenatal brain scans before delivery in order to establish a baseline.) By making the determination of general maximus causation more certain, it should also lead to more settlements and is postmodernism theory less wasteful litigation. (Of course, in cases where neuroscience showed that the damage was consistent with lack of oxygen around delivery, the defendants' negligence would still be in processor unit, question.)

In many personal injury cases, the existence of intractable pain may be an issue. In some of those cases there may be a question whether the plaintiff is is postmodernism theory, exaggerating the extent of the pain. It seems plausible that neuroscience could provide a strong test for whether a person actually perceives pain, through neuroimaging or other methods. It might be able to deadly ebola virus show whether signals were being sent by the sensory nerves to the brain from the what is postmodernism, painful location on social strata the plaintiff's body. Alternatively, it might locate a region of the brain that is always activated when a person feels pain or a pattern of brain activation that is always found during physically painful experiences.

Again, by reducing uncertainty about a very subjective (and hence falsifiable) aspect of a case, neuroscience could improve the litigation system. A person's competency is relevant in several legal settings, including disputed guardianships and competency to stand trial. Neuroscience might be able to establish some more objective measures that could be considered relevant to what is postmodernism competency. (It might also reveal that what the law seems pleased to regard as a general, undifferentiated competency does not, in fact, exist.) If this were successful, one could imagine individuals obtaining prophylactic certifications of their competency before, for example, making wills or entering into unconventional contracts. The degree of mental ability is also relevant in capital punishment, where the social strata, Supreme Court has recently held that executing the mentally retarded violates the Eighth Amendment. 42 Neuroscience might supply better, or even determinative, evidence of mental retardation. Or, again, it may be that neuroscience would force the what theory, courts to recognize that mental retardation is social strata, not a discrete condition. Finally, neuroscience might affect criminal cases for illegal drug use in several ways. Neuroscience might help determine whether a defendant was truly addicted to is postmodernism theory the drug in question, which could have some consequences for guilt or sentencing. It might reveal whether a person was especially susceptible to, or especially resistant to, becoming addicted. Or it could provide new ways to block addiction, or even pleasurable sensations, with possible consequences for sentencing or treatment. Again, as with the other possible applications of neuroscience addressed in this paper, these uses are speculative.

It would be wrong to count on neuroscience to solve, deus ex machina, our drug problems. Guy Montag! It does not seem irresponsible, however, to consider the possible implications of neuroscience breakthroughs in this area. 43. I am using these two often conflated terms to mean different things. I am using confidentiality to refer to the obligation of what is postmodernism a professional or an entity to limit appropriately the availability of information about people (in this context, usually patients or research subjects). Privacy, as I am using it, means people's interest in avoiding unwanted intrusions into their lives. The first focuses on limiting the distribution of unit information appropriately gathered; the second concerns avoiding intrusions, including the inappropriate gathering of information. Neuroscience will raise challenges concerning both concepts. Maintaining and Breaking Confidentiality.

Neuroscience may lead to the generation of sensitive information about individual patients or research subjects, information whose distribution they may wish to see restricted. What! Personal health information is everywhere protected in the United States, by social strata varying theories under state law, by what is postmodernism theory new federal privacy regulations under the general maximus, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 44 and by codes of professional ethics. Personal information about research subjects must also be appropriately protected under the Common Rule, the what is postmodernism theory, federal regulation governing most (but not all) biomedical research in the United States. 45 The special issue with neuroscience-derived information is whether some or all of what impact of slavery indigenous in the it requires additional protection. Because of concerns that some medical information is more dangerous than usual, physicians have sometimes kept separate medical charts detailing patients' mental illness, HIV status, or genetic diseases. Some states have enacted statutes requiring additional protections for some very sensitive medical information, including genetic information. Theory! Because neuroscience information may reveal central aspects of a person's personality, cognitive abilities, and future, one could argue that it too requires special protection.

Consideration of such special status would have to weigh at least five counter-arguments. Ebola Virus! First, any additional recordkeeping or data protection requirements both increase costs and risk making important information unavailable to physicians or patients who need it. A physician seeing a patient whose regular physician is on vacation may never know that there is a second chart that contains important neuroscience information. Second, not all neuroscience information will be especially sensitive; much will prove not sensitive at all because it is not meaningful to anyone, expert or lay. Third, defining neuroscience information will prove difficult. Statutes defining genetic information have either employed an almost uselessly narrow definition (the result of DNA tests) or have opted for a wider definition encompassing all information about a person's genome. The latter, however, would end up including standard medical information that provides some information about a person's genetics: blood types, cholesterol level, skin color, and family history, among others.

Fourth, mandating special protection for a class of theory information sends the message that the information is especially important even if it is not. In genetics, it is argued that legislation based on such genetic exceptionalism increases a false and harmful public sense of genetic determinism. Similar arguments might apply to neuroscience. Finally, given the many legitimate and often unpredictable needs for access to medical information, confidentiality provisions will often prove ineffective at keeping neuroscience information private, especially from the health insurers and employers who are paying for the medical care. This last argument in particular would encourage policy responses that ban bad uses of sensitive information rather than depending on keeping that information secret. Laws and social strata policies on confidentiality also need to consider the limits on confidentiality. In some cases, we require disclosure of otherwise private medical information to third parties. Barring some special treatment, the same would be true of what is postmodernism neuroscience-derived information. A physician (including, perhaps, a physician-researcher) may have an guy montag obligation to report to a county health agency or the Centers for Disease Control neuroscience-derived information about a patient that is linked to what a reportable disease (an MRI scan showing, for example, a case of social strata new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the human version of what is postmodernism theory mad cow disease); to a motor vehicle department information linked to computer unit loss-of-consciousness disorders; and to is postmodernism theory a variety of governmental bodies information leading to guy montag a suspicion of child abuse, elder abuse, pesticide poisoning, or other topics as specified by statute. In some cases, it might be argued, as it has been in genetics, that a physician has a responsibility to disclose a patient's condition to a family member if the is postmodernism, family member is at higher risk of the guy montag, same condition as a result. Is Postmodernism! Finally, neuroscience information showing an imminent and serious threat from a patient to a third party might have to guy montag be reported under the Tarasoff doctrine.

46 Discussion of the confidentiality of neuroscience-derived information needs to take all of these mandatory disclosure situations into account. Privacy Protections Against Mental Intrusions. Privacy issues, as I am using the is postmodernism, term in this paper, would arise as a result of neuroscience through unconsented and inappropriate intrusions into a person's life. The results of a normal medical MRI would be subject to confidentiality concerns; a forced MRI would raise privacy issues. Some such unconsented intrusions have already been discussed in dealing with possible compulsory truth, bias, or memory interventions inside the computer unit, litigation system.

This section will describe such interventions (mainly) outside a litigation context. Intrusions by the government are subject to the Constitution and its protections of privacy, contained in and emanating from the penumbra of the Bill of Rights. Whether or not interventions were permitted in the courtroom, under judicial supervision, the government might use them in what is postmodernism, other contexts, just as polygraphs are used in security clearance investigations. What Of Slavery On The Indigenous People In The! All of what these non-litigation governmental uses share a greater possibility of computer abuse than the use of is postmodernism theory such a technology in a court-supervised setting. Presumably, their truly voluntary use, with the informed consent of what was the on the indigenous in the a competent adult subject, would raise no legal issues. What Theory! Situations where agreement to take the test could be viewed as less than wholly voluntary would raise their own set of sticky problems about the degree of computer processor unit coercion. Consider the is postmodernism theory, possibility of ebola truth tests for those seeking government jobs, benefits, or licenses. Is Postmodernism! Admission to a state college (or eligibility for government-provided scholarships or government-guaranteed loans) might, for guy montag example, be conditioned on passing a lie detection examination on illegal drug use. Frankly compelled uses might also be used, although they would raise constitutional questions under the Fourth and Fifth Amendments.

One could imagine law enforcement officials deciding to interrogate one member of a criminal gang under truth compulsion in what is postmodernism theory, violation of general maximus Miranda and what is postmodernism of the Fifth Amendment (and hence to forego bringing him to trial) in order to social strata get information about his colleagues. What Theory! Even if a person had been given a sufficiently broad grant of in nursing immunity to avoid any Fifth Amendment issues, would that really protect the interests of a person forced to undergo a truth compulsion process? Or would such a forcible intrusion into one's mind be held to what violate due process along the lines of Rochin v. California ? 47. Of course, even if the interrogated party could bring a constitutional tort claim against care in nursing the police, how often would such a claim be brought? And would we or our courts always find such interrogations improper? Consider the interrogation of suspected terrorists or of what is postmodernism enemy soldiers during combat, when many lives may be at social strata, stake. (This also raises the interesting question of how the U.S. Theory! could protect its soldiers or agents from similar questioning). Although more far-fetched scientifically, consider the possibility of less intrusive neuroscience techniques.

What if the government developed a neuroimaging device that could be used at a distance from a moving subject or one that could fit into the arch of a airport metal detector? People could be screened without any obvious intrusion and perhaps without their knowledge. Should remote screening of airline passengers for violent or suicidal thoughts or emotions be allowed? Would it matter whether the airport had signs saying that all travelers, by their presence, consented to such screening? Private parties have less ability than the government to guy montag compel someone to undergo a neuroscience intervention - at least without being liable to arrest for assault. Still, one can imagine situations where private parties either frankly coerce or unduly influence someone else to take a neuroscience intervention. If lie detection or truth compulsion devices were available and usable by what is postmodernism theory laymen, one can certainly imagine criminal groups using them on guy montag their members without getting informed consent. Employers might well want to test their employees; parents, their teenagers. If the intervention requires a full-sized MRI machine, we would not worry much about private, inappropriate use. If, on the other hand, truth testing were to require only the equivalent of headphones or a hypodermic needle, private uses might be significant and would seem to require regulation, if not a complete ban.

This seems even more true if remote or unnoticeable methods were perfected. A last form of neuroscience intrusion seems, again, at what theory, the edge of the general maximus, scientifically plausible. Imagine an intervention that allowed an outsider to control the actions or motions, and possibly even the speech, emotions, or thoughts, of a person. Already researchers are seeking to what is postmodernism learn what signals need to social strata be sent to trigger various motions. What Is Postmodernism! Dr. Miguel Nicolelis of Duke University has been working to what impact on the in the determine what neural activity triggers particular motions in rats and in monkeys and what theory he hopes to be able to stimulate it artificially. 48 One goal is to trigger the implanted electrodes and have the monkey's arm move in a predictable and controlled fashion. The potential benefits of what was the impact of slavery indigenous this research are enormous, particularly to people with spinal cord injuries or other interruptions in their motor neurons. What Is Postmodernism Theory! On the other hand, it opens the nightmarish possibility of someone else controlling one's body a real version of the Imperio curse from Harry Potter's world.

Similarly, one can imagine devices (or drugs) intended to control emotional reactions, to prevent otherwise uncontrollable rages or depressions. One could imagine a court ordering implantation of such a device in sexual offenders to was the impact of slavery prevent the emotions that give rise to their crimes or, perhaps more plausibly, offering such treatment as an option, in what, place of a long prison term. Guy Montag! Castration, an old-fashioned method of accomplishing a similar result, either surgical or chemical, is already a possibility for convicted sex offenders in some states. Various pharmacological interventions can also be used to what is postmodernism affect a person's reactions. These kinds of interventions may never become more than the ravings of victims of computer processor paranoia, though it is at least interesting that the Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) is what theory, providing $26 million in support of computer Nicolelis's research through its Brain-Machine Interfaces program. Is Postmodernism! 49 The use of general maximus such techniques on consenting competent patients could still raise ethical issues related to theory enhancement. Their use on convicts under judicial supervision but with questionably free consent is troubling. Their possible use on unconsenting victims is terrifying.

If such technologies are developed, their regulation needs to be considered carefully. Advances in neuroscience will certainly raise legal and policy questions in in nursing, intellectual property law, particularly in patent law. 50 Fortunately, few of those questions seem novel, as most seem likely to parallel issues already raised in is postmodernism theory, genetics. In some important respects, however, the issues seem less likely to general maximus be charged than those encountered in genetics. Two kinds of neuroscience patents seem likely. What Is Postmodernism! The first type comprises patents on drugs, devices, or techniques for studying or intervening in living brains. MRI machines are covered by many patents; different techniques for using devices or particular uses of social strata them could also be patented. Is Postmodernism Theory! So, for guy montag example, the first person to use an MRI machine to what theory search for social strata a particular atom or molecule might be able to patent that use, unless it were an obvious extension of existing practice.

Similarly, someone using an MRI machine, or a drug, for the purpose of determining whether the subject was telling the truth could patent that use of that machine or drug, even if she did not have own a patent on the machine or drug itself. The second type would be a patent on a particular pattern of activity in the brain. Is Postmodernism Theory! (I will refer to these as neural pattern patents.) The claims could be that this pattern could be used to diagnose conditions, to predict future conditions, or as an in nursing opportunity for an intervention. This would parallel the common approach to patenting genes for is postmodernism diagnosis, for prediction, and for possible gene therapy. Neuroimaging results seem the general maximus, obvious candidates for this kind of patent, although the patented pattern might show up, for example, as a set of what is postmodernism gene expression results revealed by microarrays or gene chips. I will discuss the general maximus, likely issues these kinds of patents raise in three categories: standard bioscience patent issues, owning thoughts, and medical treatments. Standard Bioscience Patent Issues. Patents in the biological science, especially those relating to genetics, have raised a number of what is postmodernism different concerns. Care And Compassion! Three of the issues seem no more problematic with neuroscience than they have been with genetics; three others seem less problematic. What Is Postmodernism Theory! Whether this is troublesome, of course, depends largely on one's assessment of the current state of guy montag genetic patents. My own assessment is what, relatively sanguine; I believe we are muddling through the guy montag, issues of genetic patents with research and treatment continuing to thrive. I am optimistic, therefore, that none of these standard patent issues will cause broad problems in what theory, neuroscience.

Two concerns are based on the fact of the patent monopoly. Some complain that patents allow the patent owner to restrict the use and increase the price of the social strata, patented invention, thus depriving some people of is postmodernism its benefits. 51 This is, of course, true of all patents and and compassion is a core idea behind the patent system: the what, time-limited monopoly provides the economic returns that encourage inventors to invent. With some bioscience patents, this argument has been refined into a second perceived problem: patents on research tools. Control over a tool essential to the future of a particular field could, some say, give the ebola, patent owner too much power over the field and could end up retarding research progress. This issue has been discussed widely, most notably in the 1998 Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Working Group on Research Tools, which made extensive recommendations on the subject. 52 Some neuroscience patents may raise concerns about monopolization of basic research tools, but it is what is postmodernism theory, not clear that those problems cannot be handled if and as they arise. A third issue concerns the effects of patents on deadly universities.

Under the Bayh-Dole Act, passed in 1980, universities and other non-profit organizations where inventions were made using federal grant or contract funds can claim ownership of the resulting inventions, subject to certain conditions. Bayh-Dole has led to is postmodernism the growth of technology licensing offices in universities; some argue that it has warped university incentives in unfortunate ways. Neuroscience patents might expand the guy montag, number of favored, money-making departments in universities, but seem unlikely to make a qualitative difference. Just because neuroscience patents seem unlikely to pose the first three patent problems in any new or particularly severe ways does not mean those issues should be ignored. What Theory! Individual neuroscience patents might cause substantial problems that call for intervention; the cumulative weight of neuroscience patents when added to social strata other bioscience patents may make systemic reform of one kind or another more pressing. But the outlines of the problems are known. Three other controversies about theory, genetic patents are unlikely to be nearly as significant in guy montag, neuroscience. They seem relevant, if at all, to neural pattern patents, not to is postmodernism device or process patents.

Two of the controversies grew out of patents on DNA sequences. In 1998 Rebecca Eisenberg and Michael Heller pointed out the tragedy of the anti-commons, the concern that having too many different patents for general maximus DNA sequences under different ownership could increase transaction costs so greatly as to foreclose useful products or research. 53 This issue was related to a controversy about the standards for what is postmodernism granting patents on DNA sequences. Researchers were applying for tens of thousands of patents on care small stretches of DNA without necessarily knowing what, if anything, the is postmodernism theory, DNA did. What On The Indigenous People Cape! Often these were expressed sequence tags or ESTs, stretches of DNA that were known to be in genes and what theory hence to play some role in the body's function because they were found in transcribed form as messenger RNA in cells.

It was feared that the resulting chaos of patents would make commercial products or further research impossible. This concern eventually led the Patent and Trademark Office to issue revised guidelines tightening the utility requirement for guy montag gene patents. However strong or weak these concerns may be in what is postmodernism theory, genetics, neither issue seems likely to what impact indigenous be very important in neuroscience (except of course in neurogenetics). There does not appear to be anything like a DNA sequence in neuroscience, a discrete entity or pattern that almost certainly has meaning, and potential scientific or commercial significance, even if that meaning is unknown. The equivalent would seem to be patenting a particular pattern of brain activity without having any idea what, if anything, the pattern related to. That was plausible in genetics because the sequence could be used as a marker for the still unknown gene; nothing seems equivalent in what, neuroscience. Similarly, it seems unlikely that hundreds or thousands of different neural patterns, each patented by different entities, would need to be combined into one product or tool for commercial or research purposes. The last of these genetic patent controversies revolves around exploitation. Some have argued that genetic patents have often stemmed from the alleged inventors' exploitation of individuals or indigenous peoples who provided access to or traditional knowledge about medicinal uses of living things, who had created and maintained various genetically varied strains of crops, or who had actually provided human DNA with which a valuable discovery was made. These claims acquired a catchy title biopiracy and guy montag a few good anecdotes; it is not clear whether these practices were significant in number or truly unfair. Neuroscience should face few if any such claims.

The main patterns of the research will not involve seeking genetic variations from crops or other living things, nor does it seem likely (apart from neurogenetics) that searches for patterns found in unique individuals or distinct human populations will be common. Patents on human genes have been extremely controversial for a wide variety of what is postmodernism theory reasons. Some have opposed them for in nursing religious reasons, others because they were thought not to involve true inventions, others because they believed human genes should be the common heritage of mankind, and still others because they believe such gene patents commodify humans. (Similar but slightly different arguments have raged over what is postmodernism, the patentability of other kinds of human biological materials or of non-human life-forms.) On the was the in the, surface, neural pattern patents would seem susceptible to some of the what, same attacks as hubristic efforts to guy montag patent human neural processes or even human thoughts. I suspect, however, that an theory ironically technical difference between the guy montag, two kinds of patents will limit the controversy in what theory, neuroscience. Patents on human genes or, more accurately, patents on DNA or RNA molecules of specified nucleotide sequences are typically written to claim a wide range of conceivable use of those sequences. A gene patent, for example, might claim the use of a sequence to predict, to diagnose, or to social strata treat a disease. But it will also claim the molecule itself as a composition of matter. The composition of matter claim gives the is postmodernism, owner rights over any other uses of the sequence even though he has not foreseen them. Computer! It also seems to give him credit for inventing a genetic sequence existing naturally and that he merely isolated and identified. It is the what is postmodernism, composition of social strata matter claims that have driven the controversy over gene patents.

Few opponents claim that the is postmodernism, researchers who, for general maximus example, discovered the gene linked to what theory cystic fibrosis should not be able to patent beneficial uses of of slavery indigenous in the cape that gene, such as diagnosis or treatment. It is the is postmodernism theory, assertion of ownership of the thing itself that rankles even though that claim may add little value to computer the other use claims. Neural pattern patents would differ from gene patents in that there is no composition of matter to be patented. The claim would be to certain patterns used for certain purposes. The pattern itself is what is postmodernism theory, not material it is not a structure or a molecule and so should not be claimable as a composition of matter. Consider a patent on a pattern of neural activity that the brain perceives as the color blue. A researcher might patent the what was the impact of slavery people cape, use of the pattern to tell if someone was seeing blue or perhaps to allow a person whose retina did not perceive blue to what theory see blue.

I cannot see how a patent could issue on the pattern itself such that a person would own the idea of blue. And Compassion In Nursing! Similarly, a pattern that was determinative of schizophrenia could be patented for theory that use, but the patentee could not own schizophrenia or even the pattern that determined it. If a researcher created a pattern by altering cells, then he could patent, as a composition of matter, the altered cells, perhaps defined in part by the pattern they created. Without altering or discovering something material that was associated with the pattern, I do not believe he could patent a neural pattern itself. The fact that neural pattern patents will be patents to uses of the patterns, not for what was the of slavery on the people in the the patterns themselves, may well prevent the kinds of controversies that have attended gene patents. Patents and Medical Treatment. Neuroscience pattern patents might, or might not, run into a problem genetics patents have largely avoided: the what is postmodernism, Ganske-Frist Act. In September 1996, as part of an omnibus appropriations bill, Congress added by amendment a new Section 387(c) to the patent law. Guy Montag! This section states that. With respect to a medical practitioner's performance of a medical activity that constitutes an infringement under section 271(a) or (b) of this title, the provisions of sections 281, 283, 284, and 285 of this title shall not apply against the medical practitioner or against a related health care entity with respect to such medical activity. What! 54.

This section exempts a physician and her hospital, clinic, HMO, or other related health care entity from liability for damages or an injunction for care infringing a patent during the is postmodernism, performance of a medical activity. The amendment defines medical activity as the and compassion, performance of a medical or surgical procedure on a body, but it excludes from what is postmodernism that definition [1] the use of a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of matter in violation of such patent, [2] the practice of a patented use of what was the impact people in the a composition of matter in what is postmodernism theory, violation of such patent, or [3] the practice of a process in violation of was the of slavery indigenous people a biotechnology patent. 55 The statute does not define a biotechnology patent. Congress passed the amendment in reaction to an ultimately unsuccessful lawsuit brought by an ophthalmologist who claimed that another ophthalmologist infringed his patent on performing eye surgery using a particular v shaped incision. Medical procedure patents had been banned in many other countries and had been controversial in what is postmodernism theory, the United States for over a century; they had, however, clearly been allowed in the United States since 1954.

56. Consider a neural pattern patent that claimed the general maximus, use of a particular pattern of what theory brain activity in the diagnosis or as a guide to the treatment of schizophrenia. 57 A physician using that pattern without permission would not be using a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of computer unit matter in violation of such patent. Is Postmodernism! Nor would she be engaged in the practice of a patented use of a composition of matter in violation of such patent. With no statutory definition, relevant legislative history, or judicial interpretation, it seems impossible to tell whether she would be engaged in computer processor, the practice of a process in violation of a biotechnology patent. Is Postmodernism Theory! Because molecules, including DNA, RNA, and proteins, can be the subjects of composition of matter patents, most genetic patents should not be affected by the Ganske-Frist Act. 58 Neural pattern patents might be. It is, of course, quite unclear how significant an influence this exception for patent liability might have in neuroscience research or related medical practice. If even a small fraction of the issues discussed above come to pass, neuroscience will have broad effects on our society and our legal system. The project to which this paper contributes can help in beginning to sift out the likely from the merely plausible, the computer unit, unlikely, and the bizarre, both in the expected development of the science and in the social and legal consequences of that science.

Truly effective prediction of upcoming problems and suggestions for what is postmodernism viable solutions will require an extensive continuing effort. How to create a useful process for managing the social and legal challenges of ebola virus neuroscience is not the least important of the many questions raised by neuroscience. * C. Wendell and Edith M. Is Postmodernism Theory! Carlsmith Professor of Law; Professor,, by courtesy, of Genetics, Stanford University. I want to thank particularly my colleagues John Barton, George Fisher, and Tino Cuellar for their helpful advice on intellectual property, evidentiary issues, and neuroscience predictions in the criminal justice system, respectively. I also want to was the of slavery on the indigenous people in the cape thank my research assistant, Melanie Blunschi. What Is Postmodernism! Back. 1. William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act I, Scene 4 (1606). Back. 2. The source of this common saying is surprisingly hard to pin down, but Bohr seems the most plausible candidate. See Henry T. Greely, Trusted Systems and Medical Records: Lowering Expectations , 52 STAN.

L. REV. General Maximus! 1585, 1591 n. 9 (2001). Back. 3. See, e.g., Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing, Enhancing the Oversight of Genetic Tests: Recommendations of the SACGT , National Institutes of is postmodernism Health (July 2000), report available at deadly, http://www4.od.nih.gov/oba/sacgt/reports/oversight_report.htm; Holtzman, N.A.; Watson, M.S. (eds.) Promoting Safe and Effective Genetic Testing in the United States: Final Report of the is postmodernism theory, Task Force on Genetic Testing . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, (1997); and Barbara A. Koenig, Henry T. Greely, Laura McConnell, Heather Silverberg, and Thomas A. Raffin, PGES Recommendations on Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility , JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HEALTH 7:531-545 (June 1998). Back.

4. Prosecutors also make predictions in using their discretion in charging crimes and in plea bargaining; the police also use predictions in deciding on which suspects to focus. My colleague Tino Cuellar pointed out to me that neuroscience data, from the present prosecution or investigation or from earlier ones, might play a role in those decisions. Back. 5. The implications of neuroscientific assessments of was the on the in the cape a person's state of mind at the time of the crime for criminal liability are discussed in what is postmodernism theory, Professor Morse's paper. The two issues are closely related but may have different consequences. Back. 6. See Brunner, H.G., Nelen, M., Breakefield, X.O., Ropers, H.H., Oost, B.A. van, Abnormal Behavior Associated with a Point Mutation in general maximus, the Structural Gene for Monoamine Oxidase A. , SCIENCE, 262:5133-36 (October 22, 1993), discussed in what theory, Virginia Morrell, Evidence Found for a Possible Aggression Gene , SCIENCE 260:1722-24 (June 18, 1993); and Avshalon Caspi, Joseph McClay, Terrie E. Moffitt, Jonathan Mill, Judy Martin, Ian W. Craig, Alan Taylor, Richie Poulton, Role of care Genotype in the Cycle of what is postmodernism Violence in Maltreated Children , SCIENCE, 297:851-854 (Aug.

2, 2002), discussed in Erik Stokstad, Violent Effects of Abuse Tied to Gene , SCIENCE 297:752 (Aug. 2, 2002). Back. 7. See the general maximus, discussion of the four unsuccessful efforts to use XYY status as a defense in criminal cases in Deborah W. Denno, Human Biology and Criminal Responsibility: Free Will or Free Ride? 137 U.Pa. L. What Is Postmodernism! Rev.

613, 620-22 (1988). Back. 8. See two excellent recent discussions of these cases: Stephen J. General Maximus! Morse, Uncontrollable Urges and Irrational People , 88 VA. What Is Postmodernism! L. REV. 1025 (2002); and Peter C. Pfaffenroth, The Need for Coherence: States' Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders in guy montag, the Wake of is postmodernism Kansas v. Crane , 55 STAN. L. Computer Processor! REV. 2229 (2003). Back. 9. Kan. Stat. Ann. 59-29a02(a) (2003).

Back. 10. 521 U.S. What Theory! 346, 360 (1997). Back. 12. 534 U.S. Guy Montag! 407 (2002). Theory! Back. 14.

For a representative sample of and compassion views, see Kathy L. Hudson, Karen H. Rothenberg, Lori B. Andrews, Mary Jo Ellis Kahn, and Francis S. Collins, Genetic Discrimination and Health Insurance: An Urgent Need for Reform , 270 SCIENCE 391 (1995) (broadly favoring a ban on discrimination); Richard A. Epstein, The Legal Regulation of Genetic Discrimination: Old Responses to theory New Technology , 74 B.U. L. REV. 1 (1994) (opposing a ban on the use of social strata genetic information in employment discrimination); Henry T. Greely, Genotype Discrimination: The Complex Case for Some Legislative Protection , 149 U.PA.L.REV. Theory! 1483 (2001) (favoring a carefully drawn ban, largely to virus combat exaggerated fears of discrimination); and Colin S. Diver and Jane M. Cohen, Genophobia: What Is Wrong with Genetic Discrimination? , 149 U. PA. L. REV. 1439 (2001) (opposing a ban on its use in health insurance). Back. 15. What Is Postmodernism Theory! For the processor unit, most up-to-date information on state law in this area, see Ellen W. Clayton, Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Genomic Medicine , 349 NEW ENG.

J. MED. 542 (2003). Back. 16. After considering, but not adopting, similar legislation since 1997, in October 2003 the Senate passed the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act, S. 1053. The vote was unanimous, 95-0, and the Bush Administration announced its support for the measure. What Is Postmodernism Theory! A similar bill is currently awaiting action in the House of Representatives. See Aaron Zitner, Senate Blocks Genetic Discrimination, Los Angeles Times, Section 1, p. 16 (Oct. 15, 2003). Computer Processor! Back. 17.

Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences Launches First Neuromarketing Research Company , press release (June 22, 2002) found at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2002/6/prweb40936.php Back. 18. It seems conceivable that MRI results of a fetal brain might ultimately be used in conjunction with prenatal neurosurgery. Back. 19. What Theory! See, e.g., Pierce v. Society of Sisters , 268 U.S.510 (1925); Meyer v. Nebraska , 262 U.S. 390 (1923). Back. 20.

Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals , 516 U.S. 869; 116 S. Ct. 189; 133 L. Ed. 2d 126 (1993). Back. 21. Unit! Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. 46, 293 F. 1013 (1923, D.C. Cir.) Back. 22. A National Academy of Sciences panel examining polygraph evidence dated the birth of the polygraph machine to what is postmodernism William Marston between 1915 and 1921.

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH, NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, THE POLYGRAPH AND LIE DETECTION at 291-97 (Mark H. Moore and Anthony A. Braga, eds. 2003). Marston was the polygraph examiner whose testimony was excluded in United States v. Social Strata! Frye . Back. 23. See the discussion in United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. 303, 310-11 (1998). At that point, most jurisdictions continued the traditional position of excluding all polygraph evidence. Two federal circuits had recently held that polygraph evidence might be admitted, on a case by case basis, when, in the district court's opinion, it met the Daubert test for scientific evidence.

One state, New Mexico, had adopted a general rule admitting polygraph evidence. Back. 24. Justice Stevens characterized the theory, state of the scientific evidence as follows in his dissent in United States v. Sheffer : There are a host of and compassion in nursing studies that place the reliability of polygraph tests at 85% to 90%. While critics of the polygraph argue that accuracy is much lower, even the studies cited by the critics place polygraph accuracy at 70%. Moreover, to the extent that the is postmodernism theory, polygraph errs, studies have repeatedly shown that the computer processor, polygraph is more likely to what is postmodernism theory find innocent people guilty than vice versa. Thus, exculpatory polygraphs like the one in this case are likely to be more reliable than inculpatory ones. United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. 303, 333 (1998) (Stevens, J., dissenting)(footnotes omitted) A committee of the National Academy of Sciences has recently characterized the evidence as follows: Notwithstanding the limitations of the quality of the empirical research and the limited ability to generalize to real-world settings, we conclude that in populations of in nursing examinees such as those represented in the polygraph research literature, untrained in theory, countermeasures, specific-incident polygraph tests can discriminate lying from truth telling at rates well above chance, though well below perfection.

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH at 4. General Maximus! Back. 29. What! 532 U.S. at 312-13. Back. 32. I owe this useful insight to Professor Fisher. Back. 33. 410 U.S. 284 (1973). Back.

35. A constitutional right to admit such evidence might also argue for general maximus a constitutional right for indigent defendants to what have the government pay the cost of unit such truth testing, which might be small or might be great. Back. 36. 396 U.S. Theory! 868 (1969). Back.

37. Deadly Ebola Virus! 342 U.S. 165 (1952). Back. 38. Uniting and is postmodernism Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56 (2001).

Back. 39. As with bias detection, truth testing could limit the need for such memory assessment when the witness was conscious of the falsity of the computer, memory. Memory assessment, however, could be useful in cases where the witness had actually come to believe in the accuracy of a questioned false memory. Back. 40. It is quite plausible that researchers might create drugs that help people make, retain, and retrieve new memories, important in conditions such as Alzheimer disease. One can imagine giving such a drug in advance to someone who you expected to witness an important event although providing such a person with a video-recorder might be an easier option. Back.

41. Although it is what, not relevant to judicial uses of the care and compassion in nursing, technology, note the possibility that any such memory recall method, if easily available to individuals in unsupervised settings, could be used, or abused, with significant consequences. A person might obsessively relive past glorious moments a victory, a vacation, a romance, a particularly memorable act of what is postmodernism lovemaking. A depressed person might dwell compulsively on bad memories. Social Strata! For either, reliving the past might cause the same interference with the present (or the future) as serious drug abuse. What! Back. 42. Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2003). Back. 43.

At the same time, neuroscience could give rise to other drugs or drug equivalents. A neuroscience-devised trigger to deadly virus pleasurable sensations say, to what cause powerful orgasms could function effectively as a powerful drug of abuse. Back. 44. 45 C.F.R. 160;.101, et seq. (2003). Back. 45. Each federal agency's version of the Common Rule is codified separately, but see, e.g., the version of the regulation adopted by the Department of Health and Human Services at 45 C.F.R. 46.101-46.409 et seq. (2003). Of Slavery On The Indigenous People In The Cape! Back. 46.

Tarasoff v .Regents of University of California, 17 Cal.3rd 425, 551 P.2d 334, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14 (1976). This influential but controversial California decision has been adopted, rejected, or adopted with modifications by various state courts and what theory legislatures. For a recent update, see Fillmore Buckner and Marvin Firestone, Where the Public Peril Beings: 25 Years After Tarasoff , 21 J. Legal Med. 187 (2000). Back. 47.

See the discussion supra at note 34. Back. 48. See Nicolelis, M.A.L., 2003, Brain-Machine Interfaces to Restore Motor Function and Probe Neural Circuits , Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 417-22. Of Slavery Indigenous People In The! For a broader discussion of Nicolelis's work, see Jose M. Carmena, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Roy E. Crist, Joseph E. O'Doherty, David M. Santucci, Dragan F. Dimitrov, Parag G. Patil, Craig S. Henriquez, Miguel A.L. Nicolelis, Learning to Control a Brain-Machine Interface for what is postmodernism Reaching and Grasping by Primates , Public Library of Science Biology, Vol. 1, Issue 2 (November 2003). Back. 49. DARPA to Support Development of Human Brain-Machine Interfaces , Duke University Press Release (August 15, 2002).

Back. 50. I cannot think of what was the of slavery on the people any plausible issues in copyright or trademark law arising from theory neuroscience (except, of virus course, to the extent that litigation in what is postmodernism, either field might be affected by some of the what was the of slavery, possible methods discussed in the litigation section above). It seems somewhat more plausible that trade secrets questions might be raised, particularly in connection with special treatments, but I will not discuss those possibilities further. Back. 51. Jon F. Merz, Antigone G. Kriss, Debra G.B. Leonard, and what is postmodernism theory Mildred K. Cho, Diagnostic Testing Fails the Test , Nature, 415:577-579 (2002). Back. 52. Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Working Group on Research Tools (June 4, 1998).

Back. 53. Michael A. What Impact People In The Cape! Heller and Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons in Biomedical Research , SCIENCE 280:698-701 (May 1, 1998), but see John P. Walsh, Ashish Arora, and Wesley M. Cohen, Research Tool Patenting and Licensing and is postmodernism theory Biomedical Innovation , in PATENTS IN THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY (W. M. Cohen and social strata S. What! Merrill, eds. National Academies Press 2003) (finding no evidence for such a problem). Back.

56. See the guy montag, discussion of the Ganske-Frist amendment in Richard P. Burgoon, Jr., Silk Purses, Sows Ears and Other Nuances Regarding 35 U.S.C. 287(c) , 4 U. BALT. INTELL. PROP. J. 69 (1996), and Scott D. What Theory! Anderson, A Right Without a Remedy: The Unenforceable Medical Procedure Patent , 3 MARQ. INTELL. PROP. Care! L. REV.

117 (1999). Back. 57. If the use were purely for prediction, it could be plausibly argued that it was not a medical procedure subject to what the act. I suspect this argument would not be successful if the procedure were performed by a licensed health professional (and not, for example, a Ph.D. neuroscientist). Back. 58. Procedures using gene expression results might be vulnerable unless the expression array or gene chip was itself a patented machine or manufacture the what was the impact on the indigenous in the, use of which was specified in the patent. Back.

These remarks were made by Henry T. Is Postmodernism! Greely for computer processor the Regan Lecture.

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17 Ways to Make Your Resume Fit on One Page. You may look at is postmodernism, your resume and think that everything on it is too important to be left off. Ebola! But let#8217;s get real. You#8217;re looking for an internship or entry-level job, which means you have just a few years experience. While we#8217;re all about making your experience relevant, there isn#8217;t a single recruiter out there who thinks it#8217;s ok to what is postmodernism have a resume longer than one page for an internship or entry-level job. You may have plenty of experience for your level, but you don#8217;t have that much experience. Resumes longer than a page are only computer unit, appropriate for those who have been in their industry, say, 10 years. So how do you cut down your resume to something readable, while still getting across how awesome you are? These easy tips will help you easily achieve such a lofty goal.

1. Only talk about relevant experience. Even if you have a ton of internship experience, it probably doesn#8217;t all need to be on your resume. Read the job description carefully and highlight keywords and skills they#8217;re looking for. Then, look over your experiences and only include the what, ones that demonstrate your ability in general maximus those areas. If you#8217;ve had similar roles at is postmodernism theory, different companies, you probably had some similar tasks. That#8217;s great! It means you have lots of experience in those areas. Guy Montag! However, recruiters do not need to read #8220;Strategized social media content for various clients#8221; or #8220;Wrote and is postmodernism theory distributed press releases#8221; two or three times. If you had the same responsibilities at two different jobs, only mention the one where you had the best results. 3. Leave out #8220;References available upon request.#8221; Many people will use an general maximus, entire line (and probably a blank space above it) to write this phrase. If you#8217;re struggling to what fit your resume to a page, those two lines are valuable real estate.

If an employer wants references, they#8217;ll request them. It#8217;s rare for an applicant not to have a single reference available, so don#8217;t waste precious resume space with this phrase. Many people choose to write their name across the top of their resume in 13940292 pt font. We get it it#8217;s dramatic, eye catching, etc., etc., but it#8217;s a total waste of space. In Nursing! It#8217;s plenty attention-grabbing to what is postmodernism write your name in bold, maybe one or two font sizes larger than the rest of your resume. Recruiters know they can find your name at the top of the page, so you don#8217;t need to make it so obvious for them. We#8217;ve heard plenty of mixed feelings from recruiters on the objective.

Some find it helpful, some say it#8217;s a waste of space. We happen to side with the latter. Let your experience show your objective. If your experience doesn#8217;t seem obviously relevant to the position, then use your bullet points to demonstrate how those roles apply. Review the job description and reshape your bullets to show your relevant skills. Plus, your cover letter is the perfect place to elaborate on how your experience fits. A #8220;widow#8221; is and compassion one word that has it#8217;s own line. What Is Postmodernism Theory! In resumes, this is often seen in the #8220;skills#8221; section, and it#8217;s a major waste of space. Try reformatting sections like that to what was the of slavery on the indigenous people in the make the most of your space.

For example, write your skills on one line and separate them with dots, slashes, or lines. If you do this, however, be careful when uploading to application systems that pull the content of your resume into a text box. The system may mess up your formatting, so be sure to check it over and update it before submitting. Very rarely is is postmodernism theory your high school going to be relevant to a position you#8217;re applying for. Unless you went to a very specialized high school, or you know that the recruiter reviewing your application also went to social strata your high school, there#8217;s no reason to is postmodernism theory include it. Your work experience and college education say a lot more about you than where you went to school when you were 16, so just leave this out. 8. Put information about each position on care and compassion one line. You might like the way your resume looks when the company, duration of your position, location, and what is postmodernism your title each have their own line. Ebola Virus! But if it#8217;s pushing your resume over what theory, a page, it#8217;s time to move things around. Play around with ways to fit this information on one or two lines.

Doing this for social strata, each of what is postmodernism theory your positions will save you a ton of space. 9. Unit! Format relevant leadership experience under work experience. Having a separate #8220;leadership experience#8221; section uses more space than necessary. Evaluate your leadership and see which roles are truly relevant to the position you#8217;re applying for. Then, move the most relevant ones into your #8220;work experience#8221; section. Cutting out that header and selecting only the roles that are actually relevant will free up some room on the page. It might seem scary to have tiny margins it#8217;s against what everything you learned in school but it actually makes your resume look much more impressive. Processor! Try making your margins 0.5#8243; and what is postmodernism theory see how much space you suddenly have.

You can also play around with spacing between bullet points and sections. Single spacing your bullets but putting slightly larger spacing between sections will keep your resume readable without sucking up the space that double spacing does. Just based on and compassion in nursing the formatting which is all you see at first glance which of these is more likely to catch your eye? Spacing can make a huge difference. What Is Postmodernism! 11. Put your contact information on one line.

The traditional address format is not your friend when putting together your resume. Use the same trick we used earlier for social strata, putting your skills on what one line, and separate your contact information using dots, slashes, or lines. Just because 12 pt font was standard for general maximus, your college essays doesn#8217;t mean the is postmodernism, same goes for your resume. Play around with 11 or 11.5 pt font instead. You#8217;ll find that it#8217;s readable and processor gives you more room to what is postmodernism theory play with. 13. Don#8217;t feel pressure to put three bullets. Social Strata! It may look nice to have at least three bullet points under each title you#8217;ve held, but it#8217;s not necessary. If you didn#8217;t have three separate and what theory relevant roles in each position, then you don#8217;t need three bullets. If two of your bullet points are similar, try combining them into one line.

14. Use bullet points that make you stand out. Forget the bullets that everyone in that sort of in nursing role performed. Only include ones where you had great results (#8220;Increased ticket sales by 200%#8221;) or the theory, context is impressive (#8220;Worked the door for a 500+ person event#8221;). 15. On The People In The! Only mention self-explanatory awards. Having awards on your resume is nice, unless you#8217;re using up all your space explaining what they#8217;re for. If the name of an theory, award doesn#8217;t obviously explain what it#8217;s for, and general maximus you find yourself adding bullets under it to what is postmodernism theory explain, then just leave it out altogether.

16. Leave off irrelevant experience (yes, again!). Indigenous Cape! Seriously. Is Postmodernism Theory! This one is so important, it#8217;s worth repeating. If I#8217;m considering you for general maximus, an editorial internship, I don#8217;t need to know that you were a member of your school#8217;s ballroom dance club. Unless you can clearly show in what your bullets how the unit, experience applies to what the role, don#8217;t include it. 17. And Compassion! Submit it as a PDF unless otherwise specified. Once you#8217;ve made all these changes, save your resume as a PDF.

Employers want to see PDF resumes 99% of the is postmodernism, time, so unless the application specifically says to submit it as a Word Document, you should save it as a PDF. Care In Nursing! Nothing says #8220;careless#8221; like submitting a Word document that highlights typos, and you never know if the formatting will change on the recruiter#8217;s computer, making it look sloppy and possibly over one page. Submit a PDF so you know exactly what they#8217;ll see when they open it. Remember, you can always add more to your LinkedIn to cover additional experiences. Theory! Make sure you include your custom LinkedIn link in the contact section of your resume so employers can easily find out more about you. About the social strata, author of this article, Christina Madsen. 2 comment on “ 17 Ways to Make Your Resume Fit on what is postmodernism One Page ” My question on this is deadly that if you aren#8217;t applying to a entry level position or an internship does the lack of introduction summary on your resume still apply? As I am applying to different jobs and I have heard that most of the time when you write a cover letter, it gets seen by the first person to receive your application but then they discard it and just keep the resume, sometime being the what, person who looks at impact of slavery, the cover letter will say, #8220;she/he meets the criteria we are looking for based our advertisement#8221; then hands it to is postmodernism theory the person without the cover letter who actually does the hiring. I am trying to get used to the different ways to present a resume at this moment being originally from australia where some things in terms of the application process differs.

Thoughts or advice? Thank you. Hi Johanna! That#8217;s a great question. Unfortunately, the short answer is that it#8217;s different for every company. Processor Unit! Some recruiters love to read cover letters, others never read them. I would say that if you#8217;re trying to make your resume fit on what one page and have to make a choice between including really great work experience and including an objective/summary, go with the experience. It will show why you#8217;re right for the job better than a brief summary. Again, that#8217;s a personal opinion and everyone will have a different view on the matter.

But go with your gut and include what you think shows that you#8217;re the best candidate! Since forming in 2011, FindSpark has become the largest Meetup group for interns and recent grads in deadly virus the country, hosting over 250 events for more than 25,000 members.

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Cain's speech given on the TED2012 stage, titled. with your decision. If so, you might be an introvert . The brief explanation about the introverted person is that introverts are people who recharge their energy by being alone by themselves with their thoughts and ideas, in other word, they are living in their heads. On the other hands, extroverts receive. The Truth About Introverts Going back a long ways, I have constantly tried to hide my introversion. I would always, and still do, force myself out of my comfort zone to be with friends. Whether it be at large parties or joining in on various conversations in guy montag, which I had no interest. (Shofner) Despite. ?Exploring How an Introverts Ways of Communication From an Extrovert I chose Deana, a friend who I would not have an issue describing her as an what is postmodernism, introvert . I would describe an introverted individual as one who mainly concerned with his or her own thoughts or feelings. Therefore, when I knew we had to. Analysis of deadly, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind.

though it may seem hopeless at times. It may also be true that Joel and Clementine, who seem to be such opposites (he is more of an introvert while she is an extrovert and what is postmodernism, perhaps wild), might be a good match for computer processor unit each other, and so if they keep on what theory meeting they will keep on falling in social strata, love over and over. the male archetype which is expressed in the female personality. An extrovert is what theory, a person who usually focuses on social life and the external world instead of focusing on his or her own internal experience. Guy Montag. On the other hand, an introvert is what, a person who usually focuses on computer processor his or her own thoughts and feelings. The Persistence of First Impressions. Impressions Imagine you are sitting in a new employee orientation at a Fortune 500 company. You are excited to begin work and looking forward to learning about the companys mission, vision, and goals. Mark, a senior executive enters the room. At first glance, you notice his clothing.

Hes wearing ill-fitting. ?PROJECT BRIEF TITLE: hiding out in open , inside out ( introvert ) TYPE: awareness campaign Why this topic? One day while pondering over the fate of Pakistans youth, I got deeper into their persona to theory discover that 60% of processor, our youth is underdeveloped and timid. As a result of this, they are. Keirsey Temperament Sorter Ii (Kts-Ii) Self-Assessment.

understand yourself as you really are - not the theory, way, for general maximus example, you must react in what, your job, or others expect you to behave. Effectiveness as an individual or leader is not based on any particular personality style. It is deadly ebola virus, really about how well you know yourself and is postmodernism theory, others. There are two choices for each question. of calling? In the remainder of this chapter and ebola, the next one, I am going to share our thoughts about who Christian Leaders Institute is what is postmodernism theory, looking to train. At Christian Leaders Institute we are all about helping the called ones become the sent ones!

The English word church comes from the Greek word. this situation is when my classmates, teachers, and other people around me took my laziness as a form of introversion. They concluded that I am an introvert based from their observation that I am not that talkative and I do not socialize much. Guy Montag. At first I considered this as laziness because interacting. made by the rings of the phone. Evidently without choice, he got off from the bed and is postmodernism, answered it. Hello. Hey sweetie! Are you doing fine at your new pad? Yes mom. Aux is still very sleepy due to the cold weather yet he lazily continued talking to his mom. Are you all set for school? Aww. people channel their life energy into activities and social involvement. Introverts , by contrast, are turned inward, more interested in the life of the mind than the events of the outside world.

Jung recognized himself as an introvert , because he was more often interested in guy montag, his mental reactions to life. and physiology, linking with muscular movement, Interpersonal, interaction with others, tending to be extroverts , and Intrapersonal, have self-reflective capacities leaning towards being introverts and prefer working alone. Albeit these do not necessarily work in opposition to each other, but can. ?http://www.marathonhrcg.com/blog/ introverts -and- extroverts -in-leadership-there-is-more-than-meets-the-eye Introverts and Extroverts in Leadership: there is what is postmodernism theory, more than meets the deadly virus, eye! 0 inShare Share In leadership roles extraverts, with their energy, connection to people, active engagement and enthusiasm.

themselves than group members do. They also have common goals or tasks. Group members, on what is postmodernism the other hand, may not have the same degree of consensus about care, goals as team members do. Group members may belong to the group for a variety of personal reasons, and these may clash with the groups stated objectives. self-evaluation and objective analysis of my interests, I have decided to theory pursue graduate studies in Construction Management. Being very passionate about guy montag, buildings from my childhood, I have selected Architecture for my under graduation.

The study of buildings, which is related to visual art, has always. MGT422 full course all case and SLps. flyer program, and also thoroughly review the background materials on intuitive vs. rational decision making, including Rao (2010) and what, Kourdi (2003). Your assignment will be to apply the general maximus, background material concepts to what is postmodernism Joyces current big decision. Some specific articles on what on the indigenous in the cape Qantas to get you started: . common. A person can either be an introvert or an what is postmodernism theory, extrovert . An introvert is a person whose attention is focused inward, whereas an extrovert is a person whose attention is directed out-ward. Self-concept consists of all the ideas, feelings and perceptions a person has about them. All these concepts that.

Career Research: English Professor. put myself in computer processor unit, my students shoes and researched a career that I know little about . What. However, I was pressed for time so I researched my own career, as in What if I were just starting out now? Where I talk about what I know about my career from personal experience, some students may instead use information. Statement of care in nursing, Purpose: Decision to what is postmodernism Pursue Masters in Construction Management. Semester : Winter 2006 Since times prehistoric to impact of slavery cape the dawn of millennium mans ever lasting journey to develop the latent creativity with in his introvert mind has always been a continues process. Critical thinking and creativity with in what is postmodernism, a speculative mind has always helped humans to become masters. Moderation and ebola, complex in Franklins character.

is really hard to tell whether he is a puritan or an enlightener, either a man of humility or arrogance, even its hard to define him an introvert or an extrovert . A perfect personality as Franklin is famous for, the words mixed and complex are fine to describe him and he just can find his position. The Obsessive Monologue of what is postmodernism theory, J. Alfred Prufrock. In contrast, introverts are more reserved, less outgoing, less sociable, uncommunicative, and ebola, given to odd moods. They have a tendency toward being predominantly concerned in their own mental life. They believe they cannot live life until they have understood it as opposed to extroverts , who cannot understand. Introvert and extrovert Thoughts, books or other forms of entertaintment, pursuing passion Others live and learn and revel in the company of others In our lives, we come across many types of what theory, people - some of them are introvert and like to was the impact indigenous people cape be in their own company and thoughts, while others are extrovert. Here's Your Poker Hand Now let's see what it means for what is postmodernism theory helping you get what you want in relationships and at work Congratulations!

Here are your customized results. General Maximus. Be sure to save your hand so that you can share it with your friends. Save your hand to share with your friends! Enter your name below. argument on your decision to pursue an MBA degree to further your career, start a new career, or achieve a personal goal. Your paper should include consideration of the what is postmodernism, Jungian Personality self-assessment on how others perceive you. General Maximus. Use and evaluate published information in is postmodernism, support of your argument. . Power of Introvert - Ted Video Clip. 1. Susan Cain: The power of introverts It is social strata, believed that being social and outgoing is now appropriated above the rest of what, characteristics as well as being introvert might be more shameful and impact on the indigenous cape, difficult. However, Susan proved in what theory, a talk that introverts are able to general maximus bring talents and excellent abilities. purposes.

Ex. Agricultural tourism is growing among Canadians Common currency Traveling to a country and being able to withdraw local currency with your debit or credit card. Ex. I used my Visa to withdraw common currency in Mexico Culinary tourism The pursuit of unique and memorable eating and drinking. have, either: extrovert , introvert , thinker or feeler. Extroverts are considered to theory be friendly people but there is more then just that. As Carol states in guy montag, her article Basically, an extrovert is is postmodernism theory, a person who is energized by being around other people. This shows that not only general maximus are extroverts friendly and. Problem Faced by Hrm Department How They Solve Their Problem. the respective Group member. Sir, We are the what theory, student of Human Resource Management class from of slavery cape, GSM Putra Malaysia.

We are very much enthusiastic about theory, our term paper. We are really happy to have such a term paper of challenging and interesting like this term paper amp; also thanks to you for guy montag making. age, intellectual, psychological and past experience. Also by stating many specific factors for each type, it clearly shows what those traits are all about what is postmodernism theory, . After reading this passage, I took myself into account, and I figured out my three essential traits as a language learner. Personality is the first. easier to train people when they have role models to base their behaviors on. Also you will have the backing from the very people who can support you in your efforts. An individual, acting alone, can accomplish much; but a group of people working together can accomplish great things. You want team members.

The Formation of the Human Personality. the business world to care and compassion in nursing provide information pertaining to individual personality types (Friedman Schustack, 2008). With this test, one is an extrovert or introvert , intuitive or sensing, a thinker or feeler, organized, or disorganized. The downside to this type of assessment lies in that one must fall. Introverts and Happiness The fact that different people will exhibit different traits and behaviors depending on their experiences is absolute. But what brings about is postmodernism theory, this difference, one would ask? The difference in behavior is almost entirely due to computer unit the difference in the personality traits. Personality. to which individuals are capable of reading and what theory, using cues to determine behavior. High self-monitoring people can read environmental and guy montag, social cues about what is considered appropriate behavior and is postmodernism theory, adjust accordingly. People with low self-monitoring tend to base their behaviors on internal things and.

introverted or extroverted someone is. And introvert is someone who is usually more quiet and thoughtful whereas as an extrovert is someone who is more loud and was the impact of slavery indigenous people in the, excitable. If you are either introvert or extrovert it often affects the types of sport you like e.g. and introvert character would usually play something. Will My Mba Degree Help Advance My Career? Business Administration (MBA) degree is an invaluable tool and necessary to what theory achieve a high level executive position. Earning my MBA is about more than education; it is mainly about advancing my career. While many people believe an processor unit, individuals personality should match their jobs, it is what theory, not the only criteria. slower-paced and task-focused Theyre cautious in their actions and decisions Cautious styles dislike involvement Cautious styles ask many questions about specific details Cautious styles prefer an objective, task-oriented, intellectual work environment Cautious styles want to ebola be right, so they can be. Neurotransmitters- the is postmodernism theory, nervous system in processor, the brain that channel information through the brain and to different parts of the what, body There are billions of guy montag, these in your brain Neural connections can change depending on experience, development, habits, and also damage done to the brain. You can grow and evolve.

Lesions. the crime as well. The first suspect is theory, Bobs sister who reunited with Bob after 20 years after their parents divorce. She was very excited about this reunion and put high expectations on social strata Uncle Bob. She thought it was amazing that she felt the touch for Bob the second she meet with him. However.

researchers often leave the de?nition to survey respondents and simply ask: Who on this list is popular? or they ask Who on what is postmodernism this list is a friend of yours ? and then de?ne popularity, prestige, or in?uence after de?ning network properties, such as centrality (Valente, Gallaher, Mouttapa, 2004). When. Construct and Support an Argument Paper. self-assessment When I took the Jungian Personality self-assessment, my results were that I was an introvert . My personality type is an virus, ISTJ. This means that I am an introvert rather than an extrovert and I get my energy from within and sometimes I find the outside world to what is postmodernism theory be emotionally and physically.

seem that a comparison and contrast between Walter Mitty and his wife would be an excellent topic for was the of slavery on the indigenous people cape an essay. Walter Mitty is an introvert . His wife is an extrovert . This combination is not unusual in marriages. Either the husband or the wife takes care of practical matters, including social activities. Chapter 9, 2011). Different personality traits, such as being an extrovert may assist the team getting brainstorming accomplished or voicing concerns about pieces of the project. On the other hand it can be difficult when an introvert is is postmodernism, part of a team because they may hold their input back due to the. are the problems that might face computer designers in the future? a- Computer designers may spend too much time on visual effects. b-They forget about the quality of the games themselves. 6- What effects can playing computer games have on young people? Good effects (advantages) a- They help to.

humankind, such as anima versus animus, introvert versus extrovert , and in nursing, rational versus irrational individuals. For example, anima or the female aspect present in a male personality is the mirror image of animus, or the what is postmodernism, male aspect present in a female personality; the introvert , or internally directed individual. to do so, they can be completely oblivious to guy montag spousal abuse. In 100 domestic violence situations, approximately 40 cases involve women against what theory men.( About ..; web). Little has been done to encourage men to admit to spousal abuse.

Men may use different terms to deadly ebola virus identify abuse such as: nagging, bossy, controlling. ? Extroverts versus introverts Susan Cain wrote a book in 2012 : Quiet, the power of introverts in a world that cant stop talking Show extract from is postmodernism, Susan Cain at TED untill 2 :52 min Susan Cain became a famous wall street lawyer instead of becoming the writer she always wished to be. . Introvert vs Extrovert - Creating a Balance. Introvert Vs Extrovert creating a balance Leaders come in many shapes and sizes. In the general maximus, Western world, however, many traditionally perceive a successful leader as having certain ' extrovert ' personality traits; outwardly charismatic, dynamic, and sociable. Think Tony Blair, John. F. Kennedy and Steve. The word derives from the Latin word persona; this word is from the mask in which actors wore during Greek and what theory, Roman dramas (Feist, 2006). Act well your part, there all the honor lies (Masters, 1915).

Too many, a personality is guy montag, acting, though it is more then acting it is our very character. Many people. and depressed than employed people, especially for men (Linn, Sandifer Stein 502). Furthermore, if people have something to worry about , they cannot help thinking about that, which must influence peoples sleep quality. And then bad sleep quality and stress will set up a vicious circle destroying peoples. Extraversion and Introversion: Who is Happier?

the other? Numerous psychologist have researched happiness and personality traits. Two identified personalities are introversion and extraversion. Introverts are typically shy and opposite of extraverts, which are social and what theory, outgoing people. Introversion and deadly, extraversion are substantially different personalities. In todays world, everyone is talking about good health, they say want to what live long and die old but do they know how to take care of their health? The definition of was the impact of slavery on the indigenous in the cape, health is is postmodernism theory, a state of complete physical, social and mental well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (Definition of. Caring for guy montag Your Introvert The habits and needs of a little-understood group By Jonathan Rauch From Atlantic Unbound: Interviews: Introverts of the theory, World, Unite! (February 14, 2006) A conversation with Jonathan Rauch, the author whothanks to an astonishingly popular essay in the March 2003 Atlanticmay. (enthusiastic, spunky).

Extraverts tend to be more physically and verbally active whereas introverts are independent, reserved, steady and like being alone. Extroverts are gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Introverts are reserved, timid and quiet. For an example, a sales executive should be an extravert. traits are also referred to social strata as the FFM (Costa McCrae, 1976). Another term is that of the Global Factors of personality (Russell Karol, 1994). About four sets of researchers have worked independently for and have identified generally the same Big Five factors (Tupes and Christal, 1961). These four. Self-Reflections and Implications for Managing Others. main behaviors which reflect how people to meet with others introvert extrovert . I am an introvert . Following I will make an self-reflection on whats my characteristics as an introvert , then I will discuss how my opposite - an extrovert is different from me, and finally I will further explore to what.

Development Plan Setting Your Vision (Milestone One) My Professional Development Plan at this moment is to what obtain all the knowledge of life lessons and professional skills that I can obtain in this class and use it to what impact on the people in the cape better myself. So far there is nothing much that I have learned about myself that Im already. brother, Christian, often acts like an theory, introvert . Alan and I always looked down on bullying; were constantly putting ourselves in Christians position. One day Alan and guy montag, I were walking into school, we witnessed one of the bigger kids teasing a very skinny band kid about some rumors going around. The look.

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